Flash Smelting

Flash Smelting

Analysis, Control and Optimization

1st Edition - January 1, 1987

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  • Authors: W. G. Davenport, E. H. Partelpoeg
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150901

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Flash Smelting: Analysis, Control and Optimization deals with the analysis, control, and optimization of flash smelting. This book explores flash smelting in general and Outokumpu and Inco flash smelting in particular, and also presents a mathematical description for the flash smelting process. A set of mass and heat balance equations that can be used to describe steady state smelting under autogenous or nearautogenous smelting conditions is developed. This text has 20 chapters and begins with an overview of flash smelting and its products; the main raw materials of copper flash smelting; chemical reactions in the flash furnace; impurities in the concentrates that are fed to the flash furnace; and the operation of industrial flash furnaces. Attention then turns to Outokumpu flash smelting, Inço flash smelting, and mathematical representation of flash smelting. The chapters that follow focus on the effects of blast preheat on flash smelting; the combustion of fossil fuel in the flash furnace; and the effect of matte grade on the fossil fuel, industrial oxygen, and blast preheat requirements of flash smelting. Equations are used to determine the effects of such factors as concentrate composition, blast temperature, and dust carryout, and as the basis for optimizing and controlling the flash smelting process. This book will be of interest to both mathematicians and metallurgists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1 Flash Smelting

    1.1 Products

    1.2 Raw Materials

    1.3 Chemical Reactions

    1.4 Impurity Behavior

    1.5 Industrial Flash Furnaces and Their Operation

    1.6 Recent Trends in Flash Smelting

    1.7 The Competitive Position of Flash Smelting

    1.8 Summary

    Suggested Reading



    2 Outokumpu Flash Smelting

    2.1 The Outokumpu Furnace

    2.2 Peripheral Equipment

    2.3 Operation

    2.4 Control Strategies

    2.5 Major 1980s Trends in Outokumpu Smelting

    2.6 Other Trends

    2.7 Summary

    Suggested Reading



    3 Inco Flash Smelting

    3.1 Construction Details

    3.2 Auxiliary Equipment

    3.3 Operation

    3.4 Inco Control Strategy

    3.5 1980s Trends in Inco Smelting

    3.6 Summary

    Suggested Reading



    4 Mathematical Description of Flash Smelting

    4.1 Fundamental Equations—Mass and Heat Balances

    4.2 Feed and Product Specifications

    4.3 Adaptation of Mass and Heat Balances to Flash Smelting, Illustrative


    4.4 Useful Forms of Equations (4.2) to (4.7)

    4.5 Solving the Section 4.3 Illustrative Problem

    4.6 Discussion

    4.7 Summary

    Suggested Reading



    5 Mixed Mineralogy in Concentrate Feed—Copper-Iron-Sulphur-Oxygen-Silica Minerals

    5.1 Illustrative Problem

    5.2 Representing Mineralogy in Mass and Enthalpy Balances

    5.3 Calculation Matrix and Results

    5.4 Discussion

    5.5 Summary: General Treatment of Cu-Fe-S-O-SiO2 Materials


    6 Outokumpu Flash Smelting—Effects of Nitrogen in Flash Furnace Blast

    6.1 Illustrative Problem

    6.2 Nitrogen Equations

    6.3 Enthalpy Balance Modification

    6.4 Nitrogen in the Calculation Matrix

    6.5 Calculation and Results

    6.6 Discussion

    6.7 Summary


    7 Preheating the Flash Furnace Blast

    7.1 Illustrative Problem

    7.2 Results

    7.3 Blast Preheat Energy—An Alternative Representation of Hot Blast

    7.4 Illustrative Problem and Calculation Matrix

    7.5 Discussion

    7.6 Summary


    8 Combustion of Fossil Fuel in the Flash Furnace

    8.1 Illustrative Fossil Fuel Combustion Problem

    8.2 New Carbon and Hydrogen Balance Equations

    8.3 Mass Fossil Fuel Specification

    8.4 Oxygen Balance Modifications

    8.5 Enthalpy Balance Modifications

    8.6 Calculation Matrix and Results

    8.7 Discussion

    8.8 Summary



    9 Alternative Strategies For Producing Matte of a Specified Grade-60% Cu

    9.1 Objective of Chapter

    9.2 Calculations

    9.3 Results

    9.4 Discussion

    9.5 Off-Gas Volume

    9.6 Maximum Flash Furnace Smelting Rate

    9.7 Summary


    10 Energy and Industrial Oxygen Requirements for Producing Matte of a Specified Grade-60% Cu

    10.1 Modifications to the Calculation Matrix

    10.2 Results

    10.3 Energy Minimization

    10.4 Calculation of Energy Consumption

    10.5 Minimum Energy Requirement, 60% Cu Matte

    10.6 Discussion

    10.7 Summary



    11 Influence of Matte Grade on Energy and Industrial Oxygen Requirements for Steady-State Smelting

    11.1 Calculations and Results

    11.2 Effect of Matte Grade on Oil, Blast Preheat and Industrial Oxygen Requirements

    11.3 Physical Explanation of Matte Grade Effects

    11.4 Oil, Industrial Oxygen, Blast Preheat Trade-offs

    11.5 Minimum Flash Furnace Energy Consumption

    11.6 Summary



    12 Effects of Concentrate Composition on Constant Matte Grade Smelting—The CuFeS2-FeS2 and CuFeS2-Cu2S Systems

    12.1 CuFeS2-FeS2 System

    12.2 Types of Calculations and Calculation Matrix

    12.3 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effects of Concentrate Composition on the Energy and Oxygen Requirements for Producing 60% Cu Matte

    12.4 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on Slag Production During Smelting to 60% Cu Matte

    12.5 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on S02 Evolution During Production of 60% Cu Matte

    12.6 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on Off-GasOutput During Production of 60% Cu Matte

    12.7 Overall Evaluation of Concentrate Composition Effects

    12.8 The CuFeS2-Cu2S System

    12.9 Summary


    13 Dust in Flash Furnace Off-Gas and its Recycle

    13.1 Characteristics of Flash Furnace Dust

    13.2 Adaptation of the Flash Furnace Matrix to Dust Generation/Recycle Calculations

    13.3 Calculations and Discussion

    13.4 Non-Recycle of Dust

    13.5 Representing Dust Quantity as a Function of Off-Gas Mass

    13.6 Off-Gas Masses and Dust Masses

    13.7 Summary


    14 Furnace Temperatures, Furnace Heat Losses, Fossil Fuels

    14.1 Effect of Smelting Temperature on Flash Furnace Energy and Oxygen Requirements

    14.2 Effect of Conductive, Convective Plus Radiative Heat Loss on Flash Furnace Energy and Oxygen Requirements

    14.3 Fossil Fuels—Carbon and Hydrogen

    14.4 Electrical Energy in the Flash Furnace

    14.5 Summary



    15 H2O in the Flash Furnace

    15.1 Effect of Liquid H2O on Flash S melting—Water Leaks into the Furnace

    15.2 H2Ol in Concentrate and Flux

    15.3 Humidity in Blast

    15.4 Summary



    16 Minor Feed Materials and Model Sensitivity

    16.1 Recycle of Converter Slag to the Flash Furnace

    16.2 Minor Oxides

    16.3 Carbonates and Hydroxides

    16.4 Minor Sulphides in Flash Furnace Feed

    16.5 Ignored Aspects of Flash Smelting Chemistry—Cu and S in Slag

    16.6 Fe3O4l in Slag

    16.7 Fe3O4l in Matte

    16.8 Summary



    17 Flash Converting

    17.1 The Peirce-Smith Converter

    17.2 Flash Converting

    17.3 Advantages of Flash Converting

    17.4 Energy Requirements for Flash Converting

    17.5 Flash Converting Matrix

    17.6 Results—Blast Composition, Blast Temperature and Fuel Requirements for Flash Converting

    17.7 Energy/Oxygen Requirements of Flash Converting

    17.8 Converter Off-Gas Volumes

    17.9 Flash Converting/Peirce-Smith Converting Energy Comparison

    17.10 Feasibility of Flash Converting

    17.11 Optimum Matte Grade for Flash Smelting/Flash Converting

    17.12 Mitsubishi Smelting/Converting—An Alternative to Flash Smelting/Converting

    17.13 Summary



    18 One-Flash-Furnace Coppermaking

    18.1 Single-Furnace Coppermaking in 1987

    18.2 Coppermaking Flash Furnace Calculations

    18.3 Distribution of Cu between Metal and Slag

    18.4 Coppermaking Flash Furnace Energy Requirements

    18.5 Comparison of One-Furnace Coppermaking Energy Requirements with Flash Smelting/Flash Converting Energy Requirements

    18.6 Effect of Concentrate Composition on One-Flash-Furnace Coppermaking Energy Requirements

    18.7 Recovery of Cu from Coppermaking Slags—Efficiencies and Energy Requirements

    18.8 Combined Energy Requirements for Coppermaking and Cu Recovery from Slag

    18.9 The Impurity Problem

    18.10 Summary



    19 Flash Furnace Control

    19.1 Flash Furnace Temperature Control

    19.2 A Preliminary Calculation: Conductive, Convective Plus Radiative Heat Loss

    19.3 Temperature Adjustment Techniques

    19.4 An Interactive Temperature Adjustment Program

    19.5 An Oil Combustion-Temperature Control Loop

    19.6 Matte Grade Control

    19.7 An Independent Matte Grade Control Loop

    19.8 Slag Composition Control Loop

    19.9 Accommodating Concentrate Feed Rate Changes

    19.10 Summary


    20 Flash Furnace Optimization

    20.1 Linear Programming Optimization

    20.2 Example Optimization Problem

    20.3 The Objective Function

    20.4 Calculation and Results

    20.5 Effect of a Lower Fuel Price

    20.6 Effect of a Blast Temperature Constraint on Minimum Flash Furnace Energy Cost

    20.7 Effect of a Production Rate Constraint on Minimum Energy Cost

    20.8 Optimum Matte Grade

    20.9 Summary




    I Stoichiometric Data for Minerals and Compounds Involved in Flash Smelting

    IIa Enthalpies, HºT//Molecular Mass, of Substances at 298 K, MJ/kg

    IIb Enthalpies of Smelting Products, H°T/Molecular Mass, at 1400, 1500, 1600 and 1700 K, MJ/kg

    IIc Enthalpies of Nitrogen and Oxygen, 298-1300 K

    III Coal and Natural Gas Calculations

    IV Gross Heat of Combustion

    V CuFeS2-Cu2S System

    VI Non-Autogeneity of 40% Cu2S-60% CuFeS2 Concentrate

    VII Flash and Peirce-Smith Converting Energy Requirements

    VIIIa Flash Smelting of Pb-Fe-S Concentrates

    VIIIb Lead Flash Smelting Problem

    IXa Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulphide Concentrates

    IXb Nickel Flash Smelting Problem

    Answers to Numerical Problems


Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1987
  • Published: January 1, 1987
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150901

About the Authors

W. G. Davenport

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, AZ, USA

E. H. Partelpoeg

Affiliations and Expertise

Phelps Dodge Corporation, Playas, NM, USA

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