Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 2-Volume Set

Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 2-Volume Set

Diseases of the Fetus and Infant

11th Edition - April 11, 2019

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  • Authors: Richard Martin, Avroy Fanaroff, Michele Walsh
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323567114
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323567091

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Description

Trusted by physicians and advanced practice providers through ten standard-setting editions, Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, 11th Edition, remains the reference of choice for expert, multidisciplinary guidance on the management and evidence-based treatment of problems in the mother, fetus, and neonate. An expanded team of international authors, led by Drs. Richard J. Martin, Avroy A. Fanaroff, and Michele C. Walsh of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, brings you up to date with advances in the control of nosocomial infections in preterm infants, genetic disorders and birth defects, the fetal origins of adult disease, the late preterm infants, and much more – all designed to help you improve the quality of life and long-term outcomes of your patients.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Volume 1
  • Part 1 The Field of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • 1 Growth of Neonatal Perinatal Medicine—A Historical Perspective
  • Perinatal Pioneers
  • The High-Risk Fetus and Perinatal Obstetrics
  • Midwives and Perinatal Care
  • Neonatal Resuscitation: Tales of Heroism and Desperation
  • Apgar and the Language of Asphyxia
  • Foundling Asylums and Infant Care
  • Saving Infants to Man the Army
  • An Ingenious Contrivance, the Couveuse, and Premature Baby Stations
  • Incubators, Baby Shows, and Origins of Neonatal Intensive Care Units
  • Supportive Care and Oxygen Therapy
  • Ventilatory Care: “Extended Resuscitation”
  • Supportive Care: Intravenous Fluid and Blood Transfusions
  • Tools and Supplies for Neonatal Intensive Care Units
  • Pediatric Surgery: Not for Rabbits Anymore
  • Global Neonatal Care
  • Medical Errors and “Patient Safety” as a New Discipline
  • Controlled Clinical Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Research Networks
  • Future of Neonatal Research, Education, and Databases in the Internet Era
  • Some Famous High-Risk Infants
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 2 Epidemiology for Neonatologists
  • Introduction
  • Common Epidemiologic Concepts
  • Health Statistics and Data Sources
  • Birth Data
  • Fetal Deaths
  • Infant Deaths
  • Pregnancy-Related Deaths
  • Maternal Morbidity
  • Neonatal Morbidity
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 3 Medical Ethics in Neonatal Care
  • Principles in Medical Ethics
  • Autonomy
  • Beneficence
  • Nonmaleficence
  • Justice
  • Key Terms and Concepts
  • Clinical Applications in Specific Moral Problems
  • Collaborative, Procedural Framework for End-of-Life Decision Making
  • Specific Issues in End-of-Life Care
  • Palliative Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • Conflict Resolution When Consensus Cannot Be Reached
  • Ethics of Research in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • Ethical Responsibilities of Neonatal Physicians
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 4 Legal Issues in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Disclaimer
  • General Legal Principles
  • Malpractice
  • Live Birth
  • Handicapped Newborns
  • Providing Care Against Parents’ Wishes
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 5 Evaluating and Improving the Quality and Safety of Neonatal Intensive Care
  • The Case for Improvement
  • Brief History of Industrial Quality Improvement
  • Definition and Conceptual Frameworks for Quality
  • Data and Methods for Quality Improvement
  • Quality and Safety Applied
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 6 Simulation and Debriefing in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Introduction
  • Simulation-Based Training in High-Risk Industries
  • Simulation-Based Training in Health Care
  • Simulation-Based Training in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Debriefing Simulated Events
  • Debriefing Actual Clinical Events
  • Simulation-Based Assessment
  • Simulation-Based Research
  • Simulation as the Basis of Clinical Care
  • The Future of Simulation in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 7 Practicing Evidence-Based Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Asking a Focused Clinical Question
  • Finding Evidence
  • Efficient Strategies for Searching for Evidence
  • Critically Appraising Evidence for Its Validity
  • Extracting the Data and Expressing the Effect of Treatment
  • Applying the Results to Patient Care
  • Promoting Evidence-Based Clinical Practice
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 8 Perinatal and Neonatal Care in Developing Countries
  • Global Initiatives to Reduce Infant Mortality Rate and Neonatal Mortality Rate
  • Global Burden of Maternal and Neonatal Deaths
  • Causes of Global Maternal and Neonatal Mortality
  • Burden of Neonatal Sepsis
  • Evidence-Based Interventions to Reduce Maternal Mortality Rates, Neonatal Mortality Rates, and Infant Mortality Rates
  • The Impact of Progress
  • Strategies to Improve Global Neonatal and Perinatal Outcome
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 9 Social and Economic Contributors to Neonatal Outcome in the United States
  • Epidemiology of Health Disparities in Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Interventions to Reduce Neonatal Health Outcome Disparities
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 2 The Fetus
  • 10 Genetic Aspects of Perinatal Disease and Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Principles of Inheritance
  • Teratogens
  • Congenital Anomalies and Ultrasonography
  • Screening Modalities
  • Future Directions for Non-Invasive Screening and Diagnosis
  • Screening for Multifactorial Disorders
  • Diagnostic Modalities
  • Technical Advances in Molecular Cytogenetics
  • Future Directions for Prenatal Diagnostic Testing
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
  • Genetic Evaluation and Counseling
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 11 Perinatal Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound Equipment
  • Fetal Imaging Techniques
  • Bioeffects and Safety
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Applications of Ultrasound Studies
  • Pregnancy Evaluation
  • Doppler Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound-Guided Procedures
  • Fetal Well-Being Assessment
  • Fetal Anomalies
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 12 Estimation of Fetal Well-Being
  • Introduction
  • Antepartum Fetal Surveillance
  • Evaluation of the Intrapartum Fetus
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 13 Surgical Treatment of the Fetus
  • Summary
  • Fetal Access
  • Anesthetic Considerations
  • Anomalies Amenable to Fetal Surgery
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 14 Adverse Exposures to the Fetus and Neonate
  • Exposures Not Concurrent With Pregnancy
  • Maternal Exposures Concurrent With Pregnancy
  • Pathways of Fetal Exposure
  • Fetal Pharmacokinetics
  • Specific Exposures
  • Conclusions
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 15 Intrauterine Growth Restriction
  • Summary
  • Definitions and Terminology
  • The Health Burden of IUGR
  • Classification of IUGR
  • Etiology of IUGR
  • Pathophysiology
  • Antenatal Screening and Prenatal Management
  • Prevention
  • Postnatal Diagnosis of IUGR
  • Postnatal Management
  • Long-Term Consequences of IUGR
  • Conclusions
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 16 Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease
  • Fetal Origins of Adult Disease Concept
  • Postnatal Growth and Nutrition
  • Mismatch Concept
  • Placental Abnormalities and Association With Adult Disease
  • Gestational Diabetes and Long-Term Metabolic Effects on Offspring
  • Toxins, Endocrine Disrupters, and Micronutrient Metabolism (See Also Chapter 14)
  • Epigenetics
  • Translation to Neonatology
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 3 Pregnancy Disorders and Their Impact on the Fetus
  • 17 Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
  • Classification of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
  • Epidemiology of Preeclampsia
  • Clinical Presentation of Preeclampsia
  • Other Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
  • Prediction
  • Prevention
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 18 Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes Mellitus
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 19 Obstetric Management of Prematurity
  • Prematurity
  • Pathogenesis
  • Risk Factors
  • Predicting Preterm Labor
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 20 Fetal Effects of Autoimmune Disease
  • Placental Transfer: General Remarks
  • Fetal Thrombocytopenia
  • Fetal-Neonatal Consequences of Maternal Antinuclear Antibodies
  • Fetal-Neonatal Consequences of Maternal Antiphospholipid Antibodies
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Herpes Gestationis
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 21 Obstetric Management of Multiple Gestation and Birth
  • Biology
  • Maternal Consequences
  • Fetal and Neonatal Consequences
  • Delivery Considerations
  • Outcome
  • Summary: Prevention Versus Cure
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 22 Post-Term Pregnancy
  • Risks of Post-Term Pregnancy
  • Assessment of Fetal Well-Being
  • Should Labor Be Induced Before 42 Weeks?
  • How Should Labor Be Induced?
  • Post-Term Twin Pregnancies
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 23 Immune and Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis
  • Immune Hydrops Fetalis
  • Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 24 Amniotic Fluid Volume
  • Amniotic Fluid Dynamics
  • Measurement of Amniotic Fluid Volume
  • Normal Volume and the Singleton Pregnancy
  • Twins and Amniotic Fluid
  • Abnormalities of Amniotic Fluid Volume and Their Management
  • Management of Fluid Abnormalities in Multifetal Pregnancies
  • The Future
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 25 Perinatal Infections and Chorioamnionitis
  • Definitions and Epidemiology
  • Microbiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • Areas for Future Investigation
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 26 Placental Pathology
  • Optimal Use of Pathology Service
  • Structure, Function, and Pathologic Reaction Patterns
  • Clinical Correlation
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 4 The Delivery Room
  • 27 Anesthesia for Labor and Delivery
  • Labor Pain Characteristics and Challenges
  • Techniques That Modify Pain
  • Obstetric Nerve Blocks
  • Neuraxial Blocks
  • Delivery Modes and Anesthetic Techniques
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 28 Physical Examination of the Newborn
  • Routine Examination
  • Detailed Neurologic Assessment
  • Interpretation of the Neurologic Examination
  • Limitations of the Routine Examination
  • Health Promotion
  • Discharge
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 29 Birth Injuries
  • Injuries to Soft Tissues
  • Injuries to the Head
  • Injuries to the Neck, Shoulder Girdle, and Chest
  • Injuries to the Spine and Spinal Cord
  • Injuries to Intra-Abdominal Organs
  • Injuries to the Extremities
  • Trauma to the Genitalia
  • Injuries Related to Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring
  • Injuries Related to Trauma During Pregnancy
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 30 Congenital Anomalies
  • General Clinical Approach
  • Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Evaluation
  • Diagnostic Testing and Indications
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Educational Resources and Support Organizations
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 5 Resuscitation of the Newborn
  • 31 Overview and Initial Management of Delivery Room Resuscitation
  • Fetus
  • Transition at Birth
  • Causes of Depression and Asphyxia
  • Response to Asphyxia
  • Preparation for Resuscitation
  • Apgar Score
  • Umbilical Cord Blood Gases
  • Elements of a Resuscitation
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 32 Role of Positive Pressure Ventilation in Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Normal Transition and Initial Spontaneous Breathing
  • Delayed Transition and Need for Respiratory Support
  • Basics of Positive Pressure Support
  • Application of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Support
  • Applying Positive Pressure Support
  • The First Breaths
  • Peak Inflation Pressures and Tidal Volumes
  • Positive End Expiratory Pressure
  • Inflation Rate and Duration
  • Gas Flow
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 33 Oxygen Therapy in Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Use of Oxygen in Perinatal Asphyxia and Resuscitation
  • Room Air versus Pure Oxygen for Resuscitation of the Newborn
  • Oxygen Supplementation in the Delivery Room in Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates
  • Room Air versus 100% Oxygen—or Something Else
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 34 Chest Compression, Medications, and Special Problems in Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Importance of Effective Ventilation
  • Chest Compressions
  • Medications
  • When to Discontinue Resuscitation Efforts
  • Immediate Care After Establishing Adequate Ventilation and Circulation
  • Special Problems During Resuscitation
  • Screening for Congenital Defects
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 6 The Physical Environment in Neonatal Care
  • 35 Thermal Environment of the Intensive Care Nursery
  • Heat Exchange Physics
  • Thermal Physiology
  • Temperature Monitoring
  • Thermal Aspects of the Care Environment
  • Recommendations for Practice
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 36 Optimization of the NICU Environment
  • Neurobehavioral Maturation
  • Behavioral/Sleep States and NICU Environment
  • Sensory Functions and NICU Environment
  • Circadian Rhythm and NICU Environment
  • Sensory Functions and Pain
  • Muscle Tone, Movements, and Reflexes
  • Sucking and Swallowing
  • Environment Supporting Growth
  • Environment Protecting From Infections
  • Environment Supporting Parent–Infant Interaction
  • Neurobehavioral Assessment Tools
  • NICU Design
  • Health Care Team Perspectives
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 7 Provisions for Neonatal Care
  • 37 Biomedical Engineering Aspects of Neonatal Cardiorespiratory Monitoring
  • Hemodynamic Monitoring
  • Blood Gas Monitoring
  • Respiratory Monitoring
  • Future Directions
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 38 Diagnostic Imaging of the Neonate
  • Introduction
  • Radiography, Fluoroscopy, and Computed Tomography
  • Ultrasound
  • MRI
  • Scintigraphy
  • Chest
  • Heart
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Hepatobiliary Tract
  • Urinary Tract
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Brain
  • Spine
  • Skeletal
  • Future Directions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 39 Anesthesia in the Neonate
  • Developmental Challenges of Neonatal Anesthesia
  • Anesthesia, Neonatal Physiology, and Specific Concerns
  • Conduct of an Anesthetic
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 40 The Late Preterm Infant
  • Definition
  • Epidemiology and Trends
  • Etiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Outcomes
  • Hospitalizations and Rehospitalizations After Discharge
  • Long-Term Outcomes and Societal Costs
  • Management
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 41 Nutrient Requirements/Nutritional Support in Premature Neonate
  • Growth in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes
  • Nutrient Requirements
  • Provision of Nutritional Support
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 42 Support for the Family
  • Normal Mother–Infant Attachment
  • Formation of Mother–Infant Attachment
  • Attachment Challenges With Sick or Premature Infants
  • Parental Stress
  • Family Engagement
  • Parental Mental Health Issues
  • Discharge Planning
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 8 Developmental Pharmacology
  • 43 Principles of Drug Use in the Fetus and Neonate
  • Fetal Drug Disposition
  • Neonatal Drug Disposition
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 44 Principles of Drug Use During Lactation
  • Passage of Exogenous Compounds From Maternal Blood to Milk
  • Delivery of Compounds to and Disposition by the Infant
  • Conclusions Concerning Breastfeeding and Maternal Drug Therapy
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 45 Pharmacokinetics in Neonatal Medicine
  • Drug Disposition Explains Drug Exposure Over Time: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
  • Pharmacokinetic Models Describe Concentration of Drug Over Time
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 46 Infants of Substance-Using Mothers
  • Prenatal and Perinatal Considerations
  • Neonatal Considerations
  • Marijuana (Cannabinoids)
  • Opioids
  • Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamines
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 9 The Immune System
  • 47 Developmental Immunology
  • Overview of Hematopoiesis
  • Innate Immunity
  • Acquired Immunity
  • Passive Immunity
  • Evaluation of Host Defenses in Neonates
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 48 Postnatal Bacterial Infections
  • Neonatal Sepsis
  • Bacterial Infections by Organ System
  • Specific Pathogens
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 49 Fungal and Protozoal Infections of the Neonate
  • Definitions
  • Microbiology
  • Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
  • Prematurity
  • Incidence
  • Outcomes
  • Risk Factors
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Conclusions
  • Antifungal Prophylaxis Summary
  • Invasive Candida Infection Summary
  • Aspergillus, Mucormycosis, Malassezia, and Trichosporin Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  • Other Fungal Infections
  • Protozoal Infections
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 50 Viral Infections in the Neonate
  • Herpesvirus Family
  • Paramyxoviruses Family
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses
  • Hepatitis Viruses
  • Rotavirus
  • Parvovirus B19
  • Influenza A and B
  • Rubella Virus
  • Rhinovirus
  • Coronavirus: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
  • West Nile Virus
  • Adenovirus
  • Human Papillomavirus
  • Emerging Viruses
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 10 The Central Nervous System
  • 51 Normal and Abnormal Brain Development
  • Neural Induction and Neurulation
  • Neuronal Proliferation
  • Neuronal Migration and Cortical Lamination
  • Central Nervous System Organization
  • Brain Vascular Development
  • Abnormal Brain Development and Disorders
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 52 White Matter Damage and Encephalopathy of Prematurity
  • Neuropathology of White Matter Injury
  • Models of Encephalopathy of Prematurity: Implications for Pathogenesis
  • Neuroimaging of White Matter Injury
  • Impairment of Brain Growth and Long-Term Development
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 53 Intracranial Hemorrhage and Vascular Lesions in the Neonate
  • Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage–Intraventricular Hemorrhage
  • Cerebral Artery Infarction
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 54 Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy
  • Definitions
  • Pathophysiology
  • Perinatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Damage
  • Neuropathology
  • Assessment Tools
  • Neuroimaging
  • Chemical Biomarkers
  • Management
  • Resuscitation
  • Systemic Management
  • Brain-Oriented Management
  • Specific Neuroprotective Strategies
  • Prognostic Factors
  • Association Between Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy and Less Severe Neurodisability
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 55 Seizures in Neonates
  • Pathophysiology of Newborn Seizures—Unique Maturational Features Increasing the Likelihood of Seizures in the Newborn
  • Biochemical and Physiologic Consequences of Seizures in the Immature Brain—Implications for the Clinician
  • Classification of Seizures in the Newborn
  • Seizure Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Management
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 56 Hypotonia and Neuromuscular Disease in the Neonate
  • Diagnosis
  • Neonatal Neuromuscular Disorders
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophies
  • Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies
  • Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies
  • Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
  • Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
  • Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy
  • Other Muscular Dystrophies
  • Congenital Myopathies
  • Metabolic and Multisystem Disorders
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 57 Intracranial and Calvarial Disorders
  • Summary
  • Examination of the Head
  • The Neonate
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Hydranencephaly
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 58 Spinal Dysraphisms
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Embryology
  • Pathology
  • Prenatal Screening and Prevention
  • Cutaneous Stigmata
  • Imaging
  • Overall Management
  • Surgical Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 59 Hearing Loss in the Newborn Infant
  • Background
  • Normal Hearing and Hearing Loss
  • Tests for Hearing Loss
  • Early Intervention Services
  • Etiology of Hearing Loss
  • Risk Factors
  • Medical Workup for Hearing Loss and Care Coordination
  • Middle Ear Disease
  • Communication Options
  • Audiologic Devices
  • Continued Surveillance
  • Stress and Impact on the Family
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 60 Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of High-Risk Neonates
  • Medical Problems
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcome
  • Methodologic Considerations in Neurodevelopmental Outcome Studies
  • School-Age Outcome
  • Young Adult Outcomes
  • Children Born at the Threshold of Viability
  • Early Intervention
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 61 The Role of Neonatal Neuroimaging in Predicting Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Neonates
  • Cranial Ultrasound
  • Conventional (Qualitative) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Areas of the Brain and Findings of Interest
  • Future Developments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Volume 2
  • Part 11 The Respiratory System
  • 62 Lung Development and Maturation
  • A Brief History
  • Lung Structural Development
  • Fetal Lung Fluid
  • Pulmonary Hypoplasia
  • Other Disorders of Lung Development
  • Alveolar Macrophages
  • Surfactant Metabolism
  • Physiologic Effects of Surfactant in the Preterm Lung
  • Lung Maturation
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 63 Assessment of Neonatal Pulmonary Function
  • Clinical Observations
  • Cardiovascular Assessment
  • Respiratory Function
  • Clinical Applications
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 64 Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Neonate
  • Incidence
  • Pathophysiology
  • Heritability of Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Prevention: Pharmacologic Acceleration of Pulmonary Maturation
  • Clinical Features
  • Radiographic Findings
  • Treatment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 65 Assisted Ventilation of the Neonate and Its Complications
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Noninvasive Ventilation
  • Indications for Assisted Ventilation
  • General Principles of Assisted Ventilation
  • Classification of Mechanical Ventilators
  • Suggested Ventilatory Management Guidelines
  • Monitoring of Ventilated Infants
  • Complications of Assisted Ventilation
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 66 Neonatal Respiratory Disorders
  • Developmental Diseases
  • Acquired Neonatal Pulmonary Diseases
  • Rib Cage Abnormalities
  • Phrenic Nerve Injury
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 67 Neonatal Apnea and the Foundation of Respiratory Control
  • Fetal Breathing
  • Postnatal Development of Respiratory Control
  • Neonatal Apnea, Bradycardia, and Hypoxemia
  • Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (BRUE) (Formerly Known as Apparent Life-Threatening Events or ALTE)
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 68 Upper Airway Lesions in the Neonate
  • Nasal and Nasopharyngeal Lesions
  • Oral and Oropharyngeal Lesions
  • Laryngeal Lesions
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 69 Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in the Neonate
  • Epidemiology of BPD
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Prediction of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
  • Pulmonary Function
  • Prevention of BPD
  • Management of Established BPD
  • Infant Stimulation
  • Parental Support
  • Outcome
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 70 Therapy for Cardiorespiratory Failure in the Neonate
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • ECMO and Hypothermia Therapy
  • Nitric Oxide Therapy
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 12 The Cardiovascular System
  • 71 Cardiac Embryology
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Normal Heart Development
  • Scientific Basis of Cardiogenesis
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 72 Pulmonary Vascular Development
  • Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Development
  • Pulmonary Vascular Transition
  • Vasoactive Mediators of the Pulmonary Vascular Transition
  • Abnormalities of Pulmonary Vascular Development
  • Clinical Therapy of PPHN
  • Outcome and Follow-Up
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 73 Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective
  • Overview of Fetal Circulation and Cardiac Adaptation at Birth
  • Indications for Fetal Echocardiogram
  • Fetal Pathology
  • Parental Counseling after Fetal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Impact of Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Limitations of Fetal Echocardiogram
  • Fetal Therapies
  • Novel Approaches to Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 74 Patent Ductus Arteriosus
  • Pathogenesis
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Management
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 75 Congenital Defects of the Cardiovascular System
  • Summary
  • Cyanotic Heart Defects: Mixing-Dependent
  • Cyanotic Heart Defects: Restricted Pulmonary Blood Flow
  • Cyanotic Heart Defects: Complete Mixing
  • Cyanotic Heart Defects: Variable Physiology
  • Obstructive Heart Defects
  • Shunting Lesions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 76 Cardiovascular Problems of the Neonate
  • Cardiac Malposition and Abnormalities of Abdominal Situs
  • Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Myocardial Diseases: Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis
  • Pericardial Diseases
  • Cardiac Tumors
  • Vascular Rings and Slings
  • Neonatal Marfan Syndrome
  • The Premature Baby With Congenital Heart Disease
  • Palliative Care
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 77 Disorders of Cardiac Rhythm and Conduction in Newborns
  • Normal Sinus Rhythm and Sinus Node Dysfunction
  • Sinus Arrhythmia
  • Tachyarrhythmias
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias
  • Atrioventricular Conduction Disturbances
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 78 Neonatal Management of Congenital Heart Disease
  • Introduction
  • Cyanotic Congenital Heart Conditions
  • Acyanotic Congenital Heart Conditions
  • Miscellaneous Procedures
  • Medical Management
  • What the Future Holds
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 13 The Blood and Hematopoietic System
  • 79 Hematologic and Oncologic Problems in the Fetus and Neonate
  • Human Hematopoietic Development
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Red Blood Cell Disorders
  • White Blood Cells
  • The Hemostatic System
  • Neonatal Platelet Disorders
  • Neonatal Coagulation Disorders
  • Neonatal Thrombotic Disorders
  • Neoplasms in the Neonate
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 80 Blood Component Therapy for the Neonate
  • Special Considerations for Transfusion Therapy in the Neonate
  • Risks of Transfusion Therapy
  • Donor-Specific Units
  • Blood Products
  • Factor Concentrates
  • Special Topics in Neonatal Transfusion
  • Future Directions
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 14 The Gastrointestinal Tract
  • 81 Development of the Neonatal Gastrointestinal Tract
  • The Beginning
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Duodenum, Pancreas, and Biliary System
  • Small Intestine
  • Colon, Rectum, and Anus
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 82 Gastrointestinal Reflux and Motility in the Neonate
  • Definitions
  • Physiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 83 Disorders of Digestion in the Neonate
  • Disorders of Carbohydrate Absorption
  • Fat Malabsorption
  • Disorders of Protein Absorption
  • Disorders of Electrolyte Absorption
  • Disordered Villous Architecture
  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
  • Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome (Phenotypic or Syndromic Diarrhea)
  • Autoimmune Enteropathy
  • Infectious Enteropathy
  • Allergic Colitis or Eosinophilic Proctocolitis
  • Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome
  • Other Causes of Infantile Diarrhea
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 84 Selected Gastrointestinal Anomalies in the Neonate
  • Thoracic Anomalies
  • Esophageal Duplications
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
  • Abdominal Wall Defects
  • Gastric Volvulus
  • Microgastria
  • Gastric Perforation
  • Lactobezoars
  • Pyloric Atresia
  • Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
  • Duodenal Atresia and Stenosis
  • Gastrointestinal Duplications
  • Malrotation and Midgut Volvulus
  • Meconium Syndromes
  • Jejunoileal Atresia and Stenosis
  • Hirschsprung Disease
  • Anorectal Anomalies
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 85 Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis
  • Summary
  • Definition of NEC
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Treatment
  • Outcomes
  • Pathophysiology of Necrotizing Enterocolitis
  • Preventive Strategies
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 15 Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders
  • 86 Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Neonate
  • Placental Transport of Nutrients: Maternal–Fetal Relationship
  • Fetal Hormones Mediating Growth
  • Fetal Glucose Metabolism
  • Glucose Metabolism After Birth
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes Mellitus in the Newborn
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 87 Disorders of Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Metabolism in the Neonate
  • Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Physiology
  • Hormonal Regulation of Mineral Metabolism
  • Bone Development
  • Clinical Conditions Associated With Calcium Disturbances
  • Clinical Conditions Associated With Magnesium Disturbances
  • Osteopenia of Prematurity
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 88 Thyroid Disorders in the Neonate
  • Physiologic Action of Thyroid Hormones
  • Synthesis, Release, Transport, and Use of Thyroid Hormones
  • Laboratory and Imaging Tests Used in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease in Infancy and Childhood
  • Proteins That Bind to Thyroid Hormones
  • Thyroid Imaging
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Defects in TSH or Thyroid Hormone Action
  • Diagnosis of Congenital Hypothyroidism
  • Transient Disorders of Thyroid Function
  • Neonatal Graves Disease
  • Familial Abnormalities of Thyroxine-Binding Proteins
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 89 Disorders of Sex Development
  • Fetal Sexual Determination and Differentiation
  • A Clinical Approach to the Infant With Suspected Disorder of Sex Development
  • Disorders of Sex Development
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • Resources for Families
  • References
  • 90 Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Common Misconceptions
  • Prospective Approaches
  • The Abnormal Newborn Infant: Clinical Phenotypes
  • The Abnormal Newborn Infant: Laboratory Phenotypes
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 16 Neonatal Jaundice and Liver Disease
  • 91 Neonatal Jaundice and Liver Diseases
  • Bilirubin Metabolism
  • “Conjugated” versus “Direct” Bilirubin
  • Equilibrium Between Bilirubin Production and Elimination Processes—The Major Determinant of TB Levels
  • Genetic Control of Bilirubin Production
  • Genetic Control of Uptake of Bilirubin into the Hepatocyte
  • Co-expression of Genes Modulating the Risk of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Bilirubin-Induced Neurologic Dysfunction (BIND)
  • Newer Methods of Diagnosis
  • Hyperbilirubinemia in Resource-Limited Countries
  • Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 17 The Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • 92 Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Homeostasis
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Management
  • Acid–Base Management
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 93 The Kidney and Urinary Tract of the Neonate
  • Kidney and Urinary Tract Development
  • Evaluation of the Neonate With Renal Disease
  • Clinical Problems
  • Congenital Anomalies of Kidneys and Urinary Tract
  • Tumors of the Kidney
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 18 The Skin
  • 94 The Skin of the Neonate
  • The Structural Biology of Fetal and Neonatal Skin
  • Disorders and Diseases of Fetal and Neonatal Skin
  • Principles of Newborn Skin Care
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 19 The Eye
  • 95 Examination and Common Problems in the Neonatal Eye
  • Neonatal Eye Examination
  • Orbital Abnormalities
  • Hyperthyroid Exophthalmos
  • Eyelid Abnormalities
  • Eyelid Lesions
  • Eyelash Abnormalities
  • Lacrimal Abnormalities
  • Globe Abnormalities
  • Corneal Abnormalities
  • Iris Abnormalities
  • Lens Abnormalities
  • Retina and Vitreus Diseases
  • Congenital Disc Anomalies
  • Intraocular Tumors
  • Neuromuscular Abnormalities
  • Eye Findings in Chromosomal Syndromes
  • Eye Findings in Craniofacial Syndromes
  • Eye Findings in Neurocutaneous Disorders (Phakomatoses)
  • Ocular Trauma
  • Neonatal Ocular Infections
  • Ocular Tumors in Infants
  • Ocular Manifestations of Maternal Substance Abuse
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 96 Retinopathy of Prematurity
  • Introduction
  • Incidence
  • Pathogenesis
  • Classification
  • Clinical Course
  • Therapy
  • Candidate Interventions for Prevention and Treatment
  • Recommendations for Examination Schedule
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Part 20 Neonatal Orthopedics
  • 97 Musculoskeletal Disorders in Neonates
  • Normal Embryology
  • In Utero Positioning
  • Trauma
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 98 Bone and Joint Infections in Neonates
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Septic Arthritis
  • Acknowledgment
  • Key Points
  • References
  • 99 Congenital Abnormalities of the Upper and Lower Extremities and Spine
  • Upper Extremities
  • Spine
  • Lower Extremities
  • Syndromes
  • Key Points
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix A Therapeutic Agents
  • Appendix B Tables of Normal Values
  • Physiologic Parameters
  • Growth Charts
  • Chemistry Values
  • Hormone Levels
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Urine
  • Immunoglobulin Values
  • Hematologic Values
  • Conversion Tables
  • Appendix C Schedule for Immunization of Preterm Infants
  • All Preterm Infants
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1856
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: April 11, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323567114
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323567091

About the Authors

Richard Martin

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Neonatal Research Programs, UH Cleveland Medical Center, Professor, Pediatrics, CWRU School of Medicine, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Cleveland, OH

Avroy Fanaroff

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Pediatrics and Reproductive Biology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Emeritus Eliza Henry Barnes Chair in Neonatology, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio

Michele Walsh

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; William and Lois Briggs Chair in Neonatology, Chief, Divisions of Neonatology, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio

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