Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

1st Edition - September 19, 2002

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  • Authors: William Davenport, Matthew King, Mark Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080531526

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This new edition has been extensively revised and updated since the 3rd edition published in 1994. It contains an even greater depth of industrial information, focussing on how copper metal is extracted from ore and scrap, and how this extraction could be made more efficient. Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The book demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is an important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality control is also discussed and the book incorporates an important section on extraction economics. Each chapter is followed by a summary of concepts previously described and offers suggested further reading and references.


For metallurgists, mining engineers, chemical engineers and chemists.

Table of Contents

  • Selected Papers. Overview. Extracting copper from copper-iron-sulfide ores.
    Hydrometallurgical extraction of copper. Melting and casting cathode copper. Recycle of copper and copper-alloy scrap.

    Production and Use. Locations of copper deposits. Location of extraction plants. Copper minerals and 'cut-off' grades. Price of copper.

    Concentrating Copper Ores. Concentration flowsheet. Crushing and grinding (comminution). Flotation feed particle size. Froth flotation. Specific flotation procedures for Cu ores. Flotation cells.

    Matte Smelting Fundamentals. Why smelting?. Matte and slag. Reactions during matte smelting. The smelting process: general considerations. Smelting products: matte, slag and offgas.

    Flash Smelting - Outokumpu Process. Outokumpu flash furnace. Peripheral equipment. Furnace operation. Control. impurity behavior. Future trends.

    Inco Flash Smelting. Furnace details. Auxiliary equipment. operation. Control strategy. Cu-in-slag and molten converter slag recycle. Inco vs. outokumpu flash smelting.

    Noranda and Teniente Smelting. Noranda process. Reaction mechanisms. Operation and control. Production rate enhancement. Impurity distribution. Teniente future.

    Ausmelt/Isasmelt Matte Smelting. Feed materials. The isasmelt furnace and lance. Smelting mechanisms. Startup and shutdown. Current installations. Other coppermaking uses of ausmelt/isasmelt technology.

    Batch Converting Of Cu Matte. Chemistry. Industrial peirce-smith converting operations. Oxygen enrichment of peirce-smith converter blast. Maximizing converter productivity. Recent developments in converting - shrouded blast injection. Alternatives to peirce-smith converting.

    Continuous Converting. Common features of continuous converting. Downward lance mitsubishi continuous converting. Solid matte outokumpu flash converting. Submerged-tuyere noranda continuous converting. % Cu-in-slag.

    Copper Loss In Slag. Copper in slags. Decreasing copper in slag I: minimizing slag generation. Decreasing copper in slag II: minimizing Cu concentration in slag. Decreasing copper in slag III: pyrometallurgical slag settling/reduction. Decreasing copper in slag IV: slag minerals processing.

    Direct-To-Copper Flash Smelting. The ideal direct-to-copper process. Industrial single furnace direct-to-copper smelting. Chemistry. Industrial details.

    Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting/Converting. The Mitsubishi Process. Smelting Furnace Details. Electric Slag Cleaning Furnace Details. Converting Furnace Details.

    Capture And Fixation Of Sulfur. Offgases from smelting and converting processes. Sulfuric acid manufacture. Smelter offgas treatment. Gas drying. Acid plant chemical reactions.

    Fire Refining And Casting Of Anodes: Sulfur And Oxygen Removal. Electrolytic Refining. Industrial methods of fire refining. Chemistry of fire refining. Choice of hydrocarbon for deoxidation. Casting anodes. Continuous anode casting.

    Electrolytic Refining. Behavior of anode impurities during electrorefining. Industrial electrorefining. Cathodes. Electrolyte. Cells and electrical connections.

    Hydrometallurgical Copper Extraction: Introduction and Leaching. Heap leaching. Industrial heap leaching. Steady-state leaching. Leaching of chalcopyrite concentrates. Other leaching processes.

    Solvent Extraction Transfer Of Cu from Leach Solution to Electrolyte.The solvent extraction process. Chemistry. Extractants. Industrial solvent extraction plants. Quantitative design of series circuit.

    Electrowinning. Electrowinning reactions. Electrowinning tankhouse practice. Maximizing copper purity. Maximizing current efficiency.

    Collection and Processing of Recycled Copper. The materials cycle. Secondary copper grades and definitions. Scrap processing and beneficiation. Summary.

    Chemical Metallurgy of Copper Recycling.The secondary copper smelter. Scrap processing in primary copper smelters.
    Summary. Suggested reading.

    Melting and Casting. Product grades and quality. Melting technology. Casting machines. Summary.

    Costs Of Copper Production. Overall investment costs: mine through refinery. Overall direct operating costs: mine through refinery. Total production costs, selling prices, profitability.
    Concentrating costs. Smelting costs.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 452
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 2002
  • Published: September 19, 2002
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080531526

About the Authors

William Davenport

William Davenport

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Prof. William Davenport, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USA

Matthew King

Matthew J. King has over 25 years experience in copper smelter operations and sulfuric acid plant projects. The first eight years of his career were spent in various operations roles at a copper smelter. During that period, he completed his PhD focused on control and optimisation of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. His career since then has been based in Australia, focusing mainly on sulfuric acid plant design and operations with some work in copper smelting, off-gas handling and steam systems design. Matthew is a co-author of five technical monographs, including the latest editions of Elsevier titles Sulfuric Acid Manufacture and Extractive Metallurgy of Copper.

Affiliations and Expertise

Hatch Associates Pty Ltd., Perth, Western Australia

Mark Schlesinger

Mark E. Schlesinger is a graduate of the University of Missouri–Rolla and the University of Arizona. He has spent a combined 31 years of teaching at The University of Utah and the Missouri University of Science and Technology. He is an author of: • Mass and Energy Balances in Materials Engineering • Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (4th and 5th English–language editions; Chinese edition) • Aluminum Recycling (two English language editions)Professor Schlesinger is a member of the (U.S.) Metals, Minerals, and Materials Society; the American Institute for Steel Technology; and the Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is a former Fulbright Scholar (Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden), 2002), and Leif Eriksson Fellow (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2012–13). He was named a Fellow of ASM International (2018).

Affiliations and Expertise

Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO, USA

A.K. Biswas

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