External Senses

External Senses

1st Edition - May 28, 1981

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  • Author: A.C. Damask
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157490

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External Senses, the second volume in the series Medical Physics, focuses on the electrophysiology and biophysics of the receptors as these are common in each species. This book also briefly discusses brain pathways but the topic on synapsing mechanism and brain electrophysiology are covered in the last volume. This volume focuses on the category of senses which respond to external stimuli - taste, smell, touch, hearing, and vision. The results of research presented in this volume, although limited in terms of medical applications because they are not precisely defined, pave the way towards medical treatment in the future. The topics of each chapter focus on broad areas such as: gustation, olfaction, cutaneous sensation, audition, vision, and psychophysics. This book is a helpful tool for all undergraduates, premedical students, and postgraduate students of various scientific disciplines.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Contents of Volume I

    Chapter 1 Introduction


    Chapter 2 Gustation


    Taste Receptors and Nerves

    The Four Tastes

    Electrical Signals in the Taste Buds

    Electrical Signals in Nerve Fibers

    Human Psychophysical Response

    Chemical Equilibrium Model of Taste Intensity

    The Taste for Salt

    Taste and Nutrition

    Experiments on Brain-Damaged Animals

    Gustatory Impulses in Cortical Neurons

    Gustatory Neural Patterns

    Biostatistics and the Indictment of Cholesterol


    Chapter 3 Olfaction



    Electrical Impulses in the Olfactory System

    Chemical Equilibrium Model of Olfactory Intensity

    The Weber-Fechner Relation in Olfaction

    Steric Model of Olfaction

    Puncture Theory of Olfaction

    Chemical Studies of Receptor Molecules


    Chapter 4 Cutaneous Sensation


    Morphology of Example Mechanoreceptors

    Route of Somatosensory Signals

    Single-Fiber Recording from Humans



    Cutaneous Hyperalgesia


    Transducer Effects in the Pacinian Corpuscle

    Mechanical Transmission in the Pacinian Corpuscle


    Chapter 5 Audition


    Units of Measurement

    Sensitivity of the Ear

    Anatomy of the Middle Ear

    The Cochlea

    The Basilar Membrane

    The Organ of Corti

    Hair Cells

    Electrical Phenomena of the Cochlea

    Endolymphatic Potential

    Cochlear Microphonics

    Summating Potential

    Action Potentials

    The Auditory Pathway

    The Source of the Cochlear Microphonic

    Acoustical Quanta and the Theory of Hearing

    Hearing Defects

    The Fenestration Operation


    Chapter 6 Vision


    Eye Anatomy

    The Retina

    Illumination Measurement Standards

    Scotopic and Photopic Vision

    Adaptation to Night Vision

    Rod Spectral Sensitivity

    Time and Spatial Summation

    The Stereochemistry of Rhodopsin

    Absolute Sensitivity of the Retina

    Sensitivity above Background

    Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Vision

    The Eye of Limulus

    Comparison of Limulus and the Human Eye

    Inhibitory Interaction of Receptor Units

    Eccentric Cell Membrane Resistance and Firing Frequency

    Microstructure of Rods

    Effects of Light on Rhodopsin

    The Transduction Process

    Structure of the Primate Retina

    Processing of Receptor Stimuli within the Retina

    The Receptive Field in the Mammalian Retina

    Directional Selection of Movement

    The Circuitry of the Retina

    Pathway from the Optic Nerve

    The Visual Cortex

    Color Specification

    Color Vision

    The Color Chromophores


    Chapter 7 Psychophysics


    Subjective Measurement

    Classifying Stimuli

    The Limen

    Weber and Fechner Laws

    The Power Law

    Cross-Modality Comparisons

    Interpretation of the Power Law


    Appendix Root Mean Square Deviation


Product details

  • No. of pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1981
  • Published: May 28, 1981
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157490

About the Author

A.C. Damask

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