Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

5th Edition - July 26, 2011

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  • Authors: Mark Schlesinger, Kathryn Sole, William Davenport
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080967905
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080967899

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This multi-author new edition revises and updates the classic reference by William G. Davenport et al (winner of, among other awards, the 2003 AIME Mineral Industry Educator of the Year Award "for inspiring students in the pursuit of clarity"), providing fully updated coverage of the copper production process, encompassing topics as diverse as environmental technology for wind and solar energy transmission, treatment of waste by-products, and recycling of electronic scrap for potential alternative technology implementation. The authors examine industrially grounded treatments of process fundamentals and the beneficiation of raw materials, smelting and converting, hydrometallurgical processes, and refining technology for a mine-to-market perspective - from primary and secondary raw materials extraction to shipping of rod or billet to customers. The modern coverage of the work includes bath smelting processes such as Ausmelt and Isasmelt, which have become state-of-the-art in sulfide concentrate smelting and converting.

Key Features

  • Drawing on extensive international industrial consultancies within working plants, this work describes in depth the complete copper production process, starting from both primary and secondary raw materials and ending with rod or billet being shipped to customers
  • The work focuses particularly on currently-used industrial processes used to turn raw materials into refined copper metal rather than ideas working ‘only on paper’
  • New areas of coverage include the environmentally appropriate uses of copper cables in power transmission for wind and solar energy sources; the recycling of electronic scrap as an important new feedstock to the copper industry, and state-of-the-art Ausmelt and Isasmelt bath smelting processes for sulfide concentrate smelting and converting


Graduate students within extractive metallurgy and metallurgical engineering. Working professionals, including metallurgists and mining, chemical, plant or environmental engineers and researchers within industry. Wind and Solar energy companies and researchers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Overview

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. Extracting Copper from Copper–Iron–Sulfide Ores

    1.3. Hydrometallurgical Extraction of Copper

    1.4. Melting and Casting Cathode Copper

    1.5. Recycle of Copper and Copper-alloy Scrap (Chapters 18 and 19Chapter 18Chapter 19)

    1.6. Summary

    Chapter 2. Production and Use

    2.1. Copper Minerals and Cut-off Grades

    2.2. Location of Extraction Plants

    2.3. Price of Copper

    2.4. Summary

    Chapter 3. Production of High Copper Concentrates – Introduction and Comminution

    3.1. Concentration Flowsheet

    3.2. The Comminution Process

    3.3. Blasting

    3.4. Crushing

    3.5. Grinding

    3.6. Recent Developments in Comminution

    3.7. Summary

    Chapter 4. Production of Cu Concentrate from Finely Ground Cu Ore

    4.1. Froth Flotation

    4.2. Flotation Chemicals (Nagaraj & Ravishankar, 2007; Woodcock, Sparrow, Bruckard, Johnson, & Dunne, 2007)

    4.3. Specific Flotation Procedures for Cu Ores

    4.4. Flotation Cells

    4.5. Sensors, Operation, and Control

    4.6. The Flotation Products

    4.7. Other Flotation Separations

    4.8. Summary

    Chapter 5. Matte Smelting Fundamentals

    5.1. Why Smelting?

    5.2. Matte and Slag

    5.3. Reactions During Matte Smelting

    5.4. The Smelting Process: General Considerations

    5.5. Smelting Products: Matte, Slag and Offgas

    5.6. Summary

    Chapter 6. Flash Smelting

    6.1. Outotec Flash Furnace

    6.2. Peripheral Equipment

    6.3. Flash Furnace Operation

    6.4. Control (Fig. 6.3)

    6.5. Impurity Behavior

    6.6. Outotec Flash Smelting Recent Developments and Future Trends

    6.7. Inco Flash Smelting

    6.8. Inco Flash Furnace Summary

    6.9. Inco vs. Outotec Flash Smelting

    6.10. Summary

    Chapter 7. Submerged Tuyere Smelting

    7.1. Noranda Process (Prevost, Letourneau, Perez, Lind, & Lavoie, 2007; Zapata, 2007)

    7.2. Reaction Mechanisms

    7.3. Operation and Control

    7.4. Production Rate Enhancement

    7.5. Teniente Smelting

    7.6. Process Description

    7.7. Operation (Moyano et al., 2010)

    7.8. Control (Morrow & Gajaredo, 2009; Moyano et al., 2010)

    7.9. Impurity Distribution

    7.10. Discussion

    7.11. Vanyukov Submerged-Tuyere Smelting

    7.12. Summary

    Chapter 8. Converting of Copper Matte

    8.1. Chemistry

    8.2. Industrial Peirce–Smith Converting Operations

    8.3. Oxygen Enrichment of Peirce–Smith Converter Blast

    8.4. Maximizing Converter Productivity

    8.5. Recent Improvements in Peirce–Smith Converting

    8.6. Alternatives to Peirce–Smith Converting

    8.7. Summary

    Chapter 9. Bath Matte Smelting

    9.1. Basic Operations

    9.2. Feed Materials

    9.3. The TSL Furnace and Lances

    9.4. Smelting Mechanisms

    9.5. Startup and Shutdown

    9.6. Current Installations

    9.7. Copper Converting Using TSL Technology

    9.8. The Mitsubishi Process

    9.9. The Mitsubishi Process in the 2000s

    9.10. Summary

    Chapter 10. Direct-To-Copper Flash Smelting

    10.1. Advantages and Disadvantages

    10.2. The Ideal Direct-to-Copper Process

    10.3. Industrial Single Furnace Direct-to-Copper Smelting

    10.4. Chemistry

    10.5. Effect of Slag Composition on % Cu-in-Slag

    10.6. Industrial Details

    10.7. Control

    10.8. Electric Furnace Cu-from-Slag Recovery

    10.9. Cu-in-Slag Limitation of Direct-to-Copper Smelting

    10.10. Direct-to-Copper Impurities

    10.11. Summary

    Chapter 11. Copper Loss in Slag

    11.1. Copper in Slags

    11.2. Decreasing Copper in Slag I: Minimizing Slag Generation

    11.3. Decreasing Copper in Slag II: Minimizing Copper Concentration in Slag

    11.4. Decreasing Copper in Slag III: Pyrometallurgical Slag Settling/Reduction

    11.5. Decreasing Copper in Slag IV: Slag Minerals Processing

    11.6. Summary

    Chapter 12. Capture and Fixation of Sulfur

    12.1. Offgases from Smelting and Converting Processes

    12.2. Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

    12.3. Smelter Offgas Treatment

    12.4. Gas Drying

    12.5. Acid Plant Chemical Reactions

    12.6. Industrial Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (Tables 12.4, 12.5, and 12.6)

    12.7. Alternative Sulfuric Acid Manufacturing Methods

    12.8. Recent and Future Developments in Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

    12.9. Alternative Sulfur Products

    12.10. Future Improvements in Sulfur Capture

    12.11. Summary

    Chapter 13. Fire Refining (S and O Removal) and Anode Casting

    13.1. Industrial Methods of Fire Refining

    13.2. Chemistry of Fire Refining

    13.3. Choice of Hydrocarbon for Deoxidation

    13.4. Casting Anodes

    13.5. Continuous Anode Casting

    13.6. New Anodes from Rejects and Anode Scrap

    13.7. Removal of Impurities During Fire Refining

    13.8. Summary

    Chapter 14. Electrolytic Refining

    14.1. The Electrorefining Process

    14.2. Chemistry of Electrorefining and Behavior of Anode Impurities

    14.3. Equipment

    14.4. Typical Refining Cycle

    14.5. Electrolyte

    14.6. Maximizing Copper Cathode Purity

    14.7. Minimizing Energy Consumption

    14.8. Industrial Electrorefining

    14.9. Recent Developments and Emerging Trends in Copper Electrorefining

    14.10. Summary

    Chapter 15. Hydrometallurgical Copper Extraction

    15.1. Copper Recovery by Hydrometallurgical Flowsheets

    15.2. Chemistry of the Leaching of Copper Minerals

    15.3. Leaching Methods

    15.4. Heap and Dump Leaching

    15.5. Vat Leaching

    15.6. Agitation Leaching

    15.7. Pressure Oxidation Leaching

    15.8. Future Developments

    15.9. Summary

    Chapter 16. Solvent Extraction

    16.1. The Solvent-Extraction Process

    16.2. Chemistry of Copper Solvent Extraction

    16.3. Composition of the Organic Phase

    16.4. Minimizing Impurity Transfer and Maximizing Electrolyte Purity

    16.5. Equipment

    16.6. Circuit Configurations

    16.7. Quantitative Design of a Series Circuit

    16.8. Quantitative Comparison of Series and Series-Parallel Circuits

    16.9. Operational Considerations

    16.10. Industrial Solvent-Extraction Plants

    16.11. Summary

    Chapter 17. Electrowinning

    17.1. The Electrowinning Process

    17.2. Chemistry of Copper Electrowinning

    17.3. Electrical Requirements

    17.4. Equipment and Operational Practice

    17.5. Maximizing Copper Purity

    17.6. Maximizing Energy Efficiency

    17.7. Modern Industrial Electrowinning Plants

    17.8. Electrowinning from Agitated Leach Solutions

    17.9. Current and Future Developments

    17.10. Summary

    Chapter 18. Collection and Processing of Recycled Copper

    18.1. The Materials Cycle

    18.2. Secondary Copper Grades and Definitions

    18.3. Scrap Processing and Beneficiation

    18.4. Summary

    Chapter 19. Chemical Metallurgy of Copper Recycling

    19.1. Characteristics of Secondary Copper

    19.2. Scrap Processing in Primary Copper Smelters

    19.3. The Secondary Copper Smelter

    19.4. Summary

    Chapter 20. Melting and Casting

    20.1. Product Grades and Quality

    20.2. Melting Technology

    20.3. Casting Machines

    20.4. Summary

    Chapter 21. Byproduct and Waste Streams

    21.1. Molybdenite Recovery and Processing

    21.2. Flotation Reagents

    21.3. Operation

    21.4. Optimization

    21.5. Anode Slimes

    21.6. Dust Treatment

    21.7. Use or Disposal of Slag

    21.8. Summary

    Chapter 22. Costs of Copper Production

    22.1. Overall Investment Costs: Mine through Refinery

    22.2. Overall Direct Operating Costs: Mine through Refinery

    22.3. Total Production Costs, Selling Prices, Profitability

    22.4. Concentrating Costs

    22.5. Smelting Costs

    22.6. Electrorefining Costs

    22.7. Production of Copper from Scrap

    22.8. Leach/Solvent Extraction/Electrowinning Costs

    22.9. Profitability

    22.10. Summary

Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2011
  • Published: July 26, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080967905
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080967899

About the Authors

Mark Schlesinger

Mark E. Schlesinger is a graduate of the University of Missouri–Rolla and the University of Arizona. He has spent a combined 31 years of teaching at The University of Utah and the Missouri University of Science and Technology. He is an author of: • Mass and Energy Balances in Materials Engineering • Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (4th and 5th English–language editions; Chinese edition) • Aluminum Recycling (two English language editions)Professor Schlesinger is a member of the (U.S.) Metals, Minerals, and Materials Society; the American Institute for Steel Technology; and the Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is a former Fulbright Scholar (Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), 2002), and Leif Eriksson Fellow (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2012–13). He was named a Fellow of ASM International (2018).

Affiliations and Expertise

Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, USA

Kathryn Sole

Kathryn C. Sole has 30 years’ global experience in the chemistry and process engineering of hydrometallurgical extractive processes, with specialist expertise in solvent extraction, ion exchange, and electrowinning. She is currently an independent consultant, with clients spanning six continents. Kathy has worked with copper production operations in Africa, USA, and South America, including those of Anglo American, Eurasian Resource Group, Glencore, Vedanta, First Quantum, and BHP. Kathy holds an adjunct appointment at the University of Pretoria and regularly presents accredited Continuing Professional Development training courses, many of which focus on hydrometallurgy of copper. She has authored/coauthored over 90 publications, including Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (5th ed.), and is a member of the Editorial Boards of the journals Minerals Processing & Extractive Metallurgy Review and Solvent Extraction & Ion Exchange. She founded and chairs the Copper Cobalt Africa conference series. Kathy obtained her PhD in metallurgical engineering from the University of Arizona, USA, following BSc(Hons) and MSc degrees in chemistry from Rhodes University, South Africa. She has been awarded the Silver Medal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, the Bronze Medal of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science, and received the Milton E. Wadsworth Award of the Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration in 2019.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kathryn C. Sole Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa and Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, South Africa

William Davenport

William Davenport

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Prof. William Davenport, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USA

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  • Enrico S. Sun Feb 06 2022

    The Bible of Copper Extractive Metallurgy

    Best book on the subject with recent updates . Highly recommended