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Flash Smelting - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080349251, 9781483150901

Flash Smelting

1st Edition

Analysis, Control and Optimization

Authors: W. G. Davenport E. H. Partelpoeg
eBook ISBN: 9781483150901
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1987
Page Count: 336
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Flash Smelting: Analysis, Control and Optimization deals with the analysis, control, and optimization of flash smelting. This book explores flash smelting in general and Outokumpu and Inco flash smelting in particular, and also presents a mathematical description for the flash smelting process. A set of mass and heat balance equations that can be used to describe steady state smelting under autogenous or nearautogenous smelting conditions is developed. This text has 20 chapters and begins with an overview of flash smelting and its products; the main raw materials of copper flash smelting; chemical reactions in the flash furnace; impurities in the concentrates that are fed to the flash furnace; and the operation of industrial flash furnaces. Attention then turns to Outokumpu flash smelting, Inço flash smelting, and mathematical representation of flash smelting. The chapters that follow focus on the effects of blast preheat on flash smelting; the combustion of fossil fuel in the flash furnace; and the effect of matte grade on the fossil fuel, industrial oxygen, and blast preheat requirements of flash smelting. Equations are used to determine the effects of such factors as concentrate composition, blast temperature, and dust carryout, and as the basis for optimizing and controlling the flash smelting process. This book will be of interest to both mathematicians and metallurgists.

Table of Contents



1 Flash Smelting

1.1 Products

1.2 Raw Materials

1.3 Chemical Reactions

1.4 Impurity Behavior

1.5 Industrial Flash Furnaces and Their Operation

1.6 Recent Trends in Flash Smelting

1.7 The Competitive Position of Flash Smelting

1.8 Summary

Suggested Reading



2 Outokumpu Flash Smelting

2.1 The Outokumpu Furnace

2.2 Peripheral Equipment

2.3 Operation

2.4 Control Strategies

2.5 Major 1980s Trends in Outokumpu Smelting

2.6 Other Trends

2.7 Summary

Suggested Reading



3 Inco Flash Smelting

3.1 Construction Details

3.2 Auxiliary Equipment

3.3 Operation

3.4 Inco Control Strategy

3.5 1980s Trends in Inco Smelting

3.6 Summary

Suggested Reading



4 Mathematical Description of Flash Smelting

4.1 Fundamental Equations—Mass and Heat Balances

4.2 Feed and Product Specifications

4.3 Adaptation of Mass and Heat Balances to Flash Smelting, Illustrative


4.4 Useful Forms of Equations (4.2) to (4.7)

4.5 Solving the Section 4.3 Illustrative Problem

4.6 Discussion

4.7 Summary

Suggested Reading



5 Mixed Mineralogy in Concentrate Feed—Copper-Iron-Sulphur-Oxygen-Silica Minerals

5.1 Illustrative Problem

5.2 Representing Mineralogy in Mass and Enthalpy Balances

5.3 Calculation Matrix and Results

5.4 Discussion

5.5 Summary: General Treatment of Cu-Fe-S-O-SiO2 Materials


6 Outokumpu Flash Smelting—Effects of Nitrogen in Flash Furnace Blast

6.1 Illustrative Problem

6.2 Nitrogen Equations

6.3 Enthalpy Balance Modification

6.4 Nitrogen in the Calculation Matrix

6.5 Calculation and Results

6.6 Discussion

6.7 Summary


7 Preheating the Flash Furnace Blast

7.1 Illustrative Problem

7.2 Results

7.3 Blast Preheat Energy—An Alternative Representation of Hot Blast

7.4 Illustrative Problem and Calculation Matrix

7.5 Discussion

7.6 Summary


8 Combustion of Fossil Fuel in the Flash Furnace

8.1 Illustrative Fossil Fuel Combustion Problem

8.2 New Carbon and Hydrogen Balance Equations

8.3 Mass Fossil Fuel Specification

8.4 Oxygen Balance Modifications

8.5 Enthalpy Balance Modifications

8.6 Calculation Matrix and Results

8.7 Discussion

8.8 Summary



9 Alternative Strategies For Producing Matte of a Specified Grade-60% Cu

9.1 Objective of Chapter

9.2 Calculations

9.3 Results

9.4 Discussion

9.5 Off-Gas Volume

9.6 Maximum Flash Furnace Smelting Rate

9.7 Summary


10 Energy and Industrial Oxygen Requirements for Producing Matte of a Specified Grade-60% Cu

10.1 Modifications to the Calculation Matrix

10.2 Results

10.3 Energy Minimization

10.4 Calculation of Energy Consumption

10.5 Minimum Energy Requirement, 60% Cu Matte

10.6 Discussion

10.7 Summary



11 Influence of Matte Grade on Energy and Industrial Oxygen Requirements for Steady-State Smelting

11.1 Calculations and Results

11.2 Effect of Matte Grade on Oil, Blast Preheat and Industrial Oxygen Requirements

11.3 Physical Explanation of Matte Grade Effects

11.4 Oil, Industrial Oxygen, Blast Preheat Trade-offs

11.5 Minimum Flash Furnace Energy Consumption

11.6 Summary



12 Effects of Concentrate Composition on Constant Matte Grade Smelting—The CuFeS2-FeS2 and CuFeS2-Cu2S Systems

12.1 CuFeS2-FeS2 System

12.2 Types of Calculations and Calculation Matrix

12.3 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effects of Concentrate Composition on the Energy and Oxygen Requirements for Producing 60% Cu Matte

12.4 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on Slag Production During Smelting to 60% Cu Matte

12.5 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on S02 Evolution During Production of 60% Cu Matte

12.6 CuFeS2-FeS2 System—Effect of Concentrate Composition on Off-GasOutput During Production of 60% Cu Matte

12.7 Overall Evaluation of Concentrate Composition Effects

12.8 The CuFeS2-Cu2S System

12.9 Summary


13 Dust in Flash Furnace Off-Gas and its Recycle

13.1 Characteristics of Flash Furnace Dust

13.2 Adaptation of the Flash Furnace Matrix to Dust Generation/Recycle Calculations

13.3 Calculations and Discussion

13.4 Non-Recycle of Dust

13.5 Representing Dust Quantity as a Function of Off-Gas Mass

13.6 Off-Gas Masses and Dust Masses

13.7 Summary


14 Furnace Temperatures, Furnace Heat Losses, Fossil Fuels

14.1 Effect of Smelting Temperature on Flash Furnace Energy and Oxygen Requirements

14.2 Effect of Conductive, Convective Plus Radiative Heat Loss on Flash Furnace Energy and Oxygen Requirements

14.3 Fossil Fuels—Carbon and Hydrogen

14.4 Electrical Energy in the Flash Furnace

14.5 Summary



15 H2O in the Flash Furnace

15.1 Effect of Liquid H2O on Flash S melting—Water Leaks into the Furnace

15.2 H2Ol in Concentrate and Flux

15.3 Humidity in Blast

15.4 Summary



16 Minor Feed Materials and Model Sensitivity

16.1 Recycle of Converter Slag to the Flash Furnace

16.2 Minor Oxides

16.3 Carbonates and Hydroxides

16.4 Minor Sulphides in Flash Furnace Feed

16.5 Ignored Aspects of Flash Smelting Chemistry—Cu and S in Slag

16.6 Fe3O4l in Slag

16.7 Fe3O4l in Matte

16.8 Summary



17 Flash Converting

17.1 The Peirce-Smith Converter

17.2 Flash Converting

17.3 Advantages of Flash Converting

17.4 Energy Requirements for Flash Converting

17.5 Flash Converting Matrix

17.6 Results—Blast Composition, Blast Temperature and Fuel Requirements for Flash Converting

17.7 Energy/Oxygen Requirements of Flash Converting

17.8 Converter Off-Gas Volumes

17.9 Flash Converting/Peirce-Smith Converting Energy Comparison

17.10 Feasibility of Flash Converting

17.11 Optimum Matte Grade for Flash Smelting/Flash Converting

17.12 Mitsubishi Smelting/Converting—An Alternative to Flash Smelting/Converting

17.13 Summary



18 One-Flash-Furnace Coppermaking

18.1 Single-Furnace Coppermaking in 1987

18.2 Coppermaking Flash Furnace Calculations

18.3 Distribution of Cu between Metal and Slag

18.4 Coppermaking Flash Furnace Energy Requirements

18.5 Comparison of One-Furnace Coppermaking Energy Requirements with Flash Smelting/Flash Converting Energy Requirements

18.6 Effect of Concentrate Composition on One-Flash-Furnace Coppermaking Energy Requirements

18.7 Recovery of Cu from Coppermaking Slags—Efficiencies and Energy Requirements

18.8 Combined Energy Requirements for Coppermaking and Cu Recovery from Slag

18.9 The Impurity Problem

18.10 Summary



19 Flash Furnace Control

19.1 Flash Furnace Temperature Control

19.2 A Preliminary Calculation: Conductive, Convective Plus Radiative Heat Loss

19.3 Temperature Adjustment Techniques

19.4 An Interactive Temperature Adjustment Program

19.5 An Oil Combustion-Temperature Control Loop

19.6 Matte Grade Control

19.7 An Independent Matte Grade Control Loop

19.8 Slag Composition Control Loop

19.9 Accommodating Concentrate Feed Rate Changes

19.10 Summary


20 Flash Furnace Optimization

20.1 Linear Programming Optimization

20.2 Example Optimization Problem

20.3 The Objective Function

20.4 Calculation and Results

20.5 Effect of a Lower Fuel Price

20.6 Effect of a Blast Temperature Constraint on Minimum Flash Furnace Energy Cost

20.7 Effect of a Production Rate Constraint on Minimum Energy Cost

20.8 Optimum Matte Grade

20.9 Summary




I Stoichiometric Data for Minerals and Compounds Involved in Flash Smelting

IIa Enthalpies, HºT//Molecular Mass, of Substances at 298 K, MJ/kg

IIb Enthalpies of Smelting Products, H°T/Molecular Mass, at 1400, 1500, 1600 and 1700 K, MJ/kg

IIc Enthalpies of Nitrogen and Oxygen, 298-1300 K

III Coal and Natural Gas Calculations

IV Gross Heat of Combustion

V CuFeS2-Cu2S System

VI Non-Autogeneity of 40% Cu2S-60% CuFeS2 Concentrate

VII Flash and Peirce-Smith Converting Energy Requirements

VIIIa Flash Smelting of Pb-Fe-S Concentrates

VIIIb Lead Flash Smelting Problem

IXa Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulphide Concentrates

IXb Nickel Flash Smelting Problem

Answers to Numerical Problems



No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1987
1st January 1987
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

W. G. Davenport

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, AZ, USA

E. H. Partelpoeg

Affiliations and Expertise

Phelps Dodge Corporation, Playas, NM, USA

Ratings and Reviews