Flow and Heat Transfer in Geothermal Systems

Flow and Heat Transfer in Geothermal Systems

Basic Equations for Describing and Modeling Geothermal Phenomena and Technologies

1st Edition - October 10, 2016

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  • Authors: Aniko Toth, Elemer Bobok
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128002773
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128005255

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Flow and Heat Transfer in Geothermal Systems: Basic Equations for Description and Modeling Geothermal Phenomena and Technologies is the ideal reference for research in geothermal systems and alternative energy sources. Written for a wide variety of users, including geologists, geophysicists, hydro-geologists, and engineers, it offers a practical framework for the application of heat and flow transport theory. Authored by two of the world’s foremost geothermal systems experts, whose combined careers span more than 50 years, this text is a one-stop resource for geothermal system theory and application. It will help geoscientists and engineers navigate the wealth of new research that has emerged on the topic in recent years.

Key Features

  • Presents a practical and immediately implementable framework for understanding and applying heat and flow transport theory
  • Features equations for modelling geothermal phenomena and technologies in full detail
  • Provides an ideal text for applications in both geophysics and engineering


Geologists; geophysicists; hydro-geologists; drilling and fluid production engineers; power and environmental engineers

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1. What Is Geothermal Energy?
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. The Nature and Origin of Geothermal Energy
      • 1.3. Geothermal Reservoirs
    • Chapter 2. Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
      • 2.1. Elements of Transport Theory
      • 2.2. Balance Equations
      • 2.3. Mechanical Equilibrium of Fluids
    • Chapter 3. Transport Processes in Geothermal Reservoirs
      • 3.1. Properties of Porous Media
      • 3.2. Darcy's Law
      • 3.3. The Complex Continuum Model
      • 3.4. The Principle of Conservation of Mass
      • 3.5. The Balance Equation of Momentum
      • 3.6. The Balance Equation of Internal Energy
    • Chapter 4. Heat Conduction in Rocks
      • 4.1. Differential Equation of Heat Conduction
      • 4.2. Steady One-Dimensional Heat Conduction
      • 4.3. Steady Axisymmetric Heat Conduction
      • 4.4. Transient Axisymmetric Heat Conduction
      • 4.5. Heat Conduction With Heat Generation
      • 4.6. Heat Conduction In and Filling Sinking Sedimentary Basins
    • Chapter 5. Natural State of Undisturbed Geothermal Reservoirs
      • 5.1. Geothermal Reservoirs in Hydrostatic State
      • 5.2. Consolidation of a Sedimentary Aquifer
      • 5.3. Over-Pressured Geothermal Reservoirs
      • 5.4. Recoverable Fluid Mass by Elastic Expansion
      • 5.5. Thermal Convection Currents in Porous Media
    • Chapter 6. Two-Dimensional Steady Flow Through Porous Media
      • 6.1. Basic Equation
      • 6.2. Integration of the Conjugate Velocity Field
      • 6.3. Examples of Analytic Functions Representing Two-Dimensional Potential Flows
      • 6.4. Method of Superposition
      • 6.5. The Heles–Shaw Flow
    • Chapter 7. Flow Through Producing Wells
      • 7.1. Flow Toward the Well in a Porous Reservoir
      • 7.2. The Fluid Upflow Through the Well
      • 7.3. Two-Phase Flow in Wells Induced by Dissolved Gas
      • 7.4. Two-Phase Flow in Wells Induced by Flashing
    • Chapter 8. Artificial Lift by Submersible Pumps
      • 8.1. Main Types of Downhole Pumps
      • 8.2. Theoretical Head of the Centrifugal Impeller
      • 8.3. Head Losses of Centrifugal Pumps
      • 8.4. Flow in Pipes With Mechanical Energy Addition
      • 8.5. Dimensionless Performance Coefficients
      • 8.6. Cavitation in Submersible Pumps
    • Chapter 9. Heat Transfer in Wells
      • 9.1. Temperature Distribution of Production Wells
      • 9.2. Temperature Distribution of Injection Wells
    • Chapter 10. Gathering System of Geothermal Fluids
      • 10.1. One-Dimensional Approximation for Flow in Pipes
      • 10.2. Basic Equations for One-Dimensional Flow in Pipes
      • 10.3. Determination of the Apparent Turbulent Shear Stress According to the Mixing Length Theory
      • 10.4. Turbulent Flow Through Pipes
      • 10.5. Head Loss in Straight Cylindrical Pipes
      • 10.6. Flow Patterns in Horizontal Steam–Water Mixture Flow
      • 10.7. Pressure Loss of a Low-Velocity Superheated Steam Flow
      • 10.8. Heat Transfer of Hot Water Transporting Pipelines
    • Chapter 11. Geothermal Power Generation
      • 11.1. Change of State of Wet Steam
      • 11.2. The Clausius–Rankine Cycle
      • 11.3. Steam Turbines
      • 11.4. Geothermal Power Plants
    • Chapter 12. Propagation of the Cooled Region in a Small Fractured Geothermal Reservoir
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. The Conceptual Model
      • 12.3. The Mathematical Model
      • 12.4. Heat Transfer in the Fracture
      • 12.5. Summary
    • Chapter 13. Borehole Heat Exchangers
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. The Mathematical Model
      • 13.3. Solution
      • 13.4. Results
    • Chapter 14. Flow and Heat Transfer During Drilling Operations
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Rheology of the Drilling Fluids
      • 14.3. Laminar Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluids in Pipes
      • 14.4. Pseudoplastic Fluid Flow in Annuli
      • 14.5. Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Pipes
      • 14.6. Turbulent Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluids Through Annuli
      • 14.7. Determination of the Temperature Distribution in the Circulating Drilling Fluid
    • Chapter 15. A Case Study About a Serious Industrial Accident
      • 15.1. The Brief Story of the Blowout
      • 15.2. The Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Reconstruction of the Blowout
    • Chapter 16. Miscellaneous Geothermal Applications
      • 16.1. A Prospective Geothermal Potential of an Abandoned Copper Mine
      • 16.2. Geothermal Deicing of a Mine Tunnel
      • 16.3. Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 394
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: October 10, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128002773
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128005255

About the Authors

Aniko Toth

Prof. Aniko N. Toth is an internationally known expert on geothermal energy. A regularly featured speaker at the Stanford Geothermal Workshop over the past 9 years, she was also a 2011-2012 Fulbright Scholar at the Colorado School of Mines. She is currently leading several European Union projects to develop graduate-level degree programs in geothermal energy. Because of Prof. Toth’s extensive experience in geothermal heat recovery, primarily dealing with Hungarian direct-use applications, the Hungarian government asked her to conduct a comprehensive survey of the nation’s geothermal resources - the first of its kind in Hungary.

Prof. Toth’s international reputation as a geothermal-energy researcher is such that she was selected to teach a summer course at the University of Colorado in 2014, 2015 and again in 2016. Prof. Toth’s research currently focuses on devising models to match various kinds of reservoir responses. These "inverse problems" seek the values of unknown reservoir parameters by inference rather than by direct measurement. Her specific interests are geothermal heat and flow transfer through porous materials, fractures, geothermal reservoirs, geothermal and CH wells, and geothermal surface facilities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Petroleum Geology and Engineering,University of Miskolc, Hungary

Elemer Bobok

Elemer Bobok is Professor Emeritus of Petroleum Geology and Engineering at the University of Miskolc in Hungary. For more than forty years, his scientific rigor and practical experience has prepared numerous Hungarian and international students for their doctorate degrees, and helped them find success later on as professors and field engineers.

Recognized as an international expert on flow dynamics for the oil and gas industry, Prof. Bobok has more than 200 international publications to his credit. His classic 1993 Elsevier publication Fluid Mechanics for Petroleum Engineers, also available as an e-book, was written primarily to provide petroleum engineers with a systematic analytical approach to solving fluid-flow problems. In the years since this book first appeared, many geologists, hydrologists, mining-, mechanical- and civil engineers have also benefited from consulting this valuable resource.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus of Petroleum Geology and Engineering, University of Miskolc, Hungary

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