Eye Movements in Reading - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125836807, 9780323146289

Eye Movements in Reading

1st Edition

Perceptual and Language Processes

Editors: Keith Rayner
eBook ISBN: 9780323146289
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1983
Page Count: 552
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Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes focuses on eye movement and cognitive processes as a way to study the reading process. This book also discusses the different aspects of reading. Organized into seven parts encompassing 26 chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the perceptual and psychophysical factors essential to eye movement during reading. This book then explains how some psychophysical factors, such as type size and masking, affect the reading performance. Other chapters consider the role of transient and sustained cells, as well as their possible effects on reading. This text also examines the size of the perceptual span in reading and the integration of information across eye movement. Finally, this book explains the eye movement abnormalities, general eye movement parameters, and the cognitive processes within the reading disabled group.

This book is a valuable resource to optometrists, scientists, field researchers, and readers who are interested in the reading process.

Table of Contents



I Eye Movements and Psychophysical Processes

1 Sensory Masking, Persistence, and Enhancement in Visual Exploration and Reading

I. Introduction

II. Sustained and Transient Channels: Their Roles in Visual Masking, Persistence, and Saccadic Suppression

III. Saccades and Extraretinal Signals

IV. Consequences for Visual Search and Reading

V. A Brief Look at Application


2 Retinal Image Size and the Perceptual Span in Reading

I. Introduction

II. Tinker's Research

III. Viewing Distance

IV. Conclusion


3 The Temporal Characteristics of Visual Information Extraction during Reading

I. Introduction

II. The Extraction of Information during Saccades in Reading

III. When during a Fixation is Visual Information Acquired?

IV. is Information Extracted after the next Movement Has Been Programmed?

V. is Information Extracted Within the Initial Portion of the Fixation?

VI. is the Information That is Extracted on the Current Fixation Immediately Influencing Language Processing?

VII. Do Display Changes during Fixations Cause Disruptions?

VIII. Conclusions


4 Locations and Contents

I. Introduction

II. Two Views of Performance

III. Skills and Glances

IV. Segments and Inferences


II Eye Movements and Perceptual Processes

5 Eye Movements and Perception during Reading

I. Introduction

II. Control of Eye Movements

III. Perception during a Fixation in Reading

IV. Perception across Successive Fixations

V. Obtaining Information about Mental Processes from Eye Movement Data

VI. Concluding Comments


6 The Perceptual Span and Eye Movement Control during Reading

I. Introduction

II. The Perceptual Span

III. Timing Constraints and Programming Eye Movements

IV. Process Monitoring in Reading


7 Elementary Perceptual and Eye Movement Control Processes in Reading

I. Introduction

II. The Visibility of Letters: Implications for Eye Movements

III. Distributed Processing in Ocular Scanning

IV. Conclusion


8 Perceptual Factors in Reading

I. Introduction

II. The Perceptual Spans in Reading

III. Integration of Information across Fixations

IV. Concluding Comments


III Eye Movements and Context Effects

9 Eye Movements and Context Effects during Reading of Extended Discourse

I. Introduction

II. Comprehension and Eye Movements

III. Situational Contexts

IV. Conceptual Context

V. Implications


10 Attentional Strategies during the Reading of Short Stories

I. Introduction

II. The Role of Content and Structure

III. The Allocation of Mental Effort Depending on the Availability of Story Frames

IV. The Measurement of Resource Allocation (Attention)

V. Conclusion


11 Contextual Influences on Eye Movements in Reading

I. Introduction

II. Word Identification versus Word Interpretation

III. Contextual Influences on Visual Feature Analysis

IV. Evidence from Studies of Eye Movements


12 Context, Form, and Interaction

I. Introduction

II. The Extent of Context Effects

III. Context and Individual Differences

IV. The Substance of Interaction


IV Eye Movements and Language Processes I

13 Processing Sentence Structure

I. Introduction

II. The Case for Structural Processing

III. The Eye Movement Recording Technique

IV. A Garden-Path Theory of Sentence Comprehension

V. Conclusions


14 On Looking into Space

I. Scanning Pictures

II. Eye Movements in Reading

III. Why Look at the Same Word Twice?

IV. A Spatially Addressable Memory Code

V. Conclusion


15 Eye Movements in Pronoun Assignment: A Study of Sentence Integration

I. Introduction

II. Eye Movements and Comprehension

III. Eye Movements and Pronoun Assignment

IV. General Discussion


16 Psycholinguistic Factors Reflected in the Eye

V Eye Movements and Language Processes II

17 What Your Eyes Do while Your Mind is Reading

I. Introduction

II. Eye Fixations during Normal Reading

III. A General Theory and a Specific Reading Model

IV. The Mechanisms of Reading

V. Conclusions


18 Reading Patterns in Eye Movement Data

I. Introduction

II. What Influences a Fixation Duration?

III. Characterizing Eye Movement Patterns: How Often Do Various Patterns Occur?

IV. Simple Breakdowns

V. Multiple Regression Approaches

VI. Lagged Effects

VII. Process Interpretations of Lagged Effects

VIII. Summary


19 On Problems of Unconfounding Perceptual and Language Processes

I. Introduction

II. Word Length and Word Frequency

III. Preferred and Convenient Viewing Position

IV. Influences across Words

V. Conclusion


20 What Does the Mind Do While the Eyes are Gazing?

I. Introduction

II. Problems in Measuring Processing Time

III. The Role of Multiple Regression Analysis

IV. Toward a Theory of Reading


VI Eye Movements in Picture Processing and Visual Search

21 Eye Fixations on Text and Scenes

I. Introduction

II. Goals of the Observer

III. Physical Structure of Information in Text and Pictures

IV. Differences in Eye Movement Patterns

V. Perceptual and Postperceptual Processes within a Fixation

VI. Summary


22 A Spatial-Relational Logic behind Visual Differentiation: Gibosonian Constructivism?

I. Introduction

II. are Two Letters the Same or Different?

III. The Experimental Findings

IV. Theoretical Implications of Paired Comparison Strategies

V. The Feature-Contrast Rule Restated

VI. Comparison Strategies in Solving Letter Puzzles

VII. Spatial-Relational Logic and Drawing

VIII. Conclusions


23 Saccadic Reaction Time in Visual Search

I. Introduction

II. Restricted Tasks

III. Control of Fixation Duration in Reading and Search

IV. Implications of Stimulus Onset Delay Effects for Models of Reading


24 Representational Buffers: The Eye—Mind Hypothesis in Picture Perception, Reading, and Visual Search

I. Buffers in Visual Processing and Eye Movement Control

II. Questions about Buffers

III. The Buffers and Real Time Processing

IV. Vaughan's Stimulus Delay Paradox: Can the Buffer System Explain it?

V. Applying the Model to Picture Viewing

VI. RSVP and the Buffer Model

VII. Conclusion


VII Eye Movements and Dyslexia

25 The "Dyslexia Syndrome" and Its Objective Diagnosis by Erratic Eye Movements

I. Introduction

II. The Dyslexics' Erratic Eye Movements are Independent of Their Reading Problems

III. Concluding Discussion


26 Eye Movements in Reading Disability

I. Introduction

II. Word Coding Processes

III. Eye Monitor and Reading Task

IV. Group Differences

V. Dimensions of Individual Differences

VI. Multiple Regression Models of Individual Differences

VII. Conclusions


27 Abnormal Patterns of Normal Eye Movements in Specific Dyslexia

I. Introduction

II. Eye Movement Response to Regularity in Sequential Target Patterns

III. Oculomotor Disorders and Reading


28 Eye Movements and Reading Disability

I. Introduction

II. The Eye and the Brain

III. Eye Movements Reflect Cognitive Processes

IV. Eye Movement Disorders in Developmental Reading Disability

V. Forms of Developmental Reading Impairment

VI. Conclusion


29 What Can Eye Movements Tell Us about Dyslexia?

I. Introduction

II. Approaches to Dyslexia

III. The Role of Eye Movements




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© Academic Press 1983
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Keith Rayner

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