# Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Our Environment

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Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Our Environment provides an introduction to the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the environment. The book begins with a discussion of the nature of the physical environment, namely the earth, the atmosphere, and the oceans. It then reviews the origin, definitions, and physical characteristics and relations of concepts affecting the state of the geofluid system. Separate chapters cover the principles of heat transfer; factors affecting the mechanical and thermal equilibrium of the environment; the phenomenon of surface tension; kinematics and dynamics of the environment; inviscid motion of the atmospheric and oceanic free layers; and the physical and mathematical behavior of the planetary boundary layer. The final chapter discusses some applied problems pertaining to the environment. These include problems involving the thermal plume, hurricanes, and the dynamic response of a balloon in a vortical atmospheric column. This book was developed for engineering classes interested in the motion of the environment which is a main carrier of pollutants. The selection of topics and the emphasis make the material primarily suited for engineering work.

## Table of Contents

Preface

1 The Nature of Our Physical Environment

1.1 The Earth

1.2 The Atmosphere

1.3 The Oceans

2 Fundamental Concepts of the Earth and the Geofluid

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Solid, Liquid, and Gas

2.3 System, Property, and State

2.4 Properties in a Continuum

2.5 The Earth and Its Gravitational Effects

2.6 The Geopotential

2.7 The Geopotential Height

2.8 The Temperature

2.9 Density, Specific Weight, Specific Gravity, and Specific Volume

2.10 The Equation of State

2.11 Coefficients of Compressibility, of Thermal Expansion, and of Tension

2.12 Compressible and Incompressible Substances

2.13 The Perfect Gas Law, the Atmosphere and Its Constituents

2.14 Water Vapor

2.15 Metastable Thermodynamic Equilibrium

2.16 Humidity

2.17 Wet Bulb Temperature and the Determination of Humidity

2.18 The General Behavior of Winds and Currents

3 Basic Principles of Heat Transfer—Energy Balance of the Environment

3.1 Modes of Heat Transfer

3.2 Radiation Absorption

3.3 Heat Balance of Earth and the Atmosphere

3.4 The Greenhouse Effect of the Atmosphere

3.5 Heat Balance of the Oceans

4 Static Equilibrium of the Environment

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Body and Surface Forces

4.3 The Concept of Pressure

4.4 The Hydrostatic Equation

4.5 Vertical Pressure Variation in the Atmosphere and Oceans

4.6 Importance of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in a Moving Environment

4.7 Units of Pressure

4.8 Density Variation with Altitude

4.9 Mechanical Equilibrium

4.10 Thermodynamic Equilibrium

4.11 Stability of the Environment

4.12 Vertical Displacement Due to Buoyancy

4.13 Adiabatic Conditions

4.14 Comparative Stability Postures

4.15 Formation of Clouds

4.16 Clouds and Cloud Exclusion

4.17 The Potential Temperature

4.18 Effects of Large-Scale Vertical Motion on Lapse Rate and on Stability

4.19 Variation of Lapse Rate and Temperature Due to Vertical Motion

4.20 Types of Coordinates, Diagrams and Charts Representing Thermodynamic Processes of the Atmosphere

4.21 The Pseudoadiabatic Chart

5 Basic Principles of Surface Tension

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Mechanical Equilibrium of the Free Surface

5.3 Mechanical Equilibrium of an Interface between Two Phases

5.4 The Hanging Drop

5.5 Energy Considerations

6 Kinematics of the Environment

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Classification of Types of Motion

6.3 Streamline, Stream Filament, Stream Tube, and Stream Surface

6.4 The Integral and Differential Forms of the Continuity Equation

6.5 Stream Function in Two-Dimensional Flows

6.6 Linear Combination of Flows

6.7 Pathlines and Streaklines

6.8 Pathlines and Streaklines in the Presence of Simple Atmospheric Disturbances

6.9 Rotation in the Environment

6.10 Rotation-Vorticity

6.11 Irrotational Motion—The Velocity Potential

6.12 The Free Vortex

6.13 Tempest in a Teacup

6.14 The Concept of Circulation

6.15 Influence of the Earth's Rotation on the Rotation of the Geofluid

7 Dynamics of the Environment

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Acceleration on a Rotating Earth

7.3 The Geometry of the Coriolis Acceleration

7.4 The Time Rate of Change

7.5 The Acceleration

7.6 Dynamical Equations for the Environment

7.7 Criteria for Orders of Magnitude Consideration

7.8 Buoyancy Effects

7.9 The Coriolis Acceleration and the Deflecting Force

7.10 Zonal Flow Parallel to Latitude Circle

7.11 The Equation of Motion in Terms of Vorticity

7.12 Basic Principles of Turbulence

7.13 Dynamical Models of the Atmosphere and Oceans

8 Geostrophic Motion and Applications

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Frictionless Flow—Euler's Equation and Its Integration

8.3 Pressure in the Continuity Equation of the Environment

8.4 Horizontal Wind and Current with Negligible Acceleration

8.5 The Thermal Wind and Current

8.6 Horizontal Geostrophic Motion with Centrifugal Acceleration—Gradient Wind or Current

8.7 Motion in the Circle of Inertia—Inertia Currents and Winds

8.8 Wave Motion in the Environment—Zonal Currents

8.9 The Rate of Change of Circulation

8.10 Application of Kelvin's Theorem to a Baroclinic Environment

9 The Frictional Shear Layer—The Boundary Layer

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Basic Dynamical Equations of the Neutral Boundary Layer

9.3 The Ekman Layer of the Ocean—Pure Drift Currents

9.4 The Atmospheric Boundary Layer—Vertically Stable

9.5 The Unstable Boundary Layer

10 Certain Applied Problems in the Environment

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Thermal Plume

10.3 The Fully Developed Hurricane

10.4 Dynamics of a Balloon in a Hurricane or a Tornado

10.5 Munk's Generalized Approach to Wind-Driven Water Circulation

10.6 Baroclinic Secondary Flow in Estuaries

Appendix A Basic Concepts of Vector Analysis

A.l Scalars and Vectors

A.2 Vectors in Orthogonal Coordinate Axes

A.3 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors

A.4 Multiplication of a Vector with a Scalar

A.5 Linear Relation of Coplanar Vectors

A.6 Unit Vector and Vector Addition of Components

A.7 The Product of Vectors

A.8 The Scalar Product

A.9 The Vector Product

A.10 The Triple Scalar Product

A.11 The Triple Vector Product

A.12 Vector Function of a Scalar

A.13 Differentiation with Respect to a Scalar Variable

A.14 Differentiation Rules

A.15 The Gradient of a Scalar Function

A.16 The Dot Product of a Vector with the Operator ∇

A.17 The Cross Product of a Vector and the Operator ∇

A.18 The Divergence of a Vector

A.19 The Curl of a Vector

A.20 Invariance of the Vector Operator

A.21 Condition for a Vector to Be the Gradient of a Scalar Function

A.22 The Line Integral

A.23 Oriented Surface

A.24 Stokes's Theorem—Line and Surface Integrals

A.25 The Divergence Theorem—Gauss's Theorem

A.26 Consequences of Gauss's Theorem

A.27 The Indefinite or Dyadic Product

Appendix B Standard Environmental Data

References

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 440
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
- Published: January 28, 1975
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9780323150248

## About the Author

### S Eskinazi

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