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Floral Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080106090, 9781483293028

Floral Biology

1st Edition

Author: M. Percival
eBook ISBN: 9781483293028
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st March 1965
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Floral Biology attempts to show how floral biologists conduct their experiments and what techniques they employ in floral biology. The techniques employed include those of physics, chemistry, physiology, psychology, genetics, and ecology, and so constitute a broad training in biology that may be useful and acceptable in other fields. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on sex in flowers; the biology of the floral parts; agencies of pollination; and the pollen, nectar, and nectaries. Some chapters follow on pollination by birds, bats, and insects. The features of entomophilous flowers and isolating mechanisms in flowers are also described. Some hints for students, such as the tools required, how to make them, and a schedule of procedure for examining the floral biology of a species, are given in the last chapter. This book will attract workers, who, armed with the techniques and stimulated by the findings of the investigators, can introduce the floral biology to other fields.

Table of Contents



Chapter I Sex in Flowers

Sex Distribution in Plants

Types of Pollination

Chasmogamy and Cleistogamy

Chapter II The Biology of the Floral Parts

The Calyx

The Corolla

The Androecium


The Stigma and Style

Chapter III Agencies of Pollination



Rain Pollination

Chapter IV Animal Food in Flowers — Pollen

The Composition of Pollen

Value of Pollen as a food

Presentation of Pollen

The Ecology of Anther Dehiscence

The Rhythm of Pollen Presentation

The Significance of Pollen Collection

Chapter V Animal Food in Flowers — Nectar and Nectaries

The Nature of Nectaries

The Composition of Nectar

Concentration of Nectar

Quantity of Nectar

The Ecology of Nectar Secretion

Chapter VI Pollination by Birds (Ornithophily)

Body Structure of Flower-visiting Birds

The Senses of Flower-visiting Birds

The Features of Bird Flowers

The Behavior of Flower-visiting Birds

The Efficiency of Birds as Pollinators

The Adaptation of Birds to Plants

Chapter VII Pollination by Bats (Cheiropterophily)

Features of "Bat" Flowers

The Behavior of the Pollinator

Chapter VIII Pollination by Insects (Entomophily)

The Anthophilous Insects

The Collection of Pollen

Modifications for the Collection of Pollen

Modifications for Collecting Nectar

Insect Senses

Insect Behavior in Relation to Flowers

Flower Form

Development of the pattern of Foraging Behavior

Patterns of Foraging

The Significance of Phenology in the Insect-Flower Relationship

Chapter IX The Features of Entomophilous Flowers

Nectar and Pollen Flowers

Types of Pollination

Bee Flowers

Carpenter-bee Flowers

Fly Flowers

Moth Flowers

Butterfly Flowers

Pollination by Wasps

Pollination by Beetles

Chapter X Isolating Mechanisms in Flowers

Mechanical Isolation

Ethological Isolation

Breeding Systems in the Flowering Plants

Floral Biology — Links with Other Disciplines

Chapter XI Practical Work in Floral Biology








© Pergamon 1965
1st March 1965
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

M. Percival

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of South Wales, Wales

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