Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

Extractive Metallurgy of Copper

International Series on Materials Science and Technology

2nd Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Authors: A. K. Biswas, W. G. Davenport
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182216

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Extractive Metallurgy of Copper details the process of extracting copper from its ore. The book also discusses the significance of each process, along with the concerns in each process, such as pollution, energy demand, and cost. The text first provides an overview of the metallurgical process of copper extraction, and then proceeds to presenting the step-by-step representation of the whole process of copper extraction. The coverage of the book includes mineral beneficiation, roasting, smelting, converting, refining, casting, and quality control. The text will be of great use to metallurgists, materials engineers, and other professionals involved in mining industry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition


    1 Synopsis

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Extraction of Copper from Sulphide Ores

    1.3 Extraction of Copper from Oxide Ores

    1.4 Melting and Casting of Copper

    1.5 Miscellaneous Copper Processes

    1.6 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    2 Production Statistics, Ores, Beneficiation

    2.1 Copper Statistics

    2.2 Beneficiation of Copper Ores

    2.3 Comminution

    2.4 Froth Flotation

    2.5 Specific Flotation Procedures for Copper Ores

    2.6 The Flotation Product

    2.7 Improvements in Flotation Practice

    2.8 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    3 Roasting of Copper Concentrates

    3.1 Roasting Prior to Smelting

    3.2 Roasting Prior to Leaching

    3.3 Chemistry of Roasting

    3.4 Choice of Roasting Temperature

    3.5 Kinetics of Roasting

    3.6 Roasting Furnaces and Methods

    3.7 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    4 Matte Smelting

    4.1 Physical Chemistry of Matte Smelting

    4.2 Formation, Constitution and Characteristics of Matte

    4.3 Formation, Constitution and Characteristics of Slags

    4.4 The Smelting Criterion: Separating Matte from Slag

    4.5 Magnetite in Matte Smelting

    4.6 Behavior of Other Metals during Smelting

    4.7 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    5 Blast-Furnace Matte Smelting

    5.1 Process Description

    5.2 Reactions in the Blast Furnace

    5.3 Recent Developments in Blast Furnace Smelting

    5.4 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    Appendix 5A The TORCO (Segregation) Process

    6 Reverberatory-Furnace Matte Smelting

    6.1 Description of Process

    6.2 Construction Details

    6.3 Combustion, Temperatures, Heat Balances

    6.4 Production Rates

    6.5 Charging Methods

    6.6 Reverberatory Slags

    6.7 Magnetite Formation and Hearth Control

    6.8 Recent Developments in Reverberatory Smelting

    6.9 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    7 Electric-Furnace Matte Smelting

    7.1 Advantages and Disadvantages

    7.2 Description of Process

    7.3 Construction Details

    7.4 Electrical System

    7.5 Μatte and Slag Conductivities, Automatic Power Control

    7.6 Power Input, Productivity, Temperature Control

    7.7 Energy Requirements and Costs

    7.8 Slag and Hearth Control

    7.9 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    8 Flash-Furnace Matte Smelting

    8.1 Advantages and Disadvantages

    8.2 INCO Oxygen Flash Smelting Process

    8.3 Outokumpu Flash Smelting Process

    8.4 Heat Balances for Flash Smelting

    8.5 Comparison of INCO and Outokumpu Processes

    8.6 Computer Control of Flash Smelting

    8.7 Future of Flash Smelting

    8.8 Use of Oxygen in Flash Smelting

    8.9 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    9 Converting of Copper Matte

    9.1 Stages of the Converting Process

    9.2 Magnetite Formation in the Converter

    9.3 Industrial Converting Operations

    9.4 Recent Developments in Copper Converting

    9.5 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    10 Copper Losses in Slags

    10.1 Magnitude of the Copper-loss Problem

    10.2 Copper Losses in Smelting Furnace Slags

    10.3 Treatment of Flash-furnace Slags

    10.4 Treatment of Converter Slags

    10.5 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    11 Continuous Production of Blister Copper: Single-step and Multistep Processes

    11.1 Single-step Processes

    11.2 Noranda Process

    11.3 W or era Process

    11.4 Mitsubishi Process

    11.5 Comparison of Continuous Copper-making Processes

    11.6 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    12 Preparation of Anodes: Sulphur and Oxygen Removal

    12.1 Industrial Methods of Anode Preparation

    12.2 Chemistry of Fire Refining

    12.3 Choice of Hydrocarbons for Deoxidation

    12.4 Casting of Anodes

    12.5 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    13 Hydrometallurgical Copper Extraction: Introduction and Leaching

    13.1 Leaching: Ores and Reagents

    13.2 Chemistry of Leaching Processes

    13.3 Bacterial Leaching of Sulphides

    13.4 Leaching Methods

    13.5 Discussion of Leaching Methods

    13.6 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    14 Recovery of Copper from Dilute Leach Solutions: Cementation and Solvent Extraction

    14.1 Cementation

    14.2 Solvent Extraction

    14.3 Use of Solvent Extraction for Strong Leach Liquors

    14.4 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    15 Electrolytic Relining of Copper

    15.1 Principles of Electrolytic Copper Refining

    15.2 Behavior of Anode Impurities

    15.3 Industrial Tankhouse Equipment

    15.4 Tankhouse Procedures

    15.5 Control of the Refining Process

    15.6 The Electrolyte

    15.7 Purification of Electrolyte

    15.8 Organic Additions to Electrolyte

    15.9 Current Density and Production Rate

    15.10 Recent Developments in Electrorefining

    15.11 Summary of Chapter

    15.12 Suggested Reading and References

    Suggested Reading and References

    16 Electrowinning of Copper

    16.1 Electrowinning Reactions

    16.2 Cell Voltage and Energy Consumption

    16.3 Cathode Current Efficiency: Interjering Iron Reactions

    16.4 Purity of Cathode: Behavior of Electrolyte Impurities

    16.5 Electrowinning Tankhouse Practice

    16.6 Special Problems of Solvent Extraction Electrolytes

    16.7 Recent Improvements in Electrowinning Practice

    16.8 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    17 Melting and Casting; Quality Control; Recovery of Copper from Scrap

    17.1 Melting and Casting of Cathode Copper

    17.2 Melting Techniques

    17.3 Casting into Fabrication Shapes

    17.4 Continuous Casting

    17.5 Southwire Continuous Rod and Hazelett Contirod Systems

    17.6 Quality Control of Final Copper Product

    17.7 Recovery of Copper from Scrap

    17.8 Smelting and Refining of Low-grade Scrap

    17.9 Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    18 The Sulphur Problem and Possible Solutions

    18.1 The Fixing of SO2

    18.2 SO2 Concentrations in Smelter Gases

    18.3 Hydrometallurgical Answers to the Sulphur Problem

    18.4 Discussion and Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References

    19 Costs of Extracting Copper

    19.1 Overall Capital Costs: Mine to Refinery

    19.2 Overall Direct Operating Costs: Mine to Refinery

    19.3 Total Production Costs: Selling Prices: Profitability

    19.4 Beneficiation Costs

    19.5 Smelting Costs

    19.6 Electrorefining Costs

    19.7 Costs of Hydrometallurgical Processes

    19.8 Discussion and Summary of Chapter

    Suggested Reading and References


    A.I Units and Conversion Factors

    A.II Stoichiometric Data

    A.III Thermodynamic Data

    A.IV Properties of Electrolytic Tough Pitch Copper


Product details

  • No. of pages: 454
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182216

About the Authors

A. K. Biswas

W. G. Davenport

Professor William George Davenport is a graduate of the University of British Columbia and the Royal School of Mines, London. Prior to his academic career he worked with the Linde Division of Union Carbide in Tonawanda, New York. He spent a combined 43 years of teaching at McGill University and the University of Arizona.

His Union Carbide days are recounted in the book Iron Blast Furnace, Analysis, Control and Optimization (English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian and Spanish editions).

During the early years of his academic career he spent his summers working in many of Noranda Mines Company’s metallurgical plants, which led quickly to the book Extractive Metallurgy of Copper. This book has gone into five English language editions (with several printings) and Chinese, Farsi and Spanish language editions.

He also had the good fortune to work in Phelps Dodge’s Playas flash smelter soon after coming to the University of Arizona. This experience contributed to the book Flash Smelting, with two English language editions and a Russian language edition and eventually to the book Sulfuric Acid Manufacture (2006), 2nd edition 2013.

In 2013 co-authored Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, which took him to all the continents except Antarctica.

He and four co-authors are just finishing up the book Rare Earths: Science, Technology, Production and Use, which has taken him around the United States, Canada and France, visiting rare earth mines, smelters, manufacturing plants, laboratories and recycling facilities.

Professor Davenport’s teaching has centered on ferrous and non-ferrous extractive metallurgy. He has visited (and continues to visit) about 10 metallurgical plants per year around the world to determine the relationships between theory and industrial practice. He has also taught plant design and economics throughout his career and has found this aspect of his work particularly rewarding. The delight of his life at the university has, however, always been academic advising of students on a one-on-one basis.

Professor Davenport is a Fellow (and life member) of the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum and a twenty-five year member of the (U.S.) Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. He is recipient of the CIM Alcan Award, the TMS Extractive Metallurgy Lecture Award, the AusIMM Sir George Fisher Award, the AIME Mineral Industry Education Award, the American Mining Hall of Fame Medal of Merit and the SME Milton E. Wadsworth award. In September 2014 he will be honored by the Conference of Metallurgists’ Bill Davenport Honorary Symposium in Vancouver, British Columbia (his home town).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Arizona, AZ, USA

About the Editor

D. W. Hopkins

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of Swansea, UK

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