Selected Papers. Overview. Extracting copper from copper-iron-sulfide ores.
Hydrometallurgical extraction of copper. Melting and casting cathode copper. Recycle of copper and copper-alloy scrap.
Production and Use. Locations of copper deposits. Location of extraction plants. Copper minerals and 'cut-off' grades. Price of copper.
Concentrating Copper Ores. Concentration flowsheet. Crushing and grinding (comminution). Flotation feed particle size. Froth flotation. Specific flotation procedures for Cu ores. Flotation cells.
Matte Smelting Fundamentals. Why smelting?. Matte and slag. Reactions during matte smelting. The smelting process: general considerations. Smelting products: matte, slag and offgas.
Flash Smelting - Outokumpu Process. Outokumpu flash furnace. Peripheral equipment. Furnace operation. Control. impurity behavior. Future trends.
Inco Flash Smelting. Furnace details. Auxiliary equipment. operation. Control strategy. Cu-in-slag and molten converter slag recycle. Inco vs. outokumpu flash smelting.
Noranda and Teniente Smelting. Noranda process. Reaction mechanisms. Operation and control. Production rate enhancement. Impurity distribution. Teniente future.
Ausmelt/Isasmelt Matte Smelting. Feed materials. The isasmelt furnace and lance. Smelting mechanisms. Startup and shutdown. Current installations. Other coppermaking uses of ausmelt/isasmelt technology.
Batch Converting Of Cu Matte. Chemistry. Industrial peirce-smith converting operations. Oxygen enrichment of