Floral Biology attempts to show how floral biologists conduct their experiments and what techniques they employ in floral biology. The techniques employed include those of physics, chemistry, physiology, psychology, genetics, and ecology, and so constitute a broad training in biology that may be useful and acceptable in other fields. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on sex in flowers; the biology of the floral parts; agencies of pollination; and the pollen, nectar, and nectaries. Some chapters follow on pollination by birds, bats, and insects. The features of entomophilous flowers and isolating mechanisms in flowers are also described. Some hints for students, such as the tools required, how to make them, and a schedule of procedure for examining the floral biology of a species, are given in the last chapter. This book will attract workers, who, armed with the techniques and stimulated by the findings of the investigators, can introduce the floral biology to other fields.
Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter I Sex in Flowers Sex Distribution in Plants Types of Pollination Chasmogamy and Cleistogamy Chapter II The Biology of the Floral Parts The Calyx The Corolla The Androecium Pollen The Stigma and Style Chapter III Agencies of Pollination Anemophily Hydrophily Rain Pollination Chapter IV Animal Food in Flowers — Pollen The Composition of Pollen Value of Pollen as a food Presentation of Pollen The Ecology of Anther Dehiscence The Rhythm of Pollen Presentation The Significance of Pollen Collection Chapter V Animal Food in Flowers — Nectar and Nectaries The Nature of Nectaries The Composition of Nectar Concentration of Nectar Quantity of Nectar The Ecology of Nectar Secretion Chapter VI Pollination by Birds (Ornithophily) Body Structure of Flower-visiting Birds The Senses of Flower-visiting Birds The Features of Bird Flowers The Behavior of Flower-visiting Birds The Efficiency of Birds as Pollinators The Adaptation of Birds to Plants Chapter VII Pollination by Bats (Cheiropterophily) Features of "Bat" Flowers The Behavior of the Pollinator Chapter VIII Pollination by Insects (Entomophily) The Anthophilous Insects The Collection of Pollen Modifications for the Collection of Pollen Modifications for Collecting Nectar Insect Senses Insect Behavior in Relation to Flowers Flower Form Development of the pattern of Foraging Behavior Patterns of Foraging The Significance of Phenology in the Insect-Flower Relationship Chapter IX The Features of Entomophilous Flowers Nectar and Pollen Flowers Types of Pollination Bee Flowers Carpenter-bee Flowers Fly Flowers Moth Flowers Butterfly Flowers Pollination by Wasps Pollination by Beetles Chapter X Isol
- © Pergamon 1965
- 1st March 1965
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University College of South Wales, Wales