Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128028445, 9780128028452

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention

1st Edition

Editors: Susan Raatz Douglas Bibus
eBook ISBN: 9780128028452
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128028445
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th July 2016
Page Count: 380
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Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention provides an authoritative review of the role of fish and fish oil intake in the promotion of human health. This up-to-date volume provides a complete examination of intake patterns as well as research evidence of intake in disease prevention and treatment.

Readers will gain knowledge ranging from the current state of fish and fish oil intake, their health promoting effects and influences on individual response, how they influence development and health maintenance through the life cycle, and their role in disease prevention and treatment. This book is an invaluable resource for all researchers working to understand the relationship between fish and human health. It is a valuable reference for nutritionists, dietitians, and health care providers.

Key Features

  • Imparts a valuable understanding of fish intake patterns around the world and the role of fish and fish oil in human health through the lifecycle
  • Offers an understanding of the role of fish and fish oil in disease risk reduction and treatment
  • Presents the current status of fish intake and recommended intake levels for human health
  • Focuses on research on unique fish and oil sources and potential problems with fish availability


Researchers studying nutrition, food science, functional food, fish intake, fish oil, fatty acids, etc. Clinicians working in interdisciplinary teams. Graduate students in nutrition and food science programs.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • I: Fish and fish oil intake and recommendations
    • Chapter 1: Fish Intake in the United States
      • Abstract
      • Imports and production
      • Individual intake
      • Barriers to seafood consumption
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 2: Fish and Fish Oil in the Mediterranean Diets
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Mediterranean diet
      • Mediterranean diet and omega-3 fatty acids
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Recommended Intake of Fish and Fish Oils Worldwide
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Intake recommendations
      • Dietary sources
      • Supplemental sources
      • Specific life stages and population groups
      • Sustainability
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 4: Pregnant Women and Consumption of Fish: Where are We?
      • Abstract
      • The fish paradox unraveled: pregnant women should eat more fish for optimal brain development in their children
      • Omega-3 DHA and neurocognitive development
      • Requirements for DHA during pregnancy to support CNS development
    • Chapter 5: Bioavailability of Lipids in Fish and Fish Oils
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: what is bioavailability?
      • From fish lipids to fish foods and other fish oil delivery systems
      • Digestion and bioaccessibility of fish lipids
      • Bioavailability of fish lipids according to different molecular and supramolecular structures and the food product
      • Conclusion and future prospects
    • Chapter 6: Fish Oils in Human Nutrition: History and Current Status
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Market
      • Claims
      • Conclusion
  • II: Fish and fish oil nutrition in the life cycle
    • Chapter 7: Omega 3 Fatty Acids Counterbalance Actions of Omega-6 Fatty Acids
      • Abstract
      • Balancing our options
      • Two tissue biomarkers predict health risk differently
      • Two essential nutrients compete for a place in life
      • Two families of eicosanoids have different impacts
      • Two choices: Prevent the cause or treat signs and symptoms
      • Two origins of food: Land and sea
      • Acknowledgment
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 8: Fish Consumption During Pregnancy and Anthropometric Measures at Birth
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Fish consumption and birth outcomes: Results from observational studies
      • Fish consumption during pregnancy: A glimpse at infant neurodevelopment
      • Inconsistencies of epidemiological findings on birth outcomes
      • Fish consumption and birth outcomes: Planning an epidemiologic study
      • Implications for pregnant women
    • Chapter 9: Fish Oil and The Retinopathy of Prematurity
      • Abstract
      • Retinopathy of prematurity
      • Fish oil
      • Fish oil and retinopathy of prematurity
    • Chapter 10: Fish Oil for Physical Performance in Athletes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Dietary fish oil: Provision of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
      • Dietary fish oil and performance: A reemerging theme
      • Setting a framework around “athletes”
      • Dietary fish oil and its physiological contribution to physical performance
      • Fish oil and oxygen modulation
      • Blood flow
      • Cardiac function
      • Oxygen efficiency
      • Oxygen modulation and physical performance
      • Maximal oxygen consumption
      • Endurance and exercise performance
      • Fish oil and inflammation, immune, and oxidative stress
      • Inflammation and immune modulation
      • Skeletal muscle damage and oxidative stress
      • Inflammation, reactive oxygen stress, and physical performance
      • EPA versus DHA: Does it matter and how much is enough?
      • Future focus: Uncovering the potential effects of dietary fish oil on performance
      • Fish oil and exercise intolerance: An insight to study design
      • Nutritional preconditioning in hypoxic environments
      • Fish oil supporting supra-maximal exercise
      • Maintaining skeletal muscle mass
      • Long-term monitoring and optimization of LC n–3 PUFA in athletes
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Fish Intake and Strength in the Elderly
      • Abstract
      • Aging
      • Fish oil
      • Molecular effects of n–3 PUFA
    • Chapter 12: Fish and Fish Oil for the Aging Brain
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin D
      • Vitamin E
      • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
      • The aging brain, myelin maintenance, and nutrients from fish
      • Summary and Conclusions
  • III: Fish and fish oils in health promotion and disease prevention and treatment
    • Chapter 13: Farmed Fish: A Valuable Source of Lipid Based Nutrients
      • Abstract
      • Fish: A source of fat soluble nutrients
      • Determinants of LCn3 content
      • LCn3 from aquaculture to human health
      • Other lipid soluble nutrients
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 14: Fish and Fish Oil and the Metabolic Syndrome
      • Abstract
      • Metabolic syndrome
      • Fish and fish oil and metabolic syndrome
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Dietary and Supplemental Long-Chain N3 Fatty Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Intervention studies
      • Observational studies
      • Discussion
    • Chapter 16: Seafood Consumption and Fasting Leptin and Ghrelin in Overweight and Obese
      • Abstract
      • Role and production of leptin and ghrelin
      • Conditions affecting blood levels of leptin and ghrelin
      • Fasting leptin and ghrelin levels in overweight and obese participants after different types of seafood diets and weight loss
      • Additional aspects
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 17: Fish/Fish Oil Intake and Inflammatory Biomarkers, Endothelial Function
      • Abstract
      • Overview
      • Summary
    • Chapter 18: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Randomized trials
      • Epidemiology
      • Mechanisms of action of n–3 fatty acids
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 19: Salmon and Vascular Risk in Young Healthy Subjects
      • Abstract
      • Fish and seafood in health and human nutrition
      • Salmon as food
      • Markers of vascular risk
      • Experimental studies: salmon and vascular risk factors
      • Blood lipids
      • Blood pressure
      • Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM VCAM)
      • Inflammation markers
      • Other vascular risk factors
      • Increasing omega-3 3 PUFA concentrations in salmon
      • Health risks of consuming oil-rich fish
      • Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 20: Fish and Fish Oil for Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Etiology
      • Dyslipidemia
      • Diabetic complications
      • Fish oil and diabetes, preclinical models
      • Fish oil and diabetes, ecological evidence
      • Prospective cohort studies on fish oil, long chain n–3 fatty acids and diabetes risk
      • Randomized, controlled trials with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease in diabetics
      • Effects of fish and fish oil on mortality in subjects with T2DM
      • Effect of fish and fish oil on cardiovascular disease in subjects with diabetes
      • Effects of fish and fish oil on endothelial function in diabetics
      • Effect of fish and fish oil on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 21: Fish Consumption and Heart Rate Variability
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Heart rate variability
      • HRV as an index of health
      • Measuring heart rate variability
      • Describing heart rate variability
      • Changes in HRV parameters induced by fish consumption and possible mechanisms involved
      • Implications for clinical practice, health promotion and disease prevention
      • Summary and concluding comments
    • Chapter 22: Fish and Fish Oil and Lipoprotein Particle Number and Size
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Lipoprotein particles
      • Measurements of lipoprotein particle size and subclasses
      • Diet and lipoprotein particle number and size
      • Effect of fish intake on lipoprotein particles
      • Fish oils and lipoprotein particle number and size
      • Postprandial lipids
      • Discussion and conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 23: Fish, Fish Oil, and Liver Cancer
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
      • Fish and fish oil
      • Effects of fish oil on HCC
      • Summary and future prospective studies
      • Acknowledgments
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 24: Brain, Fish Oil-Enriched Diet, and Sphingolipids
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sphingolipid turnover and brain pathology
      • Improvement of brain sphingolipid metabolism and functions by n–3 fatty acids of the fish oil
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 25: Liver Disease and Parenteral Fish Oil
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Parenteral nutrition and the importance of fat emulsions
      • Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease
      • The role of parenteral soybean oil emulsions in the pathogenesis of PNALD
      • Fish oil monotherapy in PNALD
      • Addition of FOLE to SOLE to treat PNALD
      • Combination emulsions containing fish oil in the management of PNALD
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 26: Fish Oil Supplementation and Cancer Cachexia
      • Abstract
      • Clinical studies
      • Animal studies
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 27: Utilization of Fish Oil for the Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Guidelines and protocols
    • Chapter 28: Dietary Fish Oil Protects Against Gentamicin, Cisplatin, Uranyl Nitrate, and Nitric Oxide Donor/Metabolite-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Protective effect of dietary fish oil (FO) on gentamicin (GM), cisplatin (CP) and uranyl nitrate (UN) induced nephrotoxicity
      • Summary and conclusion
      • Abbreviations
  • IV: Unique sources
    • Chapter 29: Seafood Proteins and Human Health
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Seafood protein
      • Nutritional value of seafood proteins in human health
      • Seafood processing by-products as a source of muscle proteins
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 30: Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil
      • Abstract
      • Introduction to krill oil
      • Metabolic health effects of krill oil
    • Chapter 31: Risks and Possible Health Effects of Raw Fish Intake
      • Abstract
      • Background
      • Health effects of raw fish intake
      • Health risks of raw fish intake
      • Conclusions
      • Abbreviations
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Susan Raatz

Susan Raatz, PhD, MPH, RD is a Research Nutritionist at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota; she is also an Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and a Scientist (adjunct) at the Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, in Fargo, North Dakota. Dr. Raatz completed a BS in Dietetics at Northern Michigan University, Marquette, Michigan, an MS in Nutrition at Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, an MPH in Epidemiology and a PhD in Human Nutrition at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dr. Raatz is a Fellow of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and a Fellow of The Obesity Society and she serves as an assistant editor for Lipids, a journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. She has had an extensive career in clinical nutrition practice and in the performance of nutrition research. Prior to her current position at the USDA, Dr. Raatz was a research nutritionist in the General Clinical Research Center at the University of Minnesota and an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Her current research focuses on the role of dietary macronutrient distribution in the promotion of optimal health and the prevention of chronic diseases including the evaluation of fish and fish oil intake in satiety. Dr. Raatz has a particular interest in the effect of fish and fish oil intake on human health and disease prevention and she has worked with fish oil supplementation and bioavailability, intake of farmed salmon, and dietary intake of fish and fish oil for disease prevention.

Affiliations and Expertise

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, ND, USA

Douglas Bibus

Doug Bibus, MS, PhD is founder and President of Lipid Technologies, LLC, an analytical and consulting group that focuses on fatty acid and lipid analysis and integration of lipid nutrition in biotech and food applications. Dr Bibus is considered one of the top omega 3 experts in the world. He studied under and collaborates with Dr. Ralph T. Holman, who coined the term "omega 3" and discovered the metabolism and definitive essentiality nature of omega 3. His research interests include the role of essential fatty acids in human and animal nutrition, the role of omega 3 fatty acids in the down regulation of the inflammatory response and the application of fatty acids in the treatment of disease. Other ongoing research has or is examining the role of omega 3 and fatty acid nutrition and its implications in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s disease, heart disease, arthritis, critically injured and adult respiratory distress patients and in patients with autoimmune disorders. Dr. Bibus has also recently developed an Omega 3 blood test to identify levels of omega 3 in the blood.

Dr. Bibus is a member of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, the American Chemical Society, the Society for Critical Care Medicine and the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids. He has been the recipient of the American Oil Chemists’ Honored Student Award and a two-time winner of the American Chemical Society’s Award in Analytical Chemistry. Doug is also a board member for the American Oil Chemists’ Society and also serves on that society’s Foundation board. In addition to presenting at numerous professional meetings, Dr. Bibus is a sought after lecturer and author in the area of human and animal health. He holds a BS from Mankato State University, Mankato, Minnesota; an MS in nutrition and a PhD in nutritional biochemistry from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dr. Bibus also serves on the faculty of The Center for Spirituality and Healing at University of Minnesota.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and President, Lipid Technologies, LLC, MN, USA

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