Feature Extraction and Image Processing for Computer Vision

Feature Extraction and Image Processing for Computer Vision

4th Edition - November 17, 2019

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  • Authors: Mark Nixon, Alberto Aguado
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128149775
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128149768

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Feature Extraction for Image Processing and Computer Vision is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in MATLAB and Python. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, "The main strength of the proposed book is the link between theory and exemplar code of the algorithms." Essential background theory is carefully explained. This text gives students and researchers in image processing and computer vision a complete introduction to classic and state-of-the art methods in feature extraction together with practical guidance on their implementation.

Key Features

  • The only text to concentrate on feature extraction with working implementation and worked through mathematical derivations and algorithmic methods
  • A thorough overview of available feature extraction methods including essential background theory, shape methods, texture and deep learning
  • Up to date coverage of interest point detection, feature extraction and description and image representation (including frequency domain and colour)
  • Good balance between providing a mathematical background and practical implementation
  • Detailed and explanatory of algorithms in MATLAB and Python


Researchers and graduate students in computer vision, image and video processing

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 Human and computer vision

    1.3 The human vision system

    1.3.1 The eye

    1.3.2 The neural system

    1.3.3 Processing

    1.4 Computer vision systems

    1.4.1 Cameras

    1.4.2 Computer interfaces

    1.5 Processing images

    1.5.1 Processing

    1.5.2 Hello Python, hello images!

    1.5.3 Mathematical tools

    1.5.4 Hello Matlab

    1.6 Associated literature

    1.6.1 Journals, magazines and conferences

    1.6.2 Textbooks

    1.6.3 The web

    1.7 Conclusions


    2. Images, sampling and frequency domain processing

    2.1 Overview

    2.2 Image formation

    2.3 The Fourier Transform

    2.4 The sampling criterion

    2.5 The discrete Fourier Transform

    2.5.1 One-dimensional transform

    2.5.2 Two-dimensional transform

    2.6 Properties of the Fourier Transform

    2.6.1 Shift invariance

    2.6.2 Rotation

    2.6.3 Frequency scaling

    2.6.4 Superposition (linearity)

    2.6.5 The importance of phase

    2.7 Transforms other than Fourier

    2.7.1 Discrete cosine transform

    2.7.2 Discrete Hartley Transform

    2.7.3 Introductory wavelets Gabor Wavelet Haar Wavelet

    2.7.4 Other transforms

    2.8 Applications using frequency domain properties

    2.9 Further reading


    3. Image processing

    3.1 Overview

    3.2 Histograms

    3.3 Point operators

    3.3.1 Basic point operations

    3.3.2 Histogram normalisation

    3.3.3 Histogram equalisation

    3.3.4 Thresholding

    3.4 Group operations

    3.4.1 Template convolution

    3.4.2 Averaging operator

    3.4.3 On different template size

    3.4.4 Template convolution via the Fourier transform

    3.4.5 Gaussian averaging operator

    3.4.6 More on averaging

    3.5 Other image processing operators

    3.5.1 Median filter

    3.5.2 Mode filter

    3.5.3 Nonlocal means

    3.5.4 Bilateral filtering

    3.5.5 Anisotropic diffusion

    3.5.6 Comparison of smoothing operators

    3.5.7 Force field transform

    3.5.8 Image ray transform

    3.6 Mathematical morphology

    3.6.1 Morphological operators

    3.6.2 Grey level morphology

    3.6.3 Grey level erosion and dilation

    3.6.4 Minkowski operators

    3.7 Further reading


    4. Low-level feature extraction (including edge detection)

    4.1 Overview

    4.2 Edge detection

    4.2.1 First-order edge detection operators Basic operators Analysis of the basic operators Prewitt edge detection operator Sobel edge detection operator The Canny edge detector

    4.2.2 Second-order edge detection operators Motivation Basic operators: The Laplacian The Marr–Hildreth operator

    4.2.3 Other edge detection operators

    4.2.4 Comparison of edge detection operators

    4.2.5 Further reading on edge detection

    4.3 Phase congruency

    4.4 Localised feature extraction

    4.4.1 Detecting image curvature (corner extraction) Definition of curvature Computing differences in edge direction Measuring curvature by changes in intensity (differentiation) Moravec and Harris detectors Further reading on curvature

    4.4.2 Feature point detection; region/patch analysis Scale invariant feature transform Speeded up robust features FAST, ORB, FREAK, LOCKY and other keypoint detectors Other techniques and performance issues

    4.4.3 Saliency Basic saliency Context aware saliency Other saliency operators

    4.5 Describing image motion

    4.5.1 Area-based approach

    4.5.2 Differential approach

    4.5.3 Recent developments: deep flow, epic flow and extensions

    4.5.4 Analysis of optical flow

    4.6 Further reading


    5. High-level feature extraction: fixed shape matching

    5.1 Overview

    5.2 Thresholding and subtraction

    5.3 Template matching

    5.3.1 Definition

    5.3.2 Fourier transform implementation

    5.3.3 Discussion of template matching

    5.4 Feature extraction by low-level features

    5.4.1 Appearance-based approaches Object detection by templates Object detection by combinations of parts

    5.4.2 Distribution-based descriptors Description by interest points (SIFT, SURF, BRIEF) Characterising object appearance and shape

    5.5 Hough transform

    5.5.1 Overview

    5.5.2 Lines

    5.5.3 HT for circles

    5.5.4 HT for ellipses

    5.5.5 Parameter space decomposition Parameter space reduction for lines Parameter space reduction for circles Parameter space reduction for ellipses

    5.5.6 Generalised Hough transform Formal definition of the GHT Polar definition The GHT technique Invariant GHT

    5.5.7 Other extensions to the HT

    5.6 Further reading


    6. High-level feature extraction: deformable shape analysis

    6.1 Overview

    6.2 Deformable shape analysis

    6.2.1 Deformable templates

    6.2.2 Parts-based shape analysis

    6.3 Active contours (snakes)

    6.3.1 Basics

    6.3.2 The Greedy Algorithm for snakes

    6.3.3 Complete (Kass) Snake implementation

    6.3.4 Other Snake approaches

    6.3.5 Further Snake developments

    6.3.6 Geometric active contours (Level Set-Based Approaches)

    6.4 Shape Skeletonisation

    6.4.1 Distance transforms

    6.4.2 Symmetry

    6.5 Flexible shape models – active shape and active appearance

    6.6 Further reading


    7. Object description

    7.1 Overview and invariance requirements

    7.2 Boundary descriptions

    7.2.1 Boundary and region

    7.2.2 Chain codes

    7.2.3 Fourier descriptors Basis of Fourier descriptors Fourier expansion Shift invariance Discrete computation Cumulative angular function Elliptic Fourier descriptors Invariance

    7.3 Region descriptors

    7.3.1 Basic region descriptors

    7.3.2 Moments Definition and properties Geometric moments Geometric complex moments and centralised moments Rotation and scale invariant moments Zernike moments Tchebichef moments Krawtchouk moments Other moments

    7.4 Further reading


    8. Region-based analysis

    8.1 Overview

    8.2 Region-based analysis

    8.2.1 Watershed transform

    8.2.2 Maximally stable extremal regions

    8.2.3 Superpixels Basic techniques and normalised cuts Simple linear iterative clustering

    8.3 Texture description and analysis

    8.3.1 What is texture?

    8.3.2 Performance requirements

    8.3.3 Structural approaches

    8.3.4 Statistical approaches Co-occurrence matrix Learning-based approaches

    8.3.5 Combination approaches

    8.3.6 Local binary patterns

    8.3.7 Other approaches

    8.3.8 Segmentation by texture

    8.4 Further reading


    9. Moving object detection and description

    9.1 Overview

    9.2 Moving object detection

    9.2.1 Basic approaches Detection by subtracting the background Improving quality by morphology

    9.2.2 Modelling and adapting to the (static) background

    9.2.3 Background segmentation by thresholding

    9.2.4 Problems and advances

    9.3 Tracking moving features

    9.3.1 Tracking moving objects

    9.3.2 Tracking by local search

    9.3.3 Problems in tracking

    9.3.4 Approaches to tracking

    9.3.5 MeanShift and Camshift Kernel-based density estimation MeanShift tracking 456 Camshift technique 461

    9.3.6 Other approaches 465

    9.4 Moving feature extraction and description 468

    9.4.1 Moving (biological) shape analysis 468

    9.4.2 Space–time interest points 470

    9.4.3 Detecting moving shapes by shape matching in

    image sequences 470

    9.4.4 Moving shape description 474

    9.5 Further reading 477

    References 478

    Contents xv

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    10. Camera geometry fundamentals 483

    10.1 Overview 483

    10.2 Projective space 483

    10.2.1 Homogeneous co-ordinates and projective

    geometry 484

    10.2.2 Representation of a line, duality and ideal points 485

    10.2.3 Transformations in the projective space 487

    10.2.4 Computing a planar homography 490

    10.3 The perspective camera 493

    10.3.1 Perspective camera model 494

    10.3.2 Parameters of the perspective camera model 498

    10.3.3 Computing a projection from an image 498

    10.4 Affine camera

    10.4.1 Affine camera model

    10.4.2 Affine camera model and the perspective projection

    10.4.3 Parameters of the affine camera model

    10.5 Weak perspective model

    10.6 Discussion

    10.7 Further reading


    11. Colour images

    11.1 Overview

    11.2 Colour image theory

    11.2.1 Colour images

    11.2.2 Tristimulus theory

    11.2.3 The colourimetric equation

    11.2.4 Luminosity function

    11.3 Perception-based colour models: CIE RGB and CIE XYZ

    11.3.1 CIE RGB colour model: Wright–Guild data

    11.3.2 CIE RGB colour matching functions

    11.3.3 CIE RGB chromaticity diagram and chromaticity co-ordinates

    11.3.4 CIE XYZ colour model

    11.3.5 CIE XYZ colour matching functions

    11.3.6 XYZ chromaticity diagram

    11.3.7 Uniform colour spaces: CIE LUV and CIE LAB

    11.4 Additive and subtractive colour models

    11.4.1 RGB and CMY

    11.4.2 Transformation between RGB models

    11.4.3 Transformation between RGB and CMY models

    11.5 Luminance and chrominance colour models

    11.5.1 YUV, YIQ and YCbCr models

    11.5.2 Luminance and gamma correction

    11.5.3 Chrominance

    11.5.4 Transformations between YUV, YIQ and RGB colour models

    11.5.5 Colour model for component video: YPbPr

    11.5.6 Colour model for digital video: YCbCr

    11.6 Additive perceptual colour models

    11.6.1 The HSV and HLS colour models

    11.6.2 The hexagonal model: HSV

    11.6.3 The triangular model: HLS

    11.6.4 Transformation between HLS and RGB

    11.7 More colour models


    12. Distance, classification and learning

    12.1 Overview

    12.2 Basis of classification and learning

    12.3 Distance and classification

    12.3.1 Distance measures Manhattan and Euclidean Ln norms Mahalanobis, Bhattacharrya and Matusita Histogram intersection, Chi2 (c2) and the Earth Mover’s distance

    12.3.2 The k-nearest neighbour for classification

    12.4 Neural networks and Support Vector Machines

    12.5 Deep learning

    12.5.1 Basis of deep learning

    12.5.2 Major deep learning architectures

    12.5.3 Deep learning for feature extraction

    12.5.4 Deep learning performance evaluation

    12.6 Further reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 650
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2019
  • Published: November 17, 2019
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128149775
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128149768

About the Authors

Mark Nixon

Mark Nixon is the Professor in Computer Vision at the University of Southampton UK. His research interests are in image processing and computer vision. His team develops new techniques for static and moving shape extraction which have found application in biometrics and in medical image analysis. His team were early workers in automatic face recognition, later came to pioneer gait recognition and more recently joined the pioneers of ear biometrics. With Tieniu Tan and Rama Chellappa, their book Human ID based on Gait is part of the Springer Series on Biometrics and was published in 2005. He has chaired/ program chaired many conferences (BMVC 98, AVBPA 03, IEEE Face and Gesture FG06, ICPR 04, ICB 09, IEEE BTAS 2010) and given many invited talks. Dr. Nixon is a Fellow IET and a Fellow IAPR.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, UK

Alberto Aguado

Alberto Aguado is a principal algorithm researcher and developer at Foundry London were he works developing Image Processing, Computer Vision and rendering technologies for video production. Previously, he was head of research on animation technologies at Natural Motion. He developed image processing technologies for sport tracking at Sportradar. He worked as developer for Electronic Arts and for Black Rock Disney Game Studios. He gained academic experience as a Lecturer in the Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing in the University of Surrey. He pursued a postdoctoral fellowship in Computer Vision at INRIA Rhône-Alpes (Marie Curie fellowship) and he received his PhD in Computer Vision /Image Processing from the University of Southampton.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Programmer, Sportradar, Brighton, UK

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