Fast Breeder Reactors - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080232218, 9781483140964

Fast Breeder Reactors

1st Edition

An Engineering Introduction

Authors: A. M. Judd
eBook ISBN: 9781483140964
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 172
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Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution, breeding, control rods, shielding, and reactivity coefficients. The chemistry of fast reactor fuels is also considered, along with the engineering of the core of a power-producing fast reactor and of coolant circuits and steam plants. The final chapter examines aspects of reactor safety that are peculiar to sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactors and describes the inherent features of such a reactor that make for safety, followed by an analysis of risks and some of the protective systems that can be used.
This monograph will be of interest to nuclear scientists, physicists, and engineers.

Table of Contents


Chain Reactions


Energy Resources

Early Developments

The Era of Metal Fuel

The Importance of Burnup

The Present Day

Chapter 1 Physics

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Physics and Design

1.1.2 Typical Reactors

1.1.3 Comparison with Thermal Reactors

1.2 Calculation Methods

1.2.1 Transport Theory and Diffusion Theory

1.2.2 Multigroup Diffusion Theory

1.2.3 Fundamental Mode Calculations

1.2.4 Resonances

1.2.5 Perturbation Theory

1.2.6 Computations

1.2.7 Accuracy and Experimental Checks

1.3 Flux Distribution

1.3.1 Spectrum

1.3.2 Effects of Changes in Design

1.3.3 Power Distribution and Enrichment Zones

1.4 Breeding

1.4.1 Breeding Processes

1.4.2 Breeding Ratio

1.4.3 Breeding Gain

1.4.4 Internal Breeding

1.4.5 Fuel Composition

1.5 Control Rods

1.5.1 Materials

1.5.2 Reactivity Worth

1.6 Reactivity Coefficients

1.6.1 Effects of Temperature

1.6.2 Structure Temperatures

1.6.3 Bowing

1.6.4 Coolant Density

1.6.5 Doppler Coefficient

1.6.6 Power and Temperature Coefficients

1.6.7 Dependence of Doppler and Sodium Coefficients on Design

1.7 Shielding

1.7.1 Calculation Methods

1.7.2 Shield Design

Chapter 2 Fuel

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Fuel Temperatures

2.2.1 Temperature Distribution

2.2.2 Thermal Conductivity

2.2.3 Conductance between Fuel and Cladding

2.3 Fuel Design and Manufacture

2.3.1 Fuel Swelling

2.3.2 Manufacturing Processes

2.3.3 Stoichiometry and Oxygen Potential

2.3.4 Fission-Product Gas Release

2.3.5 Sealed or Vented Fuel

2.3.6 Fuel Element Design

2.3.7 Reprocessing and Design

2.3.8 Carbide Fuel

2.4 Behavior during Irradiation

2.4.1 Recrystallization

2.4.2 Cracking

2.4.3 Thermal and Irradiation Creep

2.4.4 Interaction between Fuel and Cladding

2.4.5 Plutonium and Oxygen Migration

2.4.6 Fission-Product Behavior

2.4.7 Corrosion of the Cladding

Chapter 3 Engineering

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Core Heat Transfer

3.2.1 Fuel Element Rating

3.2.2 Distribution of Power Density

3.2.3 Coolant Flow

3.2.4 Heat Transfer to the Coolant

3.2.5 Coolant and Cladding Temperature

3.2.6 "Hot Spots"

3.3 Structural Materials

3.3.1 Effects of Irradiation

3.3.2 Density Reduction

3.3.3 Irradiation Creep

3.3.4 Irradiation Embrittlement and Hardening

3.3.5 Corrosion and Wear

3.3.6 Carbon Transport

3.3.7 Thermal Stresses

3.3.8 Choice of Structural Materials

3.4 Core Structure

3.4.1 Fuel Subassemblies

3.4.2 Subassembly Bowing and Restraint

3.4.3 Arrangement of the Core and Breeder

3.5 Dynamics and Instrumentation

3.5.1 Reactor Kinetics

3.5.1 Reactivity Feedback

3.5.2 Instrumentation

Chapter 4 Coolant Circuits and Steam Plant

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Primary Circuit

4.2.1 Pool or Loop Layout

4.2.2 Pumps

4.2.3 The Reactor Vessel

4.2.4 Intermediate Heat Exchangers

4.2.5 Oxygen Control

4.2.6 Hydrogen Behavior

4.2.7 Impurity Monitoring

4.3 Steam Plant

4.3.1 Steam Generator Design

4.3.2 Steam Generator Heat Transfer

4.3.3 "Once-Through" Steam Generators

4.3.4 Steam Generator Leaks

4.3.5 Leak Detection

4.3.6 Steam Cycle Design

4.3.7 Plant Efficiency

4.4 Control Systems

4.4.1 Normal Operation

4.4.2 Abnormal Conditions

Chapter 5 Safety

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Inherent Safety Features

5.2.1 Containment Boundaries

5.2.2 Coolant Pressure

5.2.3 The Negative Power Coefficient of Reactivity

5.2.4 Disadvantages

5.3 Protective Systems

5.3.1 Automatic Shutdown

5.3.2 Whole-Core Instrumentation

5.3.3 Subassembly Instrumentation: Failed Fuel

5.3.4 Subassembly Instrumentation: Coolant Boiling

5.3.5 Post-Accident Heat Removal

5.4 Hypothetical Accidents

5.4.1 Accident Sequences

5.4.2 Subassembly Accidents

5.4.3 Whole-Core Accidents

5.4.4 Prompt-Critical Excursions

5.5 Risks

5.5.1 Accident Consequences

5.5.2 Accident Probabilities

5.5.3 Safety Criteria




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A. M. Judd

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