Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques

Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques

1st Edition - December 12, 2008

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  • Authors: Rongqing Hui, Maurice O'Sullivan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920436

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Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques is an indispensable collection of key optical measurement techniques essential for developing and characterizing today’s photonic devices and fiber optic systems. The book gives comprehensive and systematic descriptions of various fiber optic measurement methods with the emphasis on the understanding of optoelectronic signal processing methodologies, helping the reader to weigh up the pros and cons of each technique and establish their suitability for the task at hand. Carefully balancing descriptions of principle, operations and optoelectronic circuit implementation, this indispensable resource will enable the engineer to: Understand the implications of various measurement results and system performance qualifications Characterize modern optical systems and devices Select optical devices and subsystems in optical network design and implementation Design innovative instrumentations for fiber optic systems This book brings together in one volume the fundamental principles with the latest techniques, making it a complete resource for the optical and communications engineer developing future optical devices and fiber optic systems. "Optical fiber communication systems and networks constitute the core of the telecom infrastructure of the information society worldwide. Accurate knowledge of the properties of the contituent components, and of the performance of the subsystems and systems must be obtained in order to ensure reliable transmission, distribution, and delivery of information. This book is an authoritative and comprehensive treatment of fiber-optic measurement techniques, including not only fundamental principles and methodologies but also various instrumentations and practical implementations. It is an excellent up-to-date resource and reference for the academic and industrial researcher as well as the field engineer in manufacturing and network operations." –Dr. Tingye Li, AT&T Labs (retired)Rongqing Hui received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy in 1993. He is currently a tenured professor in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas. He has published more than 90 refereed technical papers in the area of fiber-optic communications and holds 13 patents. Dr. Hui currently serves as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Communications.Maurice O'Sullivan has worked for Nortel for a score of years, at first in the optical cable business, developing factory-tailored metrology for optical fiber, but, in the main, in the optical transmission business developing, modeling and verifying physical layer designs & performance of Nortel's line and highest rate transmission product including OC-192, MOR, MOR+, LH1600G, eDCO and eDC40G. He holds a Ph.D. in physics (high resolution spectroscopy) from the University of Toronto, is a Nortel Fellow and has been granted more than 30 patents.

Key Features

  • The only book to combine explanations of the basic principles with latest techniques to enable the engineer to develop photonic systems of the future
  • Careful and systematic presentation of measurement methods to help engineers to choose the most appropriate for their application
  • The latest methods covered, such as real-time optical monitoring and phase coded systems and subsystems, making this the most up-to-date guide to fiber optic measurement on the market


Optical and photonic engineers, R&D engineers, communications engineers, graduate students

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Chapter 1: Fundamentals of optical devices
    1.1 Laser diodes and LEDs
    1.1.1 pn junction and energy diagram
    1.1.2 Direct and indirect semiconductors
    1.1.3 Carrier confinement
    1.1.4 Spontaneous emission and stimulated emission
    1.1.5 Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
    1.1.6 Laser Diodes (LD)
    1.1.7 Single frequency semiconductor lasers
    1.2 Photodetectors
    1.2.1 PN-junction photodiodes
    1.2.2 Responsivity and bandwidth
    1.2.3 Electrical Characteristics of a photodiode
    1.2.4 Photo-detector noise and SNR
    1.2.5 Avalanche photodiodes (APD)
    1.3 Optical fibers
    1.3.1 Reflection and refraction
    1.3.2 Propagation modes in optical fibers
    1.3.3 Optical fiber attenuation
    1.3.4 Group velocity and dispersion
    1.3.5 Nonlinear effects in an optical fiber
    1.4 Optical amplifiers
    1.4.1 Optical gain, gain bandwidth and saturation
    1.4.2 Semiconductor optical amplifiers
    1.4.3 Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA)
    1.5 External electro-optic modulator
    1.5.1 Basic operation principle of electro-optic modulators
    1.5.2 Frequency doubling and duo-binary modulation
    1.5.3 Optical single-side modulation
    1.5.4 Optical modulators using electro-absorption effect

    Chapter 2: Basic instrumentation for optical measurement
    2.1 Grating-base optical spectrum analyzer
    2.1.1 General specifications
    2.1.2 Fundamentals of diffraction gratings
    2.1.3 Basic OSA configurations
    2.2 Scanning FP interferometer
    2.2.1 Basic FPI configuration and transfer function
    2.2.2 Scanning FPI spectrum analyzer
    2.2.3 Scanning FPI basic optical configurations
    2.2.4 Optical spectrum analyzer using the combination of grating and FPI
    2.3 Mach-zehnder interferometer
    2.3.1 Transfer matrix of a 2x2 optical coupler
    2.3.2 Transfer function of an MZI
    2.3.3 MZI used as an optical filter
    2.4 Michelson interferometer
    2.4.1 Operation principle of a Michelson interferometer
    2.4.2 Measurement and characterization of Michelson interferometers
    2.4.3 Techniques to increase frequency selectivity
    2.5 Optical wavelength meter
    2.5.1 Operation principle of a wavelength meter based on Michelson interferometer
    2.5.2 Wavelength coverage and spectral resolution
    2.5.3 wavelength calibration
    2.5.4 Wavelength meter based on Fizeau wedge interferometer
    2.6 Optical Polarimeter
    2.6.1 General description of lightwave polarization
    2.6.2 The Stokes Parameters and the Poincare sphere
    2.6.3 Optical Polarimeter implementations
    2.7 Measurement based on coherent optical detection
    2.7.1 Basic principle of coherent detection
    2.7.2 Receiver SNR calculation of coherent detection
    2.7.3 Balanced coherent detection and polarization diversity
    2.7.4 Phase diversity in coherent homodyne detection
    2.7.5 Coherent OSA based on swept frequency laser
    2.8 Waveform Measurement
    2.8.1 Oscilloscope operation principle
    2.8.2 Digital sampling oscilloscope
    2.8.3 High-speed sampling of optical signal
    2.8.4 High-speed electric ADC using optical techniques
    2.8.5 Short optical pulse measurement using an autocorrelator
    2.9 Optical Low-coherent interferometry
    2.9.1 Optical low-coherence reflectometry
    2.9.2 Fourier-domain reflectometry
    2.10 Optical network analyzer
    2.10.1 S-parameters and RF network analyzer
    2.10.2 Optical network analyzer

    Chapter 3: Characterization of optical devices
    3.1 Characterization of RIN and linewidth of semiconductor lasers
    3.1.1 Measurement of relative intensity noise (RIN)
    3.1.2 Measurement of laser phase noise and linewidth
    3.2 Measurement of electro-optic modulation response
    3.2.1 Characterization of intensity modulation response
    3.2.2 Measurement of frequency chirp
    3.2.3 Time-domain measurement of modulation-induced chirp
    3.3 Wide-band characterization of an optical receiver
    3.3.1 Characterization of photodetector responsivity and linearity
    3.3.2 Frequency domain characterization of photodetector response
    3.3.3 Photodetector bandwidth characterization using source spontaneousspontaneous
    beat noise
    3.3.4 Photodetector characterization using short optical pulses
    3.4 Characterization of optical amplifiers
    3.4.1 Measurement of amplifier optical gain
    3.4.2 Measurement of static and dynamic gain tilt
    3.4.3 Optical amplifier noise
    3.4.4 Optical domain characterization of ASE noise
    3.4.5 Impact of ASE noise in electrical domain
    3.4.6 Noise Figure definition and its measurement
    3.4.7 Time domain characteristics of EDFA
    3.5 Characterization of passive optical components
    3.5.1 Fiber-optic couplers
    3.5.2 Fiber Bragg-grating filters
    3.5.3 WDM multiplexers and demultiplers
    3.5.4 Optical isolators and circulators

    Chapter 4: Optical fiber measurement
    4.1 Classification of fiber types
    4.2 Measurement of fiber mode-field distribution
    4.2.1 Near-field, far-field and mode field diameter
    4.2.2 The far-field measurement techniques
    4.2.3 The near-field measurement techniques
    4.3 Fiber attenuation measurement and OTDR
    4.3.1 Cutback technique
    4.3.2 Optical time-domain reflectometer
    4.3.3 Improvement considerations of OTDR
    4.4 Fiber dispersion measurements
    4.4.1 Intermodal dispersion and its measurement
    (1) Pulse distortion method
    (2) Frequency domain measurement
    4.4.2 Chromatic dispersion and its measurement
    (1) Modulation phase shift method
    (2) Baseband AM response method
    (3) Interferometric method
    4.5 Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Measurement
    4.5.1 Representation fiber birefringence and PMD parameter
    4.5.2 Pulse delay method
    4.5.3 The Interferometric method
    4.5.4 Poincare Arc method
    4.5.5 Fixed Analyzer method
    4.5.6 The Jones-Matrix method
    4.5.7 The Mueller-Matrix method
    4.6 Determination of polarization-dependent loss
    4.7 PMD sources and emulators
    4.8 Measurement of fiber nonlinearity
    4.7.1 Measurement of Stimulated Brilliouin Scattering Coefficient
    4.7.2 Measurement of Stimulated Raman Scattering Coefficient
    4.7.3 Measurement of Kerr-effect nonlinearity

    Chapter 5: Optical System Performance Measurements
    5.1 Overview of fiber-optic transmission systems
    5.1.1 Optical system performance considerations
    5.1.2 Receiver BER and Q
    5.1.3 System Q estimation based on eye diagram parameterization
    5.1.4 Bit Error-rate Testing
    5.2 Receiver sensitivity measurement and OSNR tolerance
    5.2.1 Receiver sensitivity and power margin
    5.2.2 OSNR margin and required OSNR (R-OSNR)
    5.2.3 BER vs. decision threshold measurement
    5.3 Waveform distortion measurements
    5.4 Time jitter measurement
    5.4.1 Basic jitter parameters and definitions
    5.4.2 Jitter detection techniques
    5.5 In-situ monitoring techniques of fiber-optic systems
    5.5.1 In-situ monitoring of chromatic dispersion
    5.5.2 In-situ PMD monitoring
    5.5.3 In-situ PDL monitoring
    5.6 Measurement of nonlinear crosstalk in multi-span WDM systems
    5.6.1 XPM-induced intensity modulation in IMDD optical systems
    5.6.2 XPM-induced phase modulation
    5.6.3 FWM-induced crosstalk in IMDD optical systems
    5.6.4 Characterization of Raman crosstalk with wide channel separation
    5.7 Modulation instability and its impact in WDM optical systems
    5.7.1 Modulation-instability and transfer matrix formulation
    5.7.2 Impact of modulation-instability in amplified multi-span fiber systems
    5.7.3 Characterization of modulation instability in fiber-optic systems
    5.8 System degradation measurements based on the required OSNR
    5.8.1 Measurement of R-SNR due to chromatic dispersion
    5.8.2 Measurement of R-SNR due to fiber nonlinearity
    5.8.3 Measurement of R-SNR due to optical filter misalignment
    5.9 Optical re-circulating loop
    5.9.1 Operation principle of a recirculating loop
    5.9.2 Measurement procedure and time control
    5.9.3 Optical gain adjustment in the loop

Product details

  • No. of pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2008
  • Published: December 12, 2008
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080920436

About the Authors

Rongqing Hui

Dr. Hui, Ph.D (h-index: 20) is a professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas. His research interests are in lightwave communication systems and subsystems, photonic devices, optical instrumentation and photonic sensors. Prior to joining the faculty of the University of Kansas in 1997 he taught undergraduate and graduate courses in optical communications, microelectronic circuits, and semiconductor materials & devices for more than 15 years. Dr. Hui was a member of the scientific staff at Bell-Northern Research and Nortel in Ottawa, Canada, where he was involved in the research and development of high-speed optical transport networks. He was a NSF Program Director for the photonic devices program from 2006 to 2008. He served as an associate editor for IEEE Transactions on Communications from 2001 to 2007 and an associate editor of IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics from 2006 to 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy; Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA

Maurice O'Sullivan

Maurice O’Sullivan has engineered the physical layer of optical transmission for more than 30 years, at first in the optical cable business, developing factory-tailored metrology for optical fiber, but, mainly, in the optical transmission business developing, modeling and verifying physical layer designs and performance of Nortel's (now Ciena’s) line and highest rate transmission product including the first commercial 10 Gb/s system, several commercial terrestrial line systems, the first commercial DSP assisted electric field modulation transceiver with complete electronic compensation for optical dispersion and the first commercial coherent 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s transceivers. Now with Ciena, Maurice is engaged in the design of successive generations of flexible high capacity multi-rate coherent transceivers including 50G/100G/200G, 100G/…/400G, and 200G/…/800G products. Maurice is a Ciena Fellow with more than 45 patents and holds a Ph.D. in physics (high resolution spectroscopy) from the University of Toronto.

Affiliations and Expertise


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