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Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122770500, 9780323146029

Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition

1st Edition

Editor: Clifford Gastineau
eBook ISBN: 9780323146029
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1979
Page Count: 560
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Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition presents the proceedings of International Symposium on Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition convened at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. It focuses on the contributions of alcoholic beverages in nutrition. It discusses the effects of specific alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, and certain distilled spirits, in human health. Organized into seven parts, encompassing 31 chapters, the book starts by discussing the history of alcoholic beverages and their nutrient contributions. Part II focuses on fermentation process, its history, biochemistry, nutrient synthesis by yeast, wine fermentation and aging, and beer brewing. Part III discusses the production and consumption trends of beer and wine, with emphasis on the changing attitudes of Americans toward wine consumption. Metabolism and therapeutic application of alcoholic beverages are examined in part IV. Discussions include role of alcoholic beverages in gerontology and ketogenesis, and the effect of alcoholic beverage incorporation into therapeutic diets. Part V highlights the effects of misuse and abuse of alcoholic beverages in various human body systems, including gastrointestine, pancreas, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as in cancer development and offspring effects during prenatal alcohol exposure. Parts VI and VII discuss the use of miniature swine as model for the study of human alcoholism and socioeconomic aspects of alcohol abuse. With the aim of bringing together existing factual knowledge concerning nutrition and health contributions of alcoholic beverages, this book is ideal for food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, and researchers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


I Historical Overview

1 Fermented Beverages in Antiquity

I. The Beginnings

II. Early Egypt

III. Recognition of Excess

IV. Pre-lslamic Near East

V. Changing Attitudes with Islam


2 Maize Beer in the Economics, Politics, and Religion of the Inca Empire

I. Native American Fermented Food Beverages

II. The Preparation of Maize Beer

III. Exchange in the Andes: Reciprocity and Redistribution

IV. Maize Beer (Chicha) in Pre-Spanish Times

V. State Management of the Brewing

VI. Social and Cultural Importance of Fermented Beverages


3 Nutritionally Significant Indigenous Foods Involving an Alcoholic Fermentation

I. Introduction

II. Alcoholic Foods in Which Sugars Are the Major Fermentable Substrate

III. Alcoholic Foods in Which Saliva Is the Amylolytic Agent

IV. Alcoholic Food Fermentations Involving an Amylolytic Mold and Yeast

V. Alcoholic Foods in Which Starch Hydrolysis Involves a Malting (Germination) Step

VI. Alcoholic Fermentations Involving Use of a Koji for Starch Hydrolysis

VII. Alcoholic Milk Beverages

VIII. Significance of Indigenous Alcoholic Foods in Human Nutrition

IX. Summary


4 The Nutrient Contributions of Fermented Beverages

I. Nature of Nutritional Contribution of Beverages

II. Time-Honored Precepts of Use

III. Excesses and Nutritional Deficiencies

IV. Direct Nutrient Contributions of Fermented Beverages 6

V. Clarification, Filtration, and Distillation

VI. Trace Elements

VII. Organic Compounds in Fermented Beverages

VIII. Summary


Editorial Comment

II Fermentation

5 A Historical Perspective on Fermentation Biochemistry and Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Early Fermented Beverages

III. Health Value of Fermented Beverages

IV. Early Chemistry of Fermentation

V. Yeast: A Living Organism

VI. Discovery of Zymase

VII. Chemistry of Yeast-Juice Action

VIII. Yeast: Its Nutritional Aspects


Editorial Comment

6 Biochemistry of Fermentation

I. Introduction

II. The Alcoholic Fermentation: A Look into the Future

III. Glycerol Fermentation

IV. The Citric Acid Fermentation


7 Nutrient Synthesis by Yeast

I. Introduction

II. Production of Nutrients by Yeast

III. Conclusions


8 The Biochemical Processes Involved in Wine Fermentation and Aging

I. Introduction

II. Products

III. By-Products of Fermentation

IV. Indirect By-Products

V. Higher Alcohols

VI. Heat

VII. By-Products of Processing

VIII. The Malo-Lactic Fermentation

IX. Research Needs


9 The Brewing of Beer

I. Brewing Constituents

II. Steps in Brewing

III. Terminology

Editorial Comment

III Consumption of Beer and Wine

10 National Patterns of Consumption and Production of Beer

I. Introduction

II. History of Beer

III. Production Trends

IV. Consumption Trends

V. World Production and Consumption

VI. Conclusions


Supplementary Reading

11 Production and Consumption of Wine: Facts, Opinions, Tendencies

I. Introduction

II. Production and Distribution

III. Consumption

IV. Conclusions


12 The Wine Industry and the Changing Attitudes of Americans: An Overview

I. In the Beginning

II. Prohibition Attitudes

III. Recovery following Repeal

IV. The Present

V. The American Wine Consumer


IV Metabolism and the Therapeutic Use of Alcoholic Beverages

13 Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Ethanol including Effects on Water Balance and Nutritional Status

I. Introduction

II. Absorption of Ethanol

III. Distribution of Ethanol in the Body

IV. Metabolism of Ethanol

V. Excretion of Ethanol

VI. Endogenous Biosynthesis of Ethanol in Animals

VII. Effect of Ethanol Intake on Fluid Balance

VIII. Effect of Ethanol Intake on Nutritional Status

IX. Research Needs

X. Summary


14 The Energy Value of Alcohol

I. Introduction

II. Experiments of Atwater and Benedict

III. Utilization of Alcohol by Normal Man

IV. Utilization of Alcohol by Alcoholics


15 Role of Alcoholic Beverages in Gerontology

I. Introduction

II. Alcohol Abuse and Gerontology

III. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

IV. Results of Carefully Controlled Alcoholic Beverage Consumption Studies among Institutionalized Elderly

V. Discussion

VI. Research Needs

VII. Conclusion


Editorial Comment

16 Medications, Drugs, and Alcohol

I. Absorption Effects

II. Congeners

III. Metabolism

IV. Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System

V. Disulfiram (Antabuse)

VI. Interaction of Alcohol with Other Psychoactive Drugs

VII. Depressants

VIII. Conclusions


Editorial Comment

17 Incorporating Alcoholic Beverages into Therapeutic Diets: Some Potentialities and problems

I. Some Problems

II. Should Alcohol Be Allowed in the Diets of Fat People?

III. Does Alcohol Stimulate Weight Gain in the Undernourished?


18 Alcohol and Ketogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

III. Ethanol and Ketogenesis


Editorial Comment Concerning Alcohol Use in Diabetes

V Effects of Misuse and Excess

19 Effects of Alcohol on Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Function in Alcoholics

I. Introduction

II. Absorption and Metabolism of Ethanol by the Gastrointestinal Tract

III. Alcohol and the Stomach

IV. Alcoholism and the Small Intestine

V. Alcoholism and the Pancreas

VI. Summary of Research Needs


20 Liver Abnormalities in Alcoholism: Alcohol Consumption and Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Alcohol Consumption and Beverage Choice

III. Malnutrition and Liver Disease

IV. Summary of Research Needs


Editorial Comment

21 Effects of Alcohol on the Cardiovascular System

I. Introduction and Historical Review

II. Effects of Alcohol on Cardiovascular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Structure

III. Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease

IV. Summary and Research Needs


22 Effects of Alcohol on the Nervous System

I. General Considerations

II. Disorders Associated with High Blood Alcohol Levels

III. Disorders Associated with Zero or Diminishing Blood Alcohol Levels

IV. Neurological Disorders of Nutritional Cause Associated with Chronic Alcoholism

V. Neurological Disorders of Undetermined Cause Associated with Chronic Alcoholism


23 Alcoholism: How do you get it?

I. Common Concepts in Etiology of Alcoholism

II. Is Alcoholism Associated with Underlying Psychopathology?

III. Role of the Pleasurable Experience from Alcohol

IV. Habituation, Dependence, Problems

V. Tolerance and Need

VI. Is Everyone Vulnerable?


Editorial Comment

24 Natural History of Alcohol Dependence

I. Introduction

II. Procedures

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Research Needs

VI. Summary

Appendix I: Social and Drinking History

Appendix II: Neurological Rating Form


25 Nutritional Status of Alcoholics Before and After Admission to an Alcoholism Treatment Unit

I. Introduction: Skid Row Alcoholic versus the More Common Alcoholic

II. The Present Study

III. Methods for Nutritional Data

IV. Results

V. Conclusions


Editorial Comment

26 Thiamine Status of Australian Alcoholics

I. Introduction

II. Clinical Studies

III. Biochemical Studies

IV. Etiology of Thiamine Deficiency in Alcoholism

V. Thiamine Status of the Australian Population

VI. Summary


Editorial Comment

27 Cancer and Alcoholic Beverages

I. Introduction

II. Alcohol and Carcinogenesis

III. Human Cancer in Relation to Alcohol Consumption: The Epidemiological Evidence

IV. Summary


Editorial Comment

28 Alcohol in pregnancy and Its Effects on Offspring

I. Introduction

II. Historical Review

III. Modern Studies

IV. Discussion

V. Research Needs


Editorial Comment

VI An Experimental Model

29 Miniature Swine as a Model for the Study of Human Alcoholism: The Withdrawal Syndrome

I. Introduction

II. Experiments on Physical Dependence

III. Discussion

IV. Summary and Conclusions


VII Socioeconomic Considerations

30 The Medical Costs of Excessive Use of Alcohol

I. Cirrhosis of the Liver

II. Accidents

III. Suicide, Homicide, and Assault

IV. Cancer

V. Mental Disorders

VI. Other Disorders

VII. Conclusions


Editorial Comment

31 Socioeconomic Considerations and Cultural Attitudes: An Analysis of the International

I. Introduction

II. The Supply-Demand-Stress Model

III. Indicators of Key Economic, Sociocultural, and Stress Variables

IV. Overview and Conceptual Organization of the Effects of Government Policies

V. Discussion


Editorial Comment

Appendix: Compounds Identified in Whiskey, Wine, and Beer



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© Academic Press 1979
1st January 1979
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Clifford Gastineau

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