Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition

Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition

1st Edition - January 1, 1979

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  • Editor: Clifford Gastineau
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146029

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Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition presents the proceedings of International Symposium on Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition convened at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. It focuses on the contributions of alcoholic beverages in nutrition. It discusses the effects of specific alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, and certain distilled spirits, in human health. Organized into seven parts, encompassing 31 chapters, the book starts by discussing the history of alcoholic beverages and their nutrient contributions. Part II focuses on fermentation process, its history, biochemistry, nutrient synthesis by yeast, wine fermentation and aging, and beer brewing. Part III discusses the production and consumption trends of beer and wine, with emphasis on the changing attitudes of Americans toward wine consumption. Metabolism and therapeutic application of alcoholic beverages are examined in part IV. Discussions include role of alcoholic beverages in gerontology and ketogenesis, and the effect of alcoholic beverage incorporation into therapeutic diets. Part V highlights the effects of misuse and abuse of alcoholic beverages in various human body systems, including gastrointestine, pancreas, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as in cancer development and offspring effects during prenatal alcohol exposure. Parts VI and VII discuss the use of miniature swine as model for the study of human alcoholism and socioeconomic aspects of alcohol abuse. With the aim of bringing together existing factual knowledge concerning nutrition and health contributions of alcoholic beverages, this book is ideal for food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    I Historical Overview

    1 Fermented Beverages in Antiquity

    I. The Beginnings

    II. Early Egypt

    III. Recognition of Excess

    IV. Pre-lslamic Near East

    V. Changing Attitudes with Islam


    2 Maize Beer in the Economics, Politics, and Religion of the Inca Empire

    I. Native American Fermented Food Beverages

    II. The Preparation of Maize Beer

    III. Exchange in the Andes: Reciprocity and Redistribution

    IV. Maize Beer (Chicha) in Pre-Spanish Times

    V. State Management of the Brewing

    VI. Social and Cultural Importance of Fermented Beverages


    3 Nutritionally Significant Indigenous Foods Involving an Alcoholic Fermentation

    I. Introduction

    II. Alcoholic Foods in Which Sugars Are the Major Fermentable Substrate

    III. Alcoholic Foods in Which Saliva Is the Amylolytic Agent

    IV. Alcoholic Food Fermentations Involving an Amylolytic Mold and Yeast

    V. Alcoholic Foods in Which Starch Hydrolysis Involves a Malting (Germination) Step

    VI. Alcoholic Fermentations Involving Use of a Koji for Starch Hydrolysis

    VII. Alcoholic Milk Beverages

    VIII. Significance of Indigenous Alcoholic Foods in Human Nutrition

    IX. Summary


    4 The Nutrient Contributions of Fermented Beverages

    I. Nature of Nutritional Contribution of Beverages

    II. Time-Honored Precepts of Use

    III. Excesses and Nutritional Deficiencies

    IV. Direct Nutrient Contributions of Fermented Beverages 6

    V. Clarification, Filtration, and Distillation

    VI. Trace Elements

    VII. Organic Compounds in Fermented Beverages

    VIII. Summary


    Editorial Comment

    II Fermentation

    5 A Historical Perspective on Fermentation Biochemistry and Nutrition

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Fermented Beverages

    III. Health Value of Fermented Beverages

    IV. Early Chemistry of Fermentation

    V. Yeast: A Living Organism

    VI. Discovery of Zymase

    VII. Chemistry of Yeast-Juice Action

    VIII. Yeast: Its Nutritional Aspects


    Editorial Comment

    6 Biochemistry of Fermentation

    I. Introduction

    II. The Alcoholic Fermentation: A Look into the Future

    III. Glycerol Fermentation

    IV. The Citric Acid Fermentation


    7 Nutrient Synthesis by Yeast

    I. Introduction

    II. Production of Nutrients by Yeast

    III. Conclusions


    8 The Biochemical Processes Involved in Wine Fermentation and Aging

    I. Introduction

    II. Products

    III. By-Products of Fermentation

    IV. Indirect By-Products

    V. Higher Alcohols

    VI. Heat

    VII. By-Products of Processing

    VIII. The Malo-Lactic Fermentation

    IX. Research Needs


    9 The Brewing of Beer

    I. Brewing Constituents

    II. Steps in Brewing

    III. Terminology

    Editorial Comment

    III Consumption of Beer and Wine

    10 National Patterns of Consumption and Production of Beer

    I. Introduction

    II. History of Beer

    III. Production Trends

    IV. Consumption Trends

    V. World Production and Consumption

    VI. Conclusions


    Supplementary Reading

    11 Production and Consumption of Wine: Facts, Opinions, Tendencies

    I. Introduction

    II. Production and Distribution

    III. Consumption

    IV. Conclusions


    12 The Wine Industry and the Changing Attitudes of Americans: An Overview

    I. In the Beginning

    II. Prohibition Attitudes

    III. Recovery following Repeal

    IV. The Present

    V. The American Wine Consumer


    IV Metabolism and the Therapeutic Use of Alcoholic Beverages

    13 Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Ethanol including Effects on Water Balance and Nutritional Status

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption of Ethanol

    III. Distribution of Ethanol in the Body

    IV. Metabolism of Ethanol

    V. Excretion of Ethanol

    VI. Endogenous Biosynthesis of Ethanol in Animals

    VII. Effect of Ethanol Intake on Fluid Balance

    VIII. Effect of Ethanol Intake on Nutritional Status

    IX. Research Needs

    X. Summary


    14 The Energy Value of Alcohol

    I. Introduction

    II. Experiments of Atwater and Benedict

    III. Utilization of Alcohol by Normal Man

    IV. Utilization of Alcohol by Alcoholics


    15 Role of Alcoholic Beverages in Gerontology

    I. Introduction

    II. Alcohol Abuse and Gerontology

    III. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    IV. Results of Carefully Controlled Alcoholic Beverage Consumption Studies among Institutionalized Elderly

    V. Discussion

    VI. Research Needs

    VII. Conclusion


    Editorial Comment

    16 Medications, Drugs, and Alcohol

    I. Absorption Effects

    II. Congeners

    III. Metabolism

    IV. Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System

    V. Disulfiram (Antabuse)

    VI. Interaction of Alcohol with Other Psychoactive Drugs

    VII. Depressants

    VIII. Conclusions


    Editorial Comment

    17 Incorporating Alcoholic Beverages into Therapeutic Diets: Some Potentialities and problems

    I. Some Problems

    II. Should Alcohol Be Allowed in the Diets of Fat People?

    III. Does Alcohol Stimulate Weight Gain in the Undernourished?


    18 Alcohol and Ketogenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

    III. Ethanol and Ketogenesis


    Editorial Comment Concerning Alcohol Use in Diabetes

    V Effects of Misuse and Excess

    19 Effects of Alcohol on Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Function in Alcoholics

    I. Introduction

    II. Absorption and Metabolism of Ethanol by the Gastrointestinal Tract

    III. Alcohol and the Stomach

    IV. Alcoholism and the Small Intestine

    V. Alcoholism and the Pancreas

    VI. Summary of Research Needs


    20 Liver Abnormalities in Alcoholism: Alcohol Consumption and Nutrition

    I. Introduction

    II. Alcohol Consumption and Beverage Choice

    III. Malnutrition and Liver Disease

    IV. Summary of Research Needs


    Editorial Comment

    21 Effects of Alcohol on the Cardiovascular System

    I. Introduction and Historical Review

    II. Effects of Alcohol on Cardiovascular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Structure

    III. Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease

    IV. Summary and Research Needs


    22 Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System

    I. General Considerations

    II. Disorders Associated with High Blood Alcohol Levels

    III. Disorders Associated with Zero or Diminishing Blood Alcohol Levels

    IV. Neurological Disorders of Nutritional Cause Associated with Chronic Alcoholism

    V. Neurological Disorders of Undetermined Cause Associated with Chronic Alcoholism


    23 Alcoholism: How do you get it?

    I. Common Concepts in Etiology of Alcoholism

    II. Is Alcoholism Associated with Underlying Psychopathology?

    III. Role of the Pleasurable Experience from Alcohol

    IV. Habituation, Dependence, Problems

    V. Tolerance and Need

    VI. Is Everyone Vulnerable?


    Editorial Comment

    24 Natural History of Alcohol Dependence

    I. Introduction

    II. Procedures

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    V. Research Needs

    VI. Summary

    Appendix I: Social and Drinking History

    Appendix II: Neurological Rating Form


    25 Nutritional Status of Alcoholics Before and After Admission to an Alcoholism Treatment Unit

    I. Introduction: Skid Row Alcoholic versus the More Common Alcoholic

    II. The Present Study

    III. Methods for Nutritional Data

    IV. Results

    V. Conclusions


    Editorial Comment

    26 Thiamine Status of Australian Alcoholics

    I. Introduction

    II. Clinical Studies

    III. Biochemical Studies

    IV. Etiology of Thiamine Deficiency in Alcoholism

    V. Thiamine Status of the Australian Population

    VI. Summary


    Editorial Comment

    27 Cancer and Alcoholic Beverages

    I. Introduction

    II. Alcohol and Carcinogenesis

    III. Human Cancer in Relation to Alcohol Consumption: The Epidemiological Evidence

    IV. Summary


    Editorial Comment

    28 Alcohol in pregnancy and Its Effects on Offspring

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Review

    III. Modern Studies

    IV. Discussion

    V. Research Needs


    Editorial Comment

    VI An Experimental Model

    29 Miniature Swine as a Model for the Study of Human Alcoholism: The Withdrawal Syndrome

    I. Introduction

    II. Experiments on Physical Dependence

    III. Discussion

    IV. Summary and Conclusions


    VII Socioeconomic Considerations

    30 The Medical Costs of Excessive Use of Alcohol

    I. Cirrhosis of the Liver

    II. Accidents

    III. Suicide, Homicide, and Assault

    IV. Cancer

    V. Mental Disorders

    VI. Other Disorders

    VII. Conclusions


    Editorial Comment

    31 Socioeconomic Considerations and Cultural Attitudes: An Analysis of the International

    I. Introduction

    II. The Supply-Demand-Stress Model

    III. Indicators of Key Economic, Sociocultural, and Stress Variables

    IV. Overview and Conceptual Organization of the Effects of Government Policies

    V. Discussion


    Editorial Comment

    Appendix: Compounds Identified in Whiskey, Wine, and Beer


Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: January 1, 1979
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146029

About the Editor

Clifford Gastineau

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