Fluids In The Earth's Crust - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444416360, 9780444601483

Fluids In The Earth's Crust

1st Edition

Their Significance In Metamorphic, Tectonic And Chemical Transport Process

Authors: W.S. Fyfe
eBook ISBN: 9780444601483
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 401
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Description

Fluids in the Earth’s Crust explores the generation and migration of fluids in the crust and their influence on the structure. This book also deals with the collection and concentration of these fluids into commercially possible reservoirs or their fossil trace formed as ore bodies.
Chapter one of this book discusses fluid motion and geochemical and tectonic processes. It then defines fluid, discusses the rocks in the surface environment, and provides evidence of the changes of a rock’s position and the motion of fluids. This book also explores the chemistry of natural fluids, including the composition of ocean water; pore water and deep-drill fluids; metamorphic fluids; fluid inclusions; and magmatic fluids. Volatile species in minerals, such as water, carbon and carbon dioxide, chlorine, fluorine, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen and other inert gases, are presented in this book. Other chapters in this book cover the solubility of minerals and physical chemistry of their solutions; the metamorphic reactions and processes; buffer systems; rock deformation; crustal conditions; dewatering of crust; and diapirism. The last part of the book discusses fluids, tectonics, and chemical transport. This book will be of great value to mining and oil geologists, as well as to pure geologists.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Permissions

Glossary

Units

Frequently used symbols

Frequently used abbreviations of minerals

Chemical symbols and elements

Chapter 1 - The Problem: Fluid Motion, Geochemical and Tectonic Processes

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What is a fluid?

1.3 Rocks of the surface environment

1.4 Evidence that rocks change position

1.5 The dominant processes involved in burial and uplift

1.5.1 Porosity reduction

1.5.2 Dehydration of minerals

1.5.3 Solid—solid reactions

1.5.4 Recrystallization

1.6 Processes during uplift

1.7 Simple evidence for the motion of fluids

1.8 Mass relations — quantities

1.9 Fluids dissolve and transport solids

1.10 Is flow focussed?

Chapter 2 - Chemistry of Natural Fluids

2.1 Introduction — Water

2.2 Observation on chemistry of natural fluids

2.2.1 Waters of the continental surface

2.2.2 Composition of ocean water

2.2.3 Composition of pore water and deep-drill fluids

2.2.4 Composition of metamorphic fluids

2.2.5 Composition of fluid inclusions

2.2.6 Composition of magmatic fluids

2.3 Concluding statement

Chapter 3 - Volatile Species in Minerals

3.1 Water

3.2 Carbon and carbon dioxide

3.3 Chlorine

3.4 Fluorine

3.5 Sulphur

3.6 Oxygen

3.7 Nitrogen and inert gases

3.8 Concluding statement

Chapter 4 - Solubility of Minerals and Physical Chemistry of their Solutions

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Solubilities in simple binary systems

4.3 Solubilities of naturally abundant gases in H2O

4.4 The H2O—CO2 system

4.5 Other binary gas systems

4.6 Multicomponent gas mixtures as natural fluids

4.7 Solubility of minerals in H2O and natural fluids

4.7.1 The system NaCl—H2O

4.7.2 The system NaCl—H2O—CO2

4.8 Solubilities of carbonates in natural fluids

4.9 Solubilities of other common natural salts — fluorite and sulphates

4.10 Solubilities of silica minerals

4.11 Solubilities of aluminous silicates and feldspars

4.12 Controls on the solubility of rock-forming minerals

4.13 Ionization in aqueous mineral solutions

4.14 Solubilities of metal sulphides

4.15 Solubility in alteration-controlled systems

4.16 Concluding statement

Chapter 5 - Rates of Metamorphic Reactions

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Rates of reaction

5.2.1 Theory of reaction rates

5.3 Rates of mineral dissolution in aqueous fluids

5.3.1 Rates of solution of SiO2

5.3.2 Rates of calcite dissolution

5.3.3 Rates of alkali-feldspar dissolution

5.4 Rates of nucleation and growth

5.4.1 Problems of mineral nucleation

5.4.2 Problems of mineral growth

5.4.3 Nucleation and growth-controlled transformations

5.5 Rates of diffusion

5.5.1 Measurement of diffusion coefficients

5.5.2 Diffusion in aqueous solutions

5.5.3 Diffusion along grain boundaries and through the intergranular film

5.5.4 Diffusion through mineral lattices

5.6 Rates and mechanisms of metamorphic reactions

5.6.1 Rates of solid—solid reactions

5.6.2 Rates of hydration and dehydration reactions

5.7 Metamorphic fluids and rates of reaction — Conclusions

Chapter 6 - The Release of Fluids from Rocks during Metamorphism

6.1 Introduction: Metamorphic processes

6.2 Release of chemically-bound water during metamorphism

6.3 Temperatures of natural mineral reactions

6.4 Fluid pressures and rock pressures

6.5 Dehydration at very high pressures

6.6 Dehydration and metamorphic facies

6.7 Mineral facies and progressive metamorphism of mafic rocks

6.8 Fluid release during metamorphism of sediments

6.8.1 Metamorphism of pelitic rocks and fluid release

6.8.2 Metamorphism of carbonate rocks and fluid release

6.9 Concluding statement

Chapter 7 - Controls of Fluid Composition: Buffer Systems and Melting

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Buffering of H2O and CO2 during rock-dominated metamorphism

7.3 The behaviour of oxygen and hydrogen

7.4 The behaviour of sulphur and sulphate

7.5 The behaviour of halogens

7.6 The behaviour of fluids during partial fusion

7.7 Concluding statement

Chapter 8 - Experimental Rock Deformation: the Strength of Rocks under Geological Conditions

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Apparatus

8.3 Confining pressure

8.4 Temperature

8.5 Strain rates

8.6 Creep tests

8.7 Residual stresses

8.8 Pore fluids

8.8.1 The Law of Effective Stress

8.8.2 Brittle failure

8.9 Equations of state

8.10 Concluding statement

Chapter 9 - The Quantification of Crustal Conditions, P, T, σ1 - σ3, λ,ε), from Geological Evidence

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Vertical pressure, temperature and depth

9.3 Estimation of depth of burial

9.4 Pore-fluid pressure

9.5 Differential stress

9.6 Strain rates

9.7 Comparison of field and experimental data

Chapter 10 - Permeability, Hydraulic Fracture and Elasticity

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Permeability

10.3 Hydraulic fracture

10.4 Linear elasticity theory

Chapter 11 - Dewatering of the Crust

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Development of fracture systems in undeformed sediments

11.3 An impervious barrier

11.4 Hydrothermal solutions and mineral flats and veins

11.5 Tectonic pumping

11.6 General remarks regarding the defluidisation of deep metamorphic rocks

Chapter 12 - Diapirs and Diapirism

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Igneous diapirism

12.3 Salt diapirism

12.3.1 Mechanics of diapirism

12.3.2 Flow properties of salt

12.3.3 Trigger mechanism

12.4 Concluding statement

Chapter 13 - Fluids, Tectonics and Chemical Transport

13.1 Fluids and tectonics

13.2 The dewatering process

13.3 Chemical transport

13.4 Regions of large-scale transport

13.4.1 Ore deposition

13.4.2 The environment of weathering

13.4.3 The ocean ridge

13.4.4 Subduction zones

13.4.5 Subduction magmatism

13.4.6 Shear zones, faults, thrusts, veins, etc.

13.4.7 Magmatic water

13.5 Fluids and earth history — Conclusion

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
401
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601483

About the Author

W.S. Fyfe