Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention

Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention

1st Edition - January 10, 2011

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  • Editors: Victor Preedy, Ronald Watson, Vinood Patel
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123808875

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Bread and flour-based foods are an important part of the diet for millions of people worldwide. Their complex nature provides energy, protein, minerals and many other macro- and micronutrients. However, consideration must be taken of three major aspects related to flour and bread. The first is that not all cultures consume bread made from wheat flour. There are literally dozens of flour types, each with their distinctive heritage, cultural roles and nutritive contents. Second, not all flours are used to make leavened bread in the traditional (i.e., Western) loaf form. There are many different ways that flours are used in the production of staple foods. Third, flour and breads provide a suitable means for fortification: either to add components that are removed in the milling and purification process or to add components that will increase palatability or promote health and reduce disease per se. Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention provides a single-volume reference to the healthful benefits of a variety of flours and flour products, and guides the reader in identifying options and opportunities for improving health through flour and fortified flour products.

Key Features

  • Examines those flour and bread related agents that affect metabolism and other health-related conditions
  • Explores the impact of compositional differences between flours, including differences based on country of origin and processing technique
  • Includes methods for analysis of flours and bread-related compounds in other foods


Nutritionists and Food Scientists interested in the specific health benefits of various flour resources

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. The Science of Doughs and Bread Quality

    Chapter 2. Monitoring Flour Performance in Bread Making

    Chapter 3. South Indian Parotta: An Unleavened Flat Bread

    Chapter 4. Sourdough Breads

    Chapter 5. Focaccia Italian Flat Fatty Bread∗

    Chapter 6. Flour and Bread from Black-, Purple-, and Blue-Colored Wheats

    Chapter 7. Emmer (Triticum turgidum spp. dicoccum) Flour and Breads

    Chapter 8. Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) Flour and Bread

    Chapter 9. Maize: Composition, Bioactive Constituents, and Unleavened Bread

    Chapter 10. Amaranth: Potential Source for Flour Enrichment

    Chapter 11. Quinoa: Protein and Nonprotein Tryptophan in Comparison with Other Cereal and Legume Flours and Bread

    Chapter 12. Sorghum Flour and Flour Products: Production, Nutritional Quality, and Fortification

    Chapter 13. Buckwheat Flour and Bread

    Chapter 14. Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Maize and Oat

    Chapter 15. Gluten-Free Bread

    Chapter 16. Dietary Fiber from Brewer’s Spent Grain as a Functional Ingredient in Bread Making Technology

    Chapter 17. Composite Flours and Breads: Potential of Local Crops in Developing Countries

    Chapter 18. Legume Composite Flours and Baked Goods: Nutritional, Functional, Sensory, and Phytochemical Qualities

    Chapter 19. Potential Use of Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour for Food Fortification and Effects of Processing

    Chapter 20. Apricot Kernel Flour and Its Use in Maintaining Health

    Chapter 21. Macadamia Flours

    Chapter 22. Banana and Mango Flours

    Chapter 23. Use of Potato Flour in Bread and Flat Bread

    Chapter 24. Mineral Fortification of Whole Wheat Flour: An Overview

    Chapter 25. Iron Particle Size in Iron-Fortified Bread

    Chapter 26. Iodine Fortification of Bread

    Chapter 27. Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and Bread

    Chapter 28. Carotenoids of Sweet Potato, Cassava, and Maize and Their Use in Bread and Flour Fortification

    Chapter 29. Production and Nutraceutical Properties of Breads Fortified with DHA- and Omega-3-Containing Oils

    Chapter 30. Fortification with Free Amino Acids Affects Acrylamide Content in Yeast Leavened Bread

    Chapter 31. Barley β-Glucans and Fiber-Rich Fractions as Functional Ingredients in Flat and Pan Breads

    Chapter 32. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolics in Breads with Added Barley Flour

    Chapter 33. Partial Substitution of Wheat Flour with Chempedak (Artocarpus integer) Seed Flour in Bread

    Chapter 34. Effect of Starch Addition to Fluid Dough During the Bread Making Process

    Chapter 35. Fermentation as a Tool to Improve Healthy Properties of Bread

    Chapter 36. Apple Pomace (By-Product of Fruit Juice Industry) as a Flour Fortification Strategy

    Chapter 37. Use of Sweet Potato in Bread and Flour Fortification

    Chapter 38. Fortification of Bread with Soy Proteins to Normalize Serum Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels

    Chapter 39. Dietary Breads and Impact on Postprandial Parameters

    Chapter 40. Fortification of Vitamin B12 to Flour and the Metabolic Response

    Chapter 41. Metabolic Effects of β-Glucans Addition to Corn Maize Flour

    Chapter 42. Lupine Kernel Fiber: Metabolic Effects in Human Intervention Studies and Use as a Supplement in Wheat Bread

    Chapter 43. Metabolic Effects of Propionic Acid-Enriched Breads

    Chapter 44. Folic Acid and Colon Cancer: Impact of Wheat Flour Fortification with Folic Acid

    Chapter 45. Effects of the Soybean Flour Diet on Insulin Secretion and Action

    Chapter 46. Metabolic Effects of Bread Fortified with Wheat Sprouts and Bioavailability of Ferulic Acid from Wheat Bran


Product details

  • No. of pages: 542
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: January 10, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123808875

About the Editors

Victor Preedy

Professor Preedy has been elected as a Fellow to the following Royal Societies: The Royal Society of Biology, the Royal College of Pathologists, the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, the Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene, the Royal Society for Public Health, the Royal Society of Chemistry, and the Royal Society of Medicine. He was founding Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London and held the post from 2006 to 2020. He is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in disease processes, biomarkers, and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry at King’s College Hospital, London, UK Emeritus Professor in Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine at King’s College London, UK Visiting Professor at the University of Hull, UK

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Vinood Patel

Vinood Patel
Dr. Patel is a Reader at the University of Westminster. After completing his PhD at King’s College London, he continued his research experience by undertaking his post-doctoral studies in the laboratory of Professor Cunningham in the Department of Biochemistry at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, (Winston-Salem, NC, USA). This extensive project involved investigating mechanisms of hepatic mitochondrial ribosome dysfunction in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) using biophysical and proteomic techniques. These studies have led to new avenues in determining the pathology of ALD. His teaching areas at both post-graduate and undergraduate levels include clinical biochemistry, investigative pathology and laboratory investigation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Reader, University of Westminster, London, UK

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