Experimental Fluid Mechanics

Experimental Fluid Mechanics

The Commonwealth and International Library: Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Division

2nd Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Author: P Bradshaw
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150987

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Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Second Edition, discusses the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics. The book begins with a discussion of the use of dimensional analysis, in particular the way in which it can be used to relate the results of model tests to flows at full scale. A chapter on wind tunnels follows; because tunnels and other test rigs with similar features are the basic test facilities of laboratory fluid mechanics, and because most of the physical and mathematical features of the subject are well illustrated by the flow in wind tunnels. Subsequent chapters discuss techniques of measurements—fluid velocity and shear stress measurements, pressure measurements, force and position measurements, and flow visualization; the conduct of experiments and the writing of reports; and the last chapter is a survey of specialized branches of fluid mechanics. This book is intended for students of the theory of fluid mechanics, who must also learn about the physical situations which the theory represents, and especially for those who contemplate specializing in the experimental side of the subject rather than the theoretical side.

Table of Contents

  • Editorial Introduction

    Preface to Second Edition


    Chapter One Introduction

    Theory and Experiment in Fluid Mechanics

    Aeronautics and Other Branches of the Subject

    Relative Motion

    Historical Development of Fluid Mechanics

    Dimensional Analysis


    The Equations of Motion

    The Navier-Stokes Equations

    Incompressible Flow

    "Inviscid" Flow and Bernoulli's Equation

    Shock Waves

    The Boundary-layer Approximation

    The Momentum Integral Equation

    Laminar Flow

    Turbulent Flow

    The Reynolds Stresses

    Duct Flow

    Compressible Flow outside Shear Layers

    Departures from Perfect-gas Behavior

    The Different Flow Regimes

    Categories of Experimental Work


    Chapter Two Tunnels and Test Rigs

    Wind Tunnel Layouts

    Closed-circuit Tunnels

    Open-circuit Tunnels

    Pressure Tunnels

    Power Requirements and Circuit Arrangements

    Transonic and Supersonic Tunnels


    Subsonic Diffusers

    Fans and Compressors

    Fan Design Methods

    Drive Arrangements

    Intermittent-running Tunnels


    Contractions and Nozzles

    Boundary-layer Behavior

    Effect of a Contraction on Velocity Variations

    Nozzles for High Speed Tunnels

    Design of Supersonic Divergent Nozzles


    Pressure-drop Coefficients of Screens


    Acceptable Values of Stream Turbulence

    Condensation in High-speed Tunnels

    Shock Tubes

    Shock Tunnels

    Reflected-shock Tunnels

    "Tailored" Operation

    Low-density Tunnels


    Chapter Three Fluid Velocity and Shear Stress Measurements

    Pitot Tubes

    Corrections to the Readings of Pitot Tubes in non-uniform Flow

    Static Pressure Measurements

    Fluctuating Pressure Measurements

    Flow Direction Measurements

    Flow Quantity Measurements

    Fluctuating Velocity Measurements - The Hot Wire Anemometer

    Hot Wire Probes

    Compensation for Thermal Inertia of Hot Wires

    Constant-temperature Hot-wire Operation

    The Doppler Anemometer

    Recording Techniques

    Measurement of Very Low Velocities

    Shear Stress Measurement

    Surface Pitot Tubes

    "Floating" Surface Elements

    Determination of Surface Friction from Overall Drag Measurements

    Use of the Momentum Integral Equation


    Chapter Four Pressure Measurements and Manometers

    Surface Pressure Measurements

    Lag in Connecting Leads Containing Gases

    Manometers and Pressure Gauges

    U-tube Manometers

    Betz Manometer

    Reservoir U-tubes

    Multi-tube Manometers

    Null-displacement Manometers

    Chattock Gauge

    Pressure Transducers

    Measurement of Low Absolute Pressures

    Pressure Fluctuation Measurements


    Chapter Five Force and Position Measurements

    The Null-displacement Method

    The Strain Method

    Forces on Tunnel Models

    Permanent Wind Tunnel Balances

    Resolution of Forces

    Balance Linkages


    Model Supports

    Strain Balances

    Resistance Strain Gauges

    Resolution of Forces

    Temperature Sensitivity

    Frequency Response

    Tunnel Interference

    Solid Blockage

    Wake Blockage

    Tunnel Wall Boundary-layer Blockage

    Lift Interference

    Aspect Ratio Corrections

    Corrections to Surface Pressure Distributions

    Permissible Model Size for a Given Tunnel

    Position Measurements

    Automatic Data Recording and Digital Processing


    Chapter Six Flow Visualization

    Streamlines of the External Stream

    Streamlines of the Surface Flow

    Surface Friction

    Extent of Turbulent Mixing Regions

    Shock Wave or Expansion Fan Position

    Flow Visualization Techniques and Interpretation


    "Smoke" or Dye

    Line Tracers

    Oil Films

    China Clay

    Shadow-graph or Direct-shadow Method

    Schlieren Method



    Chapter Seven The Planning and Reporting of Experiments

    Planning of Experiments

    The Experimental Program

    Experimental Errors

    Overall Accuracy

    Report Writing

    Curve Fitting


    Chapter Eight Specialized Branches of Fluid Mechanics


    Chemical Engineering



    Civil Engineering

    Heat Transfer and Combustion

    Hydraulics and Naval Architecture


    Turbo-machinery and Duct Flows



    Answers to Examples



Product details

  • No. of pages: 236
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483150987

About the Author

P Bradshaw

About the Editors

J. H. Horlock

W. A. Woods

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