External Senses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122012020, 9780323157490

External Senses

1st Edition

Authors: A.C. Damask
eBook ISBN: 9780323157490
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1981
Page Count: 288
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External Senses, the second volume in the series Medical Physics, focuses on the electrophysiology and biophysics of the receptors as these are common in each species. This book also briefly discusses brain pathways but the topic on synapsing mechanism and brain electrophysiology are covered in the last volume.
This volume focuses on the category of senses which respond to external stimuli - taste, smell, touch, hearing, and vision. The results of research presented in this volume, although limited in terms of medical applications because they are not precisely defined, pave the way towards medical treatment in the future. The topics of each chapter focus on broad areas such as: gustation, olfaction, cutaneous sensation, audition, vision, and psychophysics.
This book is a helpful tool for all undergraduates, premedical students, and postgraduate students of various scientific disciplines.

Table of Contents


Contents of Volume I

Chapter 1 Introduction


Chapter 2 Gustation


Taste Receptors and Nerves

The Four Tastes

Electrical Signals in the Taste Buds

Electrical Signals in Nerve Fibers

Human Psychophysical Response

Chemical Equilibrium Model of Taste Intensity

The Taste for Salt

Taste and Nutrition

Experiments on Brain-Damaged Animals

Gustatory Impulses in Cortical Neurons

Gustatory Neural Patterns

Biostatistics and the Indictment of Cholesterol


Chapter 3 Olfaction



Electrical Impulses in the Olfactory System

Chemical Equilibrium Model of Olfactory Intensity

The Weber-Fechner Relation in Olfaction

Steric Model of Olfaction

Puncture Theory of Olfaction

Chemical Studies of Receptor Molecules


Chapter 4 Cutaneous Sensation


Morphology of Example Mechanoreceptors

Route of Somatosensory Signals

Single-Fiber Recording from Humans



Cutaneous Hyperalgesia


Transducer Effects in the Pacinian Corpuscle

Mechanical Transmission in the Pacinian Corpuscle


Chapter 5 Audition


Units of Measurement

Sensitivity of the Ear

Anatomy of the Middle Ear

The Cochlea

The Basilar Membrane

The Organ of Corti

Hair Cells

Electrical Phenomena of the Cochlea

Endolymphatic Potential

Cochlear Microphonics

Summating Potential

Action Potentials

The Auditory Pathway

The Source of the Cochlear Microphonic

Acoustical Quanta and the Theory of Hearing

Hearing Defects

The Fenestration Operation


Chapter 6 Vision


Eye Anatomy

The Retina

Illumination Measurement Standards

Scotopic and Photopic Vision

Adaptation to Night Vision

Rod Spectral Sensitivity

Time and Spatial Summation

The Stereochemistry of Rhodopsin

Absolute Sensitivity of the Retina

Sensitivity above Background

Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Vision

The Eye of Limulus

Comparison of Limulus and the Human Eye

Inhibitory Interaction of Receptor Units

Eccentric Cell Membrane Resistance and Firing Frequency

Microstructure of Rods

Effects of Light on Rhodopsin

The Transduction Process

Structure of the Primate Retina

Processing of Receptor Stimuli within the Retina

The Receptive Field in the Mammalian Retina

Directional Selection of Movement

The Circuitry of the Retina

Pathway from the Optic Nerve

The Visual Cortex

Color Specification

Color Vision

The Color Chromophores


Chapter 7 Psychophysics


Subjective Measurement

Classifying Stimuli

The Limen

Weber and Fechner Laws

The Power Law

Cross-Modality Comparisons

Interpretation of the Power Law


Appendix Root Mean Square Deviation



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© Academic Press 1981
Academic Press
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About the Author

A.C. Damask

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