Floral Biology

Floral Biology

1st Edition - March 1, 1965

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  • Author: M. Percival
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483293028

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Floral Biology attempts to show how floral biologists conduct their experiments and what techniques they employ in floral biology. The techniques employed include those of physics, chemistry, physiology, psychology, genetics, and ecology, and so constitute a broad training in biology that may be useful and acceptable in other fields. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on sex in flowers; the biology of the floral parts; agencies of pollination; and the pollen, nectar, and nectaries. Some chapters follow on pollination by birds, bats, and insects. The features of entomophilous flowers and isolating mechanisms in flowers are also described. Some hints for students, such as the tools required, how to make them, and a schedule of procedure for examining the floral biology of a species, are given in the last chapter. This book will attract workers, who, armed with the techniques and stimulated by the findings of the investigators, can introduce the floral biology to other fields.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments


    Chapter I Sex in Flowers

    Sex Distribution in Plants

    Types of Pollination

    Chasmogamy and Cleistogamy

    Chapter II The Biology of the Floral Parts

    The Calyx

    The Corolla

    The Androecium


    The Stigma and Style

    Chapter III Agencies of Pollination



    Rain Pollination

    Chapter IV Animal Food in Flowers — Pollen

    The Composition of Pollen

    Value of Pollen as a food

    Presentation of Pollen

    The Ecology of Anther Dehiscence

    The Rhythm of Pollen Presentation

    The Significance of Pollen Collection

    Chapter V Animal Food in Flowers — Nectar and Nectaries

    The Nature of Nectaries

    The Composition of Nectar

    Concentration of Nectar

    Quantity of Nectar

    The Ecology of Nectar Secretion

    Chapter VI Pollination by Birds (Ornithophily)

    Body Structure of Flower-visiting Birds

    The Senses of Flower-visiting Birds

    The Features of Bird Flowers

    The Behavior of Flower-visiting Birds

    The Efficiency of Birds as Pollinators

    The Adaptation of Birds to Plants

    Chapter VII Pollination by Bats (Cheiropterophily)

    Features of "Bat" Flowers

    The Behavior of the Pollinator

    Chapter VIII Pollination by Insects (Entomophily)

    The Anthophilous Insects

    The Collection of Pollen

    Modifications for the Collection of Pollen

    Modifications for Collecting Nectar

    Insect Senses

    Insect Behavior in Relation to Flowers

    Flower Form

    Development of the pattern of Foraging Behavior

    Patterns of Foraging

    The Significance of Phenology in the Insect-Flower Relationship

    Chapter IX The Features of Entomophilous Flowers

    Nectar and Pollen Flowers

    Types of Pollination

    Bee Flowers

    Carpenter-bee Flowers

    Fly Flowers

    Moth Flowers

    Butterfly Flowers

    Pollination by Wasps

    Pollination by Beetles

    Chapter X Isolating Mechanisms in Flowers

    Mechanical Isolation

    Ethological Isolation

    Breeding Systems in the Flowering Plants

    Floral Biology — Links with Other Disciplines

    Chapter XI Practical Work in Floral Biology







Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: March 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483293028

About the Author

M. Percival

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of South Wales, Wales

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