Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery - 7th Edition - ISBN: 9780124159549, 9780123914101

Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery

7th Edition

Authors: S. Larry Dixon Cesare Hall
eBook ISBN: 9780123914101
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124159549
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 30th October 2013
Page Count: 556
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Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery is the leading turbomachinery book due to its balanced coverage of theory and application. Starting with background principles in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, the authors go on to discuss axial flow turbines and compressors, centrifugal pumps, fans, and compressors, and radial flow gas turbines, hydraulic turbines, and wind turbines. In this new edition,more coverage is devoted to modern approaches to analysis and design, including CFD and FEA techniques. Used as a core text in senior undergraduate and graduate level courses this book will also appeal to professional engineers in the aerospace, global power, oil & gas and other industries who are involved in the design and operation of turbomachines.

Key Features

  • More coverage of a variety of types of turbomachinery, including centrifugal pumps and gas turbines
  • Addition of numerical and computational tools, including more discussion of CFD and FEA techniques to reflect modern practice in the area
  • More end of chapter exercises and in-chapter worked examples


Professional mechanical, civil, automotive, aeronautical, and control engineers; advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical, civil, automotive and aeronautical engineering

Table of Contents


Preface to the Seventh Edition


List of Symbols



Chapter 1. Introduction: Basic Principles

1.1 Definition of a turbomachine

1.2 Coordinate system

1.3 The fundamental laws

1.4 The equation of continuity

1.5 The first law of thermodynamics

1.6 The momentum equation

1.7 The second law of thermodynamics—entropy

1.8 Bernoulli’s equation

1.9 The thermodynamic properties of fluids

1.10 Compressible flow relations for perfect gases

1.11 Definitions of efficiency

1.12 Small stage or polytropic efficiency

1.13 The inherent unsteadiness of the flow within turbomachines


Chapter 2. Dimensional Analysis: Similitude

2.1 Dimensional analysis and performance laws

2.2 Incompressible fluid analysis

2.3 Performance characteristics for low-speed machines

2.4 Compressible flow analysis

2.5 Performance characteristics for high-speed machines

2.6 Specific speed and specific diameter

2.7 Cavitation


Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Cascades

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Cascade geometry

3.3 Cascade flow characteristics

3.4 Analysis of cascade forces

3.5 Compressor cascade performance

3.6 Turbine cascades

3.7 Cascade computational analysis


Chapter 4. Axial-Flow Turbines: Mean-Line Analysis and Design

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Velocity diagrams of the axial turbine stage

4.3 Turbine stage design parameters

4.4 Thermodynamics of the axial turbine stage

4.5 Repeating stage turbines

4.6 Stage losses and efficiency

4.7 Preliminary axial turbine design

4.8 Styles of turbine

4.9 Effect of reaction on efficiency

4.10 Diffusion within blade rows

4.11 The efficiency correlation of Smith (1965)

4.12 Design point efficiency of a turbine stage

4.13 Stresses in turbine rotor blades

4.14 Turbine blade cooling

4.15 Turbine flow characteristics


Chapter 5. Axial-Flow Compressors and Ducted Fans

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Mean-line analysis of the compressor stage

5.3 Velocity diagrams of the compressor stage

5.4 Thermodynamics of the compressor stage

5.5 Stage loss relationships and efficiency

5.6 Mean-line calculation through a compressor rotor

5.7 Preliminary compressor stage design

5.8 Off-design performance

5.9 Multistage compressor performance

5.10 High Mach number compressor stages

5.11 Stall and surge phenomena in compressors

5.12 Low speed ducted fans


Chapter 6. Three-Dimensional Flows in Axial Turbomachines

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Theory of radial equilibrium

6.3 The indirect problem

6.4 The direct problem

6.5 Compressible flow through a fixed blade row

6.6 Constant specific mass flow

6.7 Off-design performance of a stage

6.8 Free-vortex turbine stage

6.9 Actuator disc approach

6.10 Computational through-flow methods

6.11 3D flow features

6.12 3D design

6.13 The application of 3D computational fluid dynamics


Chapter 7. Centrifugal Pumps, Fans, and Compressors

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Some definitions

7.3 Thermodynamic analysis of a centrifugal compressor

7.4 Inlet velocity limitations at the compressor eye

7.5 Design of a pump inlet

7.6 Design of a centrifugal compressor inlet

7.7 The slip factor

7.8 A unified correlation for slip factor

7.9 Head increase of a centrifugal pump

7.10 Performance of centrifugal compressors

7.11 The diffuser system

7.12 Diffuser performance parameters

7.13 Choking in a compressor stage


Chapter 8. Radial-Flow Gas Turbines

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Types of IFR turbine

8.3 Thermodynamics of the 90° IFR turbine

8.4 Basic design of the rotor

8.5 Nominal design point efficiency

8.6 Some Mach number relations

8.7 The scroll and stator blades

8.8 Optimum efficiency considerations

8.9 Criterion for minimum number of blades

8.10 Design considerations for rotor exit

8.11 Significance and application of specific speed

8.12 Optimum design selection of 90° IFR turbines

8.13 Clearance and windage losses

8.14 Cooled 90° IFR turbines


Chapter 9. Hydraulic Turbines

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Hydraulic turbines

9.3 The Pelton turbine

9.4 Reaction turbines

9.5 The Francis turbine

9.6 The Kaplan turbine

9.7 Effect of size on turbomachine efficiency

9.8 Cavitation in hydraulic turbines

9.9 Application of CFD to the design of hydraulic turbines

9.10 The Wells turbine

9.11 Tidal power


Chapter 10. Wind Turbines

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Types of wind turbine

10.3 Performance measurement of wind turbines

10.4 Annual energy output

10.5 Statistical analysis of wind data

10.6 Actuator disc approach

10.7 Blade element theory

10.8 The BEM method

10.9 Rotor configurations

10.10 The power output at optimum conditions

10.11 HAWT blade section criteria

10.12 Developments in blade manufacture

10.13 Control methods (starting, modulating, and stopping)

10.14 Blade tip shapes

10.15 Performance testing

10.16 Performance prediction codes

10.17 Environmental matters

10.18 The largest wind turbines

10.19 Final remarks


Appendix A. Preliminary Design of an Axial-Flow Turbine for a Large Turbocharger

Design requirements

Mean radius design

Determining the mean radius velocity triangles and efficiency

Determining the root and tip radii

Variation of reaction at the hub

Choosing a suitable stage geometry

Estimating the pitch/chord ratio

Blade angles and gas flow angles

Additional information concerning the design



Appendix B. Preliminary Design of a Centrifugal Compressor for a Turbocharge

Design requirements and assumptions

Determining the blade speed and impeller radius

Design of impeller inlet

Efficiency considerations for the impeller

Design of impeller exit

Flow in the vaneless space

The vaned diffuser

The volute

Determining the exit stagnation pressure, p03, and overall compressor efficiency, ηC


Appendix C. Tables for the Compressible Flow of a Perfect Gas

Appendix D. Conversion of British and American Units to SI Units

Appendix E. Mollier Chart for Steam

Appendix F. Answers to Problems

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10



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About the Author

S. Larry Dixon

Dr. Dixon has published numerous scientific research papers in turbomachinery and lectured in turbomachinery at the University of Liverpool for nearly 40 years. For 25 of those years he was Chief Examiner in Mechanics for the Council of Engineering Institutions in the UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Fellow at the University of Liverpool

Cesare Hall

Dr. Hall has been University Lecturer in turbomachinery at the University of Cambridge since 2005. His current research with the university’s Silent Aircraft Initiative has led to the development of radical new ideas for aircraft engine design. Prior to teaching, he worked at Rolls-Royce as a turbomachinery aerodynamicist.

Affiliations and Expertise

University Lecturer in Turbomachinery, University of Cambridge, UK