Bread and flour-based foods are an important part of the diet for millions of people worldwide. Their complex nature provides energy, protein, minerals and many other macro- and micronutrients. However, consideration must be taken of three major aspects related to flour and bread. The first is that not all cultures consume bread made from wheat flour. There are literally dozens of flour types, each with their distinctive heritage, cultural roles and nutritive contents. Second, not all flours are used to make leavened bread in the traditional (i.e., Western) loaf form. There are many different ways that flours are used in the production of staple foods. Third, flour and breads provide a suitable means for fortification: either to add components that are removed in the milling and purification process or to add components that will increase palatability or promote health and reduce disease per se.

Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention provides a single-volume reference to the healthful benefits of a variety of flours and flour products, and guides the reader in identifying options and opportunities for improving health through flour and fortified flour products.

Key Features

Examines those flour and bread related agents that affect metabolism and other health-related conditions.

Explores the impact of compositional differences between flours, including differences based on country of origin and processing technique.

Includes methods for analysis of flours and bread-related compounds in other foods.


Nutritionists and Food Scientists interested in the specific health benefits of various flour resources

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1. The Science of Doughs and Bread Quality

Chapter 2. Monitoring Flour Performance in Bread Making

Chapter 3. South Indian Parotta: An Unleavened Flat Bread

Chapter 4. Sourdough Breads

Chapter 5. Focaccia Italian Flat Fatty Bread∗

Chapter 6. Flour and Bread from Black-, Purple-, and Blue-Colored Wheats

Chapter 7. Emmer (Triticum turgidum spp. dicoccum) Flour and Breads

Chapter 8. Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) Flour and Bread

Chapter 9. Maize: Composition, Bioactive Constituents, and Unleavened Bread

Chapter 10. Amaranth: Potential Source for Flour Enrichment

Chapter 11. Quinoa: Protein and Nonprotein Tryptophan in Comparison with Other Cereal and Legume Flours and Bread

Chapter 12. Sorghum Flour and Flour Products: Production, Nutritional Quality, and Fortification

Chapter 13. Buckwheat Flour and Bread

Chapter 14. Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Maize and Oat

Chapter 15. Gluten-Free Bread

Chapter 16. Dietary Fiber from Brewer’s Spent Grain as a Functional Ingredient in Bread Making Technology

Chapter 17. Composite Flours and Breads: Potential of Local Crops in Developing Countries

Chapter 18. Legume Composite Flours and Baked Goods: Nutritional, Functional, Sensory, and Phytochemical Qualities

Chapter 19. Potential Use of Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour for Food Fortification and Effects of Processing

Chapter 20. Apricot Kernel Flour and Its Use in Maintaining Health

Chapter 21. Macadamia Flours

Chapter 22. Banana and Mango Flours

Chapter 23. Use of Potato Flour in Bread and Flat Bread

Chapter 24. Mineral Fortification of Whole Wheat Flour: An Overview

Chapter 25. Iron Particle Size in Iron-Fortified Bread

Chapter 26. Iodine Fortification of Bread

Chapter 27. Phytoc


No. of pages:
© 2011
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the authors

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald R. Watson, Ph.D., attended the University of Idaho but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in chemistry in 1966. He earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from Michigan State University in 1971. His postdoctoral schooling in nutrition and microbiology was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he gained 2 years of postdoctoral research experience in immunology and nutrition. From 1973 to 1974 Dr. Watson was assistant professor of immunology and performed research at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. He was assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at the Indiana University Medical School from 1974 to 1978 and associate professor at Purdue University in the Department of Food and Nutrition from 1978 to 1982. In 1982 Dr. Watson joined the faculty at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Family and Community Medicine of the School of Medicine. He is currently professor of health promotion sciences in the Mel and Enid Zuckerman Arizona College of Public Health. Dr. Watson is a member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, cancer, and alcoholism research societies. Among his patents he has one on a dietary supplement; passion fruit peel extract with more pending. He continues to do research in animals and in clinical trials on dietary supplements and health including studies using omega-3 fatty acids in heart disease prevention and therapy. For 30 years he was funded by Wallace Research Foundation to study dietary supplements in health promotion. Dr. Watson has edited more than 110 books on nutrition, dietary supplements and over-the-counter agents, and drugs of abuse as scientific reference books. He has published more than 500 research and review articles.

Vinood Patel

Dr Vinood B. Patel BSc PhD FRSC is currently a Senior Lecturer in Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Westminster and honorary fellow at King’s College London. He presently directs studies on metabolic pathways involved in liver disease, particularly related to mitochondrial energy regulation and cell death. Research is being undertaken to study the role of nutrients, antioxidants, phytochemicals, iron, alcohol and fatty acids in the patho-physiology of liver disease. Other areas of interest include identifying new biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease, understanding mitochondrial oxidative stress in Alzheimers disease and gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism. Dr. Patel graduated from the University of Portsmouth with a degree in Pharmacology and completed his PhD in protein metabolism from King’s College London in 1997. His post-doctoral work was carried out at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical School studying structural-functional alterations to mitochondrial ribosomes, where he developed novel techniques to characterize their biophysical properties. Dr. Patel is a nationally and internationally recognized liver researcher and was involved in several NIH funded biomedical grants related to alcoholic liver disease. Dr. Patel has edited biomedical books in the area of nutrition and health prevention, autism, biomarkers, and has published over 150 articles and in 2014 he was elected as a Fellow to The Royal Society of Chemistry.