Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123808868, 9780123808875

Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention

1st Edition

Editors: Ronald Ross Watson Victor Preedy Vinood Patel
eBook ISBN: 9780123808875
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123808868
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th January 2011
Page Count: 542
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Bread and flour-based foods are an important part of the diet for millions of people worldwide. Their complex nature provides energy, protein, minerals and many other macro- and micronutrients. However, consideration must be taken of three major aspects related to flour and bread. The first is that not all cultures consume bread made from wheat flour. There are literally dozens of flour types, each with their distinctive heritage, cultural roles and nutritive contents. Second, not all flours are used to make leavened bread in the traditional (i.e., Western) loaf form. There are many different ways that flours are used in the production of staple foods. Third, flour and breads provide a suitable means for fortification: either to add components that are removed in the milling and purification process or to add components that will increase palatability or promote health and reduce disease per se.

Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention provides a single-volume reference to the healthful benefits of a variety of flours and flour products, and guides the reader in identifying options and opportunities for improving health through flour and fortified flour products.

Key Features

  • Examines those flour and bread related agents that affect metabolism and other health-related conditions
  • Explores the impact of compositional differences between flours, including differences based on country of origin and processing technique
  • Includes methods for analysis of flours and bread-related compounds in other foods


Nutritionists and Food Scientists interested in the specific health benefits of various flour resources

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1. The Science of Doughs and Bread Quality

Chapter 2. Monitoring Flour Performance in Bread Making

Chapter 3. South Indian Parotta: An Unleavened Flat Bread

Chapter 4. Sourdough Breads

Chapter 5. Focaccia Italian Flat Fatty Bread∗

Chapter 6. Flour and Bread from Black-, Purple-, and Blue-Colored Wheats

Chapter 7. Emmer (Triticum turgidum spp. dicoccum) Flour and Breads

Chapter 8. Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) Flour and Bread

Chapter 9. Maize: Composition, Bioactive Constituents, and Unleavened Bread

Chapter 10. Amaranth: Potential Source for Flour Enrichment

Chapter 11. Quinoa: Protein and Nonprotein Tryptophan in Comparison with Other Cereal and Legume Flours and Bread

Chapter 12. Sorghum Flour and Flour Products: Production, Nutritional Quality, and Fortification

Chapter 13. Buckwheat Flour and Bread

Chapter 14. Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Maize and Oat

Chapter 15. Gluten-Free Bread

Chapter 16. Dietary Fiber from Brewer’s Spent Grain as a Functional Ingredient in Bread Making Technology

Chapter 17. Composite Flours and Breads: Potential of Local Crops in Developing Countries

Chapter 18. Legume Composite Flours and Baked Goods: Nutritional, Functional, Sensory, and Phytochemical Qualities

Chapter 19. Potential Use of Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour for Food Fortification and Effects of Processing

Chapter 20. Apricot Kernel Flour and Its Use in Maintaining Health

Chapter 21. Macadamia Flours

Chapter 22. Banana and Mango Flours

Chapter 23. Use of Potato Flour in Bread and Flat Bread

Chapter 24. Mineral Fortification of Whole Wheat Flour: An Overview

Chapter 25. Iron Particle Size in Iron-Fortified Bread

Chapter 26. Iodine Fortification of Bread

Chapter 27. Phytochemical Fortification of Flour and Bread

Chapter 28. Carotenoids of Sweet Potato, Cassava, and Maize and Their Use in Bread and Flour Fortification

Chapter 29. Production and Nutraceutical Properties of Breads Fortified with DHA- and Omega-3-Containing Oils

Chapter 30. Fortification with Free Amino Acids Affects Acrylamide Content in Yeast Leavened Bread

Chapter 31. Barley β-Glucans and Fiber-Rich Fractions as Functional Ingredients in Flat and Pan Breads

Chapter 32. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolics in Breads with Added Barley Flour

Chapter 33. Partial Substitution of Wheat Flour with Chempedak (Artocarpus integer) Seed Flour in Bread

Chapter 34. Effect of Starch Addition to Fluid Dough During the Bread Making Process

Chapter 35. Fermentation as a Tool to Improve Healthy Properties of Bread

Chapter 36. Apple Pomace (By-Product of Fruit Juice Industry) as a Flour Fortification Strategy

Chapter 37. Use of Sweet Potato in Bread and Flour Fortification

Chapter 38. Fortification of Bread with Soy Proteins to Normalize Serum Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Levels

Chapter 39. Dietary Breads and Impact on Postprandial Parameters

Chapter 40. Fortification of Vitamin B12 to Flour and the Metabolic Response

Chapter 41. Metabolic Effects of β-Glucans Addition to Corn Maize Flour

Chapter 42. Lupine Kernel Fiber: Metabolic Effects in Human Intervention Studies and Use as a Supplement in Wheat Bread

Chapter 43. Metabolic Effects of Propionic Acid-Enriched Breads

Chapter 44. Folic Acid and Colon Cancer: Impact of Wheat Flour Fortification with Folic Acid

Chapter 45. Effects of the Soybean Flour Diet on Insulin Secretion and Action

Chapter 46. Metabolic Effects of Bread Fortified with Wheat Sprouts and Bioavailability of Ferulic Acid from Wheat Bran



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About the Editor

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. King's College London, UK

Vinood Patel

Vinood Patel

Dr Vinood B. Patel BSc PhD FRSC is currently a Senior Lecturer in Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Westminster and honorary fellow at King’s College London. He presently directs studies on metabolic pathways involved in liver disease, particularly related to mitochondrial energy regulation and cell death. Research is being undertaken to study the role of nutrients, antioxidants, phytochemicals, iron, alcohol and fatty acids in the patho-physiology of liver disease. Other areas of interest include identifying new biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease, understanding mitochondrial oxidative stress in Alzheimers disease and gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism. Dr. Patel graduated from the University of Portsmouth with a degree in Pharmacology and completed his PhD in protein metabolism from King’s College London in 1997. His post-doctoral work was carried out at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical School studying structural-functional alterations to mitochondrial ribosomes, where he developed novel techniques to characterize their biophysical properties. Dr. Patel is a nationally and internationally recognized liver researcher and was involved in several NIH funded biomedical grants related to alcoholic liver disease. Dr. Patel has edited biomedical books in the area of nutrition and health prevention, autism, biomarkers, and has published over 150 articles and in 2014 he was elected as a Fellow to The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Westminster, London, UK

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