Fibre Structure - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200613, 9781483225647

Fibre Structure

1st Edition

Editors: J. W. S. Hearle R. H. Peters
eBook ISBN: 9781483225647
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 694
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Description

Fibre Structure is a 19-chapter text that emerged from lectures presented at the Manchester College of Science and Technology. The interest of fiber studies lies to some extent in the important part textile materials play in general living and in industrial products and operations. The first chapters deal with the chemistry of fiber-forming polymers, followed by considerable chapters on the controversial subject of the fine structure of fibers. The remaining chapters describe the special features of all the important fibers, including glass and asbestos.
Textile scientists, researchers, and manufacturers will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Historical

1.1.1 Natural Fibers

1.1.2 Regenerated Fibers

1.1.3 Synthetic Fibers

1.2 The Idea of Polymers

1.3 Constitution of Fibers

1.3.1 Synthetic Fibers

1.3.2 Cellulose Fibers

1.3.3 Protein Fibers

Chapter 2 Cellulose and Its Derivatives

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Form and Behaviour of Cellulose Derivatives in Solution

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Measurements of Light-Scattering Dissymmetry

2 2.3 Osmometry and Light Scattering: Second Virial Coefficient

2.2.4 Viscometry

2.2.5 Conclusions

2.3 The Chemical Constitution of Cellulose

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Viscosity Anomalies

2.3.3 Resistant Hemicelluloses

2.3.4 Products of Partial Hydrolysis

2.3.5 Weak Bonds

2.3.6 Conclusions

Chapter 3 Synthetic Polypeptides and Fibrous Proteins

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Preparation of Synthetic Polypeptides

3.2.1 Polypeptides and their Synthesis

3.2.2 The N.C.A. Method

3.2.3 The N-Carbothiophenyl Amino-Acid Technique

3.3 Chain Conformation in Polypeptides

3.3.1 Dimensions for Model-Building

3.3.2 The Folding of Polypeptide Chains

3.3.3 Folds Involving Intra-Chain Hydrogen-Bonding

3.3.4 Conformation Involving Inter-Chain Hydrogen-Bonding

3.3.5 Conformation Involving Inter- and Intra-Chain Hydrogen Bonds

3.4 Experimental Techniques and Results on Polypeptides

3.4.1 Orientation

3.4.2 Infra-red Spectra

3.4.3 X-ray Diffraction

3.4.4 Optical Rotation

3.4.5 Stereochemical Effects

3.5 Silks

3.5.1 Varieties of Silk

3.5.2 Amino-Acid Composition of Fibroins

3.5.3 The Molecular Weights of Fibroins

3.5.4 Sequence of Amino-Acid Residues

3.5.5 Chain Conformations in Fibroins

3.5.6 Cross-β Structure

3.5.7 Water-Soluble Silk

3 6 Wool and Hair

3.6.1 Fiber Structure

3.6.2 Amino-Acid Composition

3.6.3 The Chemical Structure of Wool Keratin

3.6.4 Chain Conformations in Wool and Hair

3.6.5 Modifications to the α-Helix

3.6.6 The Macro-Structure of Wool

3.7 Collagen

3.7.1 Chemical Structure

3.7.2 Chain Conformation in Poly-L-Proline and Derivatives

3.7.3 Chain Conformation in Collagen

Chapter 4 Synthetic Fiber-Forming Polymers and Co-polymers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Characteristics of Synthetic Fibers

4.2.1 General Properties

4.2.2 General Molecular Characteristics

4.2.3 Heterogeneity of Molecular Species in Synthetic Fibers

4.3 The Configuration of Polymer Molecules in Synthetic Fibers

4.3.1 Configuration in the Crystalline Regions

4.3.2 Isomorphism and Polymorphism in Crystalline Polymers

4.3.3 Configuration in the Amorphous Regions

4.4 Inter- and Intra-Molecular Forces in Fibers

4.4.1 Cohesive Forces in Fibers

4.4.2 Forces Determining Crystalline Configuration and Opposing Configurational Change

4.5 Structure-Properties Relationships in Fibrous Polymers

4.5.1 Acyclic Polymers

4.5.2 Polymers with Intra-Chain Cyclic Groupings

4.5.3 Lateral Substitution in Polymers

4.5.4 Special Effects: Tolerance of Structural Irregularity in Crystalline Polymers, and Steric Hindrance

4.6 Co-polymers

4.6.1 General Characteristics

4.6.2 Effects of Co-polymerization on the Properties of Crystalline Fibrous Polymers

4.6.3 Non-crystalline Fibrous Co-polymers

4.6.4 Concluding Remarks on Structure-Properties Relationships in Synthetic Fibers

4.7 Reactions and Reactivity of Synthetic Fibers in Relation to Structure

4.7.1 The Chemical Effects of Heat on some Linear Polymers

4.7.2 The Hydrolysis of Synthetic Fibers

4.7.3 The Effects of Radiation on Synthetic Fibers

Chapter 5 Tactic Polymers

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 A New Class of Polymers

5.1.2 Meaning of Tacticity

5.2 Production of Tactic Polymers

5.2.1 Origins of Tacticity

5.2.2 Statistics of Sequence Lengths

5.2.3 Links with Biology; Molecular-Weight Distributions

5.3 The Zig-Zag Chain Conformation in Polyethylene and Syndiotactic Polymers

5.3.1 General Principles of Packing in Polymer Crystallites

5.3.2 Substitution and Chain Conformation

5.3.3 Comparison of Three Structures Based on the Planar trans Zig-Zag Conformation

5.3.4 Deviations Due to Interference Between Main-Chain and Side-Chain Groups

5.4 Spiral Structure of Isotactic Polymers and Randomization Effects

5.4.1 Trigonal Spiral

5.4.2 Higher Polygonal Spirals

5.4.3 Chain Conformation and Lateral Packing as Factors Determining Crystal Structure: a Case of Isomorphic Replacement

5.5 Physical Properties of Tactic Polymers

5.5.1 Melting Points and Thermal Properties

5.5.2 Mechanical and Other Properties

5.5.3 Outlook for Tactic Fibers

Chapter 6 The Development of Ideas of Fine Structure

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Crystalline and Non-crystalline Regions

6.2.1 Micellar and Continuous Theories of Structure

6.2.2 The Combination of Crystalline and Non-crystalline Regions

6.2.3 Electron-Microscope Studies

6.2.4 The Present Position

6.3 A Fringed-Fibril Theory

6.3.1 The Fringed-Fibril Structure

6.3.2 Crystallite Size

6.3.3 General Observations

6.4 Conclusion

Chapter 7 Observed Fine Structure in Plant Fibers

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Constitution of Cell-Walls

7.2.1 The Structure of Cellulose I

7.2.2 The Surface of the Microfibrils

7.2.3 The Incrusting Substances

7.3 The Organization of Cellulose in the Walls

7.3.1 Crossed Fibrillar Structure

7.3.2 The Structure of Wood Tracheids

7.3.3 Relation of Structure to Cell Dimensions

7.4 Chain Orientation and Physical Properties

7.4.1 General Considerations

7.4.2 Swelling

7.4.3 Heat Conductivity

7.4.4 Strength Properties

Chapter 8 The Fine Structure of Animal and Man-Made Fibers

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Experimental Methods

8.2.1 Fragmentation Methods

8.2.2 Studies of Transverse and Longitudinal Sections

8.2.3 Replication Techniques

8.3 Fibrillar Structure

8.4 Morphology of Microfibrils

8.4.1 The Effect of Crystallinity and Crystalline Orientation

8.5 Longitudinal Repeats in Fibrous Structures

8.6 Man-Made Fibers

8.7 Animal Fibers

8.8 Biosynthesis of Fibers

8.9 Closing Remarks

Chapter 9 The Non-Crystalline State

9.1 Mechanical Properties of High-Molecular Materials

9.2 The Rubber-Like State

9.2.1 The Kinetic Theory of Rubber Elasticity

9.2.2 The Network Theory

9.3 The Amorphous Component in Crystalline Polymers

9.3.1 Properties of Crystalline Polymers

9.3.2 The Modulus of Crystalline Rubber

9.3.3 Filler Action of Crystallites

9.3.4 Modification of Properties of Amorphous Component

9.3.5 Conclusion

9.4 Transition Phenomena

9.4.1 The Glass-Rubber Transition

9.4.2 Changes in Mechanical Properties in the Transition Region

9.4.3 Mechanical Properties of Amorphous Polymers

9.4.4 Fine Structure of the Relaxation Spectrum

9.4.5 General Discussion of Transition Phenomena

Chapter 10 The Crystallinity of High Polymers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Molecule

10.3 The Crystallite

10.3.1 The Concept of the Crystal Lattice in Polymers

10.3.2 The Configuration of the Molecule

10.3.3 The Packing of the Molecules

10.4 The Crystalline-Amorphous Entity

10.5 The Spherulitic Texture

10.5.1 The Recognition of Spherulites and their Significance in High Polymers

10.5.2 The Kinetics of Crystallization in Terms of Spherulites

10.5.3 Birefringence Effects in Spherulites

10.5.4 Orientation of the Molecules in Spherulites

10.5.5 The Morphology of Spherulites: the Spherulitic Fibril

10.5.6 Models of Spherulite Structures

10.6 Single Crystals

10.6.1 First Observations on Single Crystals

10.6.2 Electron-Diffraction Studies on Single Crystals; the Orientation of the Molecules

10.6.3 Chain-Folding in Polymers and Its Consequences

10.6.4 Relation Between Single Crystals and Spherulites

10.7 Some General Considerations

10.7.1 Relation Between Polymers and Low-Molecular-Weight Materials

10.7.2 Explanation of Chain-Folding

10.7.3 Problems Concerning Crystallization in the Bulk

10.8 Some Aspects of the Deformation Behavior in Terms of Crystalline Structures

10.8.1 General

10.8.2 The Molecule

10.8.3 The Crystallite

10.8.4 The Crystalline-Amorphous Entity

10.8.5 The Spherulite

10.8.6 The Spherulitic Fibril

10.8.7 Single Crystals

10.8.8 The Structure of the Drawn Fiber

Chapter 11 Surface Structure

11.1 External Form of Fibers

11.2 Methods Used to Study the Surface Structure

11.2.1 Interferometry

11.2.2 Microscopy

11.2.3 Scanning Electron Microscope

11.2.4 Reflection Electron Microscope

11.2.5 Observation of Silhouettes

11.2.6 Preparation of Transparent Casts or Replicas

11.2.7 Stereoscopy

11.2.8 Studies of Transverse and Longitudinal Sections

11.3 Fiber Surfaces

11.3.1 Animal Hair and Wool Fibers

11.3.2 Cotton

11.3.3 Regenerated Fibers

11.3.4 Synthetic Fibers

Chapter 12 Cotton and Other Vegetable Fibers

12.1 Introduction and General Classification of Vegetable Fibers

12.2 bast Fibers

12.2.1 Jute

12.2.2 Flax

12.2.3 Ramie

12.2.4 Hemp

12.2.5 Kenaf

12.3 Leaf Fibers

12.3.1 Abaca

12.3.2 Sisal

12.4 Seed Fiber

12.4.1 Kapok

12.5 Cotton

12.5.1 General Characteristics

12.5.2 Detailed Structure of Cotton Fiber

12.5.3 Observations on Modified Cotton Fibers

12.5.4 Discussion

12.6 Some Applications of Microscopical Studies to Utilization Research

Chapter 13 Rayon and Acetate Fibers

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Viscose Rayons

13.2.1 Properties and Microscopic Structure

13.2.2 The Load-Elongation Curve

13.2.3 Fine Structure

13.3 Cellulose Acetate Fibers

13.3.1 Secondary Cellulose Acetate

13.3.2 Cellulose Triacetate

Chapter 14 Fibers from Condensation Polymers

14.1 Fundamental Fiber Tensile Properties

14.2 Spinning

14.2.1 Choice of Process

14.2.2 Melt-Extrusion

14.2.3 Stretching and Cooling

14.2.4 Consequences of Crystallization and Moisture Absorption

14.2.5 Spinning Stability

14.3 Drawing

14.3.1 Initially Crystalline Filaments

14.3.2 Initially Amorphous Filaments

14.3.3 Cold-Drawing at a Neck

14.3.4 Continuous Thread-Line Drawing

14.4 Heat-Treatments after Drawing

14.4.1 The Need for Heat-Treatment

14.4.2 A General Theory of Heat-Treatments

14.4.3 Various Forms of Heat-Treatment

14.5 Larger-Scale Features

14.6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 15 Fibers from Addition Polymers

15.1 Polyethylene

15.2 Polypropylene

15.3 Halogenated Hydrocarbons

15.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol

15.5 Polyacrylonitrile

Chapter 16 A Survey of the Gross Structural Features of Protein Fibers

16.1 Growth and Types of Keratin Fibers

16.1.1 The Development of Skin Follicles

16.1.2 Fiber Growth and Its Relation to Structure

16.1.3 The Roots and Tips of Fibers

16.1.4 Pigment

16.1.5 Fleece Structure and Fiber Types

16.2 The Details Structure of Keratin Fibers

16.2.1 The Cortical Cells

16.2.2 The Bilateral Nature of the Cortex

16.2.3 The Medulla

16.2.4 The Cuticle

16.2.5 Classification of Cuticular Scale Patterns

16.3 A Survey of the Keratin Fibers

16.3.1 Fibers from Sheep: Wool

16.3.2 Fibers of the Goat Group

16.3.3 Fibers from Farm Animals

16.3.4 Camel Fibers

16.3.5 Fibers from the Llama Group

16.3.6 Fur Fibers

16.4 Silk

16.5 Regenerated Protein Fibers

Chapter 17 Glass Fibers

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Chemical Composition of Glasses

17.2.1 The Soda-Silica Series

17.2.2 Network Formers and Network Modifiers

17.2.3 Commercial Glass Compositions

17.3 Structure of Glass

17.3.1 The Random-Network Hypothesis of Zachariasen

17.3.2 Effect of Network Modifier on Structure: Warren's Hypothesis

17.3.3 Infra-red Spectrometry

17.3.4 Hypotheses of Heterogeneous Structure

17.3.5 The Surface of Glass

17.4 Behaviour of Glass at High Temperatures

17.4.1 Viscosity of Glass

17.4.2 Fictive Temperature

17.4.3 Devitrification

17.5 Mechanism of Glass-Fiber Formation

17.5.1 The Basic Process

17.5.2 Mechanical Drawing Processes

17.5.3 Blowing Processes

17.6 Orientation of Structure in Glass Fibers

17.6.1 Orientation as a Possible Explanation of Strength

17.6.2 Deformation of Network Due to Drawing

17.6.3 Orientation of Chain Structure

17.6.4 Effect of Drawing on Heterogeneous Structure

17.6.5 Evidence Against Oriented Structure

17.7 Strength of Glass in Bulk and Fiber Form

17.7.1 Glass Composition and Strength

17.7.2 Comparison of Bulk Glass with Fibers

17.7.3 The Griffith-Flaw Theory

17.7.4 Variation of Strength with Dimensions of Sample

17.7.5 Effect of Viscous Flow on Strength

17.7.6 Evidence for Flaws in the Surface of Glass

17.8 Strength of Undamaged Glass Fibers

17.8.1 Drawing Conditions and Strength

17.8.2 Evidence Against the Dependence of Strength on Drawing Conditions

17.8.3 Effect of Duration of Loading on Strength

17.8.4 Effect of Heat-Treatment on Strength

17.9 Summary of the Present Position Regarding the Strength of Glass Fibers

17.10 Conclusions

Chapter 18 Asbestos

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Classification, Occurrence, and Physical Properties of Asbestos

18.3 Amphibole Asbestos

18.3.1 Composition and Unit Cells

18.3.2 The Atomic Arrangement

18.3.3 Structural Basis for the Differentiation Varieties

18.3.4 Texture of Amphibole Asbestos

18.3.5 Chemical Properties and Identification of the Amphibole

18.4 Chrysotile

18.4.1 Introduction

18.4.2 Early Structural Work

18.4.3 The Cylindrical Lattice

18.4.4 The Structure of Chrysotile

18.4.5 The Texture of Chrysotile from X-ray Evidence

18.4.6 Helical and Spiral Structures in Chrysotile

18.4.7 General Considerations on the Texture of Chrysotile

18.4.8 Chemical Properties and Identification

18.5 Synthetic Asbestos

Chapter 19 Structure, Properties, and Uses

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Fiber Properties

19.2.1 Fiber Shape and Dimensions

19.2.2 Absorption of Water and Swelling

19.2.3 Mechanical Properties

19.2.4 Electrical Properties

19.2.5 Friction

19.2.6 Temperature Effects

19.2.7 Optical Properties

19.2.8 Chemical Properties

19.2.9 Commercial Factors

19.3 Conclusions




Details

No. of pages:
694
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1963
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483225647

About the Editor

J. W. S. Hearle

J. W. S. Hearle, M.A., Sc.D., Ph.D., C.Text F.T.I (Hon.), F.Inst.P, is Emeritus Professor of Textile Technology in the University of Manchester, UK.

R. H. Peters

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