Extrusion Problems Solved

1st Edition

Food, Pet Food and Feed

Authors: M N Riaz G J Rokey
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845696641
eBook ISBN: 9780857095206
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 9th November 2011
Page Count: 184
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Table of Contents

About the authors

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition


Sources of further information

Chapter 1: An introduction to food and feed extrusion and associated terminology

1 What is extrusion cooking?

2 What is cold extrusion?

3 What is dry extrusion?

4 What are the functions of a typical extruder?

5 What are the advantages of extrusion compared to other thermal processes?

6 What is the quality of the products produced by extrusion?

7 What is the waste stream from extrusion processing?

8 How easy is it to scale up the extrusion process?

9 Can I use extruders as continuous reactors?

10 Do extruders need to be shut down every day?

11 What is feedstock in extrusion?

12 What is a pellet?

13 What is the recipe or formulation?

14 What is the compression ratio?

15 What is L/D (length to diameter) ratio?

16 What is screw geometry?

17 What does pitch mean?

18 What is the flight depth?

19 What is the flight angle?

20 What does ‘venting concept’ mean?

21 What does shear mean?

22 What are long-cut and short-cut products?

23 What does collet mean?

24 What is kibble?

25 What is starch gelatinization?

26 What is the gelatinization temperature of starch?

27 What is dextrinization?

28 What is the Maillard reaction?

29 What is meant by retention time?

30 What is surging?

31 What are fines?

32 What is meant by grind?

33 What is meant by HTST?

34 What is a PLC?

35 What is the glass transition?

36 What is the melt phase transition?

Chapter 2: Components of a food or feed extrusion system

37 What is a feeder?

38 What is a volumetric feeder?

39 What is a gravimetric feeder?

40 What


Extrusion is widely used for the preparation of a variety of foodstuffs including breakfast cereals, snack food and pasta, as well as pet food and animal and aquaculture feed. Extrusion problems solved provides responses to more than 300 frequently asked questions about the process of food extrusion and the techniques and equipment involved, in a practical question-and-answer format.

The book is divided into twelve chapters for ease of reference: the opening chapters concentrate on introductory queries and on different components of an extruder system, followed by two chapters that help the reader select the correct type of extruder for a product. Chapters five and six discuss the impact of factors such as protein content and particle size on the extrusion process, while the use of pre-conditioners is discussed in chapter seven. The latter part of the book discusses specific types of extruder and die and knife assemblies, followed by a chapter on issues relating to drying extruded food products. The final chapter offers practical guidelines and rules of thumb for the most common issues relating to food and feed extrusion.

Written by two leading experts in the field, Extrusion problems solved is an essential reference source and troubleshooting guide for professionals working in food, pet food and feed extrusion. It will also be a valuable training resource for students of extrusion.

Key Features

  • Offers practical guidelines and rules of thumb for the most common food and feed extrusion problems
  • Chapters concentrate on introductory queries, types of extruder and components of extruder systems, knife assemblies, the use of pre-conditioners and issues in drying extruded food products
  • Provides responses to more than 300 frequently asked questions about the processes, equipment and techniques of food extrusion in a practical question-and-answer format


Professionals working in food, pet food and feed extrusion. It will also be a valuable training resource for students of extrusion.


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This is an extremely informative book, Trends in Food Science and Technology

About the Authors

M N Riaz Author

Mian N. Riaz is the Director of the Food Protein R&D Center and Head of the Extrusion Technology Program at Texas A&M University, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas A&M University

G J Rokey Author

Galen J. Rokey is the Process Manager for the Pet Food Applications Group within Wenger Manufacturing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Wenger Manufacturing, Inc., USA