The sector of fine chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes and pigments, fragrances and flavours, intermediates, and performance chemicals is growing fast. For obvious reasons chemistry is a key to the success in developing new processes for fine chemicals. However, as a rule, chemists formulate results of their work as recipes, which usually lack important information for process development. Fine Chemicals Manufacture, Technology and Engineering is intended to show what is needed to make the recipe more useful for process development purposes and to transform the recipe into an industrial process that will be safe, environmentally friendly, and profitable.
The goal of this book is to form a bridge between chemists and specialists of all other branches involved in the scale-up of new processes or modification of existing processes with both a minimum effort and risk and maximum profit when commercializing the process. New techniques for scale-up and optimization of existing processes and improvements in the utilization of process equipment that have been developed in recent years are presented in the book.
For chemical engineers, pharmaceutical scientists, catalysis scientists and other engineers dealing with fine chemical manufacturing.
Introduction. Characteristic features of fine chemicals manufacture. Catalysis in fine chemistry. Selectivity engineering. Process development. Separation methods. Production plants. Fine Chemicals and their Synthesis; a Chemical Point of View. What are fine chemicals? Historical development of organic synthesis. Fine chemicals vs. bulk chemicals manufacture. Process selection: process profile analysis. Factors influencing process choice: cleaner and safer technologies. E factors and atom utilization. The role of catalysis in waste minimization. Fine chemicals and catalysis: examples. Catalysis in Fine Chemicals. Introduction. Mechanism of catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysts - types and preparation. Catalyst performance: activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalyst selection. Catalyst characterization. Homogeneous catalysis. Phase-transfer catalysis. Biocatalysis. Selectivity Engineering. Heterogenization of homogeneous catalysis. Additional liquid phase. Rate and selectivity improvement via manipulation of 'microenvironment'. Rate and selectivity improvement via manipulation of 'macroenvironment'. Unconventional techniques. Continuous processes. Process Development. Introduction. Steps in process development. Scale-up procedures. Chemical reactor scale-up, design, and operation. Acronyms and symbols. Separation Methods. Distillation. Extraction. Crystallization. Adsorption. Membrane separations. Production Plants. Types of production plants. Typical equipment in a MPP. Production costs. Design and scheduling of batch plants. Principles of good manufacturing practice. Acronyms and symbols. Appendix A:
Identification of Stoichiometric Expression. 'Nancy algorithm'. Factor analysis. Appendix B:
Parameter Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Regression. Single reactions. Complex reactions. Cri
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- © Elsevier Science 2001
- 10th December 2001
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
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Delft University of Technology, Department of Catalysis and Organic Chemistry, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
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