Fish Physiology: Organic Chemical Toxicology of Fishes

Fish Physiology: Organic Chemical Toxicology of Fishes

1st Edition - December 4, 2013

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  • Editors: Keith Tierney, Anthony Farrell, Colin Brauner
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123982551
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123982544

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Fish Physiology: Organic Chemical Toxicology of Fishes discusses the different types of organic chemical contaminants and their respective toxic effects in fish. The book also covers the detection of dissolved organic compounds and methods to assess organic toxicity. Substances addressed in this book include organometallics, hydrocarbons, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), insecticides, herbicides, and pharmaceuticals. Fish are exposed to an ever-increasing array of organic chemicals that find their way into rivers and oceans. Some of these compounds are no longer being produced but nonetheless persist within the environment (persistent organic pollutants, or POPs). The exposure of fish to toxic organic compounds has potential impact on human, fish, and ecosystem health. Yet the regulations that govern environmental water quality vary worldwide, and compliance is never complete. This book provides a crucial resource on these issues for researchers in zoology, fish physiology, and related fields; applied researchers in environmental monitoring, conservation biology, and toxicology; and university-level students and instructors in these areas.

Key Features

  • Organized by type of toxic organic chemicals
  • Includes metals, POPs, EDCs, herbicides, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals
  • Measures toxicity in a variety of ways aside from lethality
  • Probes the toxic effects of compound mixtures as well as single pollutants


Researchers in zoology, fish physiology, fisheries biology, comparative physiology, and ecology; applied researchers in environmental monitoring, conservation biology and toxicology; university-level students and instructors in these areas.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Abbreviations and Acronyms


    1. Organic Contaminants and Fish

    1 Contaminants: A Short Historical Preamble

    2 Contaminant Toxicokinetics in Fishes

    3 Predicting Contaminant Movement in the Environment and Fish

    4 Quantifying Contaminants and Exposures

    5 Conclusion



    2. Effects of Legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Fish—Current and Future Challenges

    1 Introduction

    2 Transformations of POPs in the Aquatic Environment

    3 Endocrine Disruption

    4 Effects on Early Development

    5 Transgenerational Effects

    6 Effects on Growth, Condition, and Energy Reserves

    7 Effects on Reproduction

    8 Immunotoxicity

    9 Neoplasia and Related Pathological Conditions

    10 Effects on Behavior, Including Foraging, Aggression, and Predator Avoidance

    11 Risk Assessment Challenges



    3. Organometal(loid)s

    1 Introduction

    2 Organic Mercury

    3 Organoselenium

    4 Organoarsenicals

    5 Organotin Compounds

    6 Other Organometal(LOID)S

    7 Conclusions


    4. Effects on Fish of Polycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonS (PAHS) and Naphthenic Acid Exposures

    1 Introduction

    2 Transformations of PAHs in the Aquatic Environment

    3 Hepatic Neoplasia and Related Lesions in Wild Fish

    4 Effects on Reproduction

    5 Effects on Embryonic and Larval Development

    6 Transgenerational Effects

    7 Other Effects with Consequences for Survival of Postlarval Stages

    8 Naphthenic Acids as a New Concern

    9 Future Directions



    5. Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Fish

    1 Introduction

    2 EDC

    3 Toxicokinetics

    4 Mechanisms of Toxicity

    5 Xenoestrogen Effects

    6 Interactions with Other Toxic Agents

    7 Knowledge Gaps and Future Directions


    6. Insecticide Toxicity in Fish

    1 Abstract/Introduction

    2 Background

    3 Insecticide Classes

    4 Organophosphates

    5 Carbamates

    6 Pyrethroids

    7 Neonicotinoids

    8 Phenylpyrazoles

    9 Microbial-Based Insecticides

    10 Insect Growth Regulators

    11 Mixtures

    12 Data Gaps

    13 Summary


    7. Effects of Herbicides on Fish

    1 Introduction

    2 Classification of Herbicides

    3 Acute Lethality of Herbicides to Fish

    4 Sublethal Effects of Herbicides in Fish

    5 Indirect Effects of Herbicides on Fish

    6 Conclusions



    8. Personal Care Products in the Aquatic Environment: A Case Study on the Effects of Triclosan in Fish

    1 Introduction

    2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Triclosan, and Its Use as a Personal Care Product

    3 Exposure in the Aquatic Environment

    4 Kinetics and Metabolism of Triclosan

    5 Toxicity of Triclosan

    6 Reproductive and Developmental Effects

    7 Effects of Triclosan on the Thyroid Axis

    8 Interactions of Triclosan with Aryl Hydrocarbon and Ryanodine Receptors

    9 Future Use of Triclosan and Related Environmental Issues

    10 Conclusions and Knowledge Gaps

    11 General Lessons Learned from the Case Study of Triclosan



    9. Emerging Threats to Fishes: Engineered Organic Nanomaterials

    1 Introduction

    2 The Environmental Chemistry of Engineered Nanomaterials and Bioavailabily to Fishes

    3 Acute Toxicity of Organic ENMs

    4 Uptake Routes and Target Organs for Organic ENMs

    5 Effects of Organic ENMs on the Physiological Systems of Fishes

    6 Studies on Organic ENMs and Capping Agents

    7 Nanocrystalline and Nanofibrillar Cellulosic Materials

    8 Polymer-Coated ENMs in the Agricultural Sector

    9 Key Needs in Environmental Risk Assessment of Organic ENMs

    10 Conclusions and Perspectives



    10. Handling Fish Mixture Exposures in Risk Assessment

    1 Introduction

    2 Fish and Mixtures

    3 Principles of Risk and Impact Assessment of Chemicals and Mixtures

    4 Cumulative Risk Assessment for Mixtures of Toxicants

    5 Evidence for Mixture Impacts in the Field

    6 Conclusions, Overview, and Summary



    Other volumes in the Fish Physiology Series

Product details

  • No. of pages: 574
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: December 4, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123982551
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123982544

About the Editors

Keith Tierney

Professor Keith B. Tierney is Assistant Professor in Biological Sciences at the Environmental Toxicology Department of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. His current research interests are in environmental toxicology and physiology of fishes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB

Anthony Farrell

Anthony Farrell
Dr. Tony Farrell is a professor in the Department of Zoology & Faculty of Land and Food Systems at the University of British Columbia and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. His research had provided an understanding of fish cardiorespiratory systems and has applied this knowledge to salmon migratory passage, fish stress handling and their recovery, sustainable aquaculture and aquatic toxicology. He has over 470 research publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and an h-factor of 92. He has co-edited of 30 volumes of the Fish Physiology series, as well as an award-winning Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology. As part of his application of physiology to aquaculture, he has studied the sub-lethal impacts of sea lice and piscine orthoreovirus on the physiology of juvenile salmon. Dr. Farrell has received multiple awards, including the Fry Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Canadian Society of Zoologists, the Beverton Medal, which is the highest honour to a scientist from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles, the Award of Excellence, which is the highest honour of the American Fisheries Society and the Murray A. Newman Awards both for Research and for Conservation from the Vancouver Marine Sciences Centre. He is a former President of the Society of Experimental Biologists and a former Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Fish Biology. He served as a member of the Minister’s Aquaculture Advisory Committee on Finfish Aquaculture for British Columbia and was a member of the Federal Independent Expert Panel on Aquaculture Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Zoology and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia and Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, Vancouver, Canada

Colin Brauner

Colin Brauner
Dr. Colin Brauner was educated in Canada at the University of British Columbia (Ph D), followed by a Post-doctoral fellowship at Aarhus University and the University of Southern Denmark, and was a Research Associate at McMaster University. He is a Professor of Zoology, UBC and Director of the UBC Aquatics Facility. He has been a Co-Editor of the Fish Physiology series since 2006. His research investigates environmental adaptations (both mechanistic and evolutionary) in relation to gas-exchange, acid-base balance and ion regulation in fish, integrating responses from the molecular, cellular and organismal level. The ultimate goal is to understand how evolutionary pressures have shaped physiological systems among vertebrates and to determine the degree to which physiological systems can adapt/acclimate to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes. This information is crucial for basic biology and understanding the diversity of biological systems, but much of his research conducted to date can also be applied to issues of aquaculture, toxicology and water quality criteria development, as well as fisheries management. His achievements have been recognized by the Society for Experimental Biology, UK (President’s medal) and the Canadian Conference for Fisheries Research (J.C. Stevenson Memorial Lecturer) and the Vancouver Marine Sciences Centre (Murray A. Newman Award for Aquatic Research). He is a former President of the Canadian Society of Zoologists.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Zoology, UBC and Director of the UBC Aquatics Facility, Canada

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