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Experimental Endocrinology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955661, 9780323146777

Experimental Endocrinology

1st Edition

A Sourcebook of Basic Techniques

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Author: M Zarrow
eBook ISBN: 9780323146777
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 536
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Experimental Endocrinology: A Sourcebook of Basic Techniques focuses on techniques and methodologies used in conducting experiments on endocrinology. The manual discusses the sources, nature, action, and assays of hormones and estrogens. Biosynthesis, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of hormones; sites of estrogen formation; and biogenesis, metabolism, and mechanism of action are discussed.
The book also focuses on the nature, action, and assays of progestogens, relaxin, androgens, epinephrine and norepinephrine, adrenal corticoids, and thyroid hormones. Experiments are presented to show the varying effects of these hormones on animals. The manual also focuses on somatotropin, corticotropin, and thyrotropin. Sites of formation; nature of the hormones; action of STH, ACTH, and TSH; and biogenesis, metabolism, and mechanism of action are discussed. The book also discusses gonadotropins, oxytocin, vasopressin, and melanocyte stimulating hormone; parathormone; insulin and glucagon; and invertebrate hormones. The manual is a reliable source of information for students and readers interested in studying endocrinology.

Table of Contents


Chapter1 Introduction

Sources of the Hormones

Nature of the Hormones

Action of the Hormones

The Assay of Hormones

Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Mechanisms of Action of Hormones

Useful References in Endocrinology

Chapter 2 The Estrogens

Sites of Estrogen Formation

Nature of the Estrogens

Action of the Estrogens

The Assay of Estrogen

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action


Experiment 2-1. The Estrous Cycle

Experiment 2-2. Cyclic Running Activity and the Estrous Cycle

Experiment 2-3. Ovariectomy: Rat, Mouse, Guinea Pig

Experiment 2-4. Bioassay of Estrogens by the Vaginal Smear Technique

Experiment 2-5. Uterine Atrophy Following Castration

Experiment 2-6. Bioassay of Estrogens by the Increase in Uterine Weight

Experiment 2-7. The Effect of Estrogen on Oviduct Weight of the Immature Bird

Experiment 2-8. A Microbioassay Estrogen

Experiment 2-9. Suppressive Action of Various Steroids on Estradiol-Induced Uterine Growth

Experiment 2-10. Weight, Water Content, and Spontaneous Activity of the Uterus during the Estrous Cycle

Experiment 2-11. The Action of Estrogen on Serum Calcium Levels

Experiment 2-12. Extraction and Purification of Estrogens from Urine

Experiment 2-13. Modified Kober Reaction for Use with Purified Extracts Prepared in Experiment 2-12

Experiment 2-14. Extraction of Estrogens from Urine of Pregnancy (Simplified Procedure)

Experiment 2-15. Colorimetric Estimation of Urinary Estrogens by the Kober Reaction (Simplified Procedure)

Experiment 2-16. Fluorometric Estimation of Estrogens (Simplified Procedure)


Chapter 3 The Progestogens

Sites of Progestogen Formation

Nature of the Progestogens

Action of the Progestogens

The Assay of Progestogens

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 3-1. The Induction of Pseudopregnancy

Experiment 3-2. The Decidual Cell Reaction

Experiment 3-3. Assay of Progesterone by the Decidual Cell Response

Experiment 3-4. The Assay of Progesterone by Measures of Endometrial Proliferation

Experiment 3-5. The Assay of Progestogens by Stromal Cell Hypertrophy of the Mouse Uterus

Experiment 3-6. Assay of Progesterone by Estimation cf Carbonic Anhydrase of the Uterus

Experiment 3-7. Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on the Maintenance of Gestation

Experiment 3-8. Extraction and Estimation of Pregnanediol from Urine


Chapter 4 Relaxin

Sites of Relaxin Formation

Nature of Relaxin

Action of Relaxin

The Assay of Relaxin

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 4-1. Relaxation of the Pubic Symphysis of the Guinea Pig

Experiment 4-2. The Action of Relaxin on the Interpubic Ligament of the Mouse

Experiment 4-3. Measurement of the Interpubic Ligament of the Mouse during Gestation

Experiment 4-4. Inhibition of Contractions of the Uterus


Chapter 5 The Androgens

Sites of Androgen Production

Nature of the Androgens

Action of the Androgens

The Assay of Androgens

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action


Experiment 5-1. Orchidectomy in the Rodent

Experiment 5-2. Caponization of the Cockerel

Experiment 5-3. The Bioassay of Androgens by the Chick Comb Method

Experiment 5-4. The Bioassay of Androgens in the Rat or Mouse

Experiment 5—5. Androgenic Activity of Different Steroids

Experiment 5-6. Total Neutral 17-Ketosteroid Determination

Experiment 5-7. Myotropic Action of Androgens as Demonstrated by the Levator Ani Test

Experiment 5-8. The Effect of Androgens on Renal ß-Glucuronidase

Experiment 5-9. Electroejaculatory Test

Experiment 5-10. Male Sexual Behavior

Experiment 5—11. Fighting Behavior in Male Mice


Chapter 6 Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Sites of Formation

Nature of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Action of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Assay of the Medullary Hormones

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 6-1. Adrenal Demedullation

Experiment 6-2. Liver Glycogenolysis

Experiment 6-3. Effect of Catechol Amines on Blood Sugar

Experiment 6-4. Effect of Epinephrine on Corticotropin Release

Experiment 6-5. Smooth Muscle Contractions

Experiment 6-6. Effect of Catechol Amines on Blood Pressure

Experiment 6-7. Determination of Catechol Amines


Chapter 7 The Adrenal Corticoids

Sites of Formation of the Adrenal Corticoids

The Nature of the Adrenal Corticoids

Action of the Adrenal Corticoids

The Assay of the Adrenal Corticoids

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Synthetic Corticoids and Anticorticoids

Experiment 7-1. Adrenalectomy

Experiment 7-2. Self-Selection of Drinking Fluids by the Adrenalectomized Rat

Experiment 7-3. Survival of Adrenalectomized Rats

Experiment 7-4. Survival at Low Temperature

Experiment 7-5. Eosinophil Depletion

Experiment 7-6. Muscle Work

Experiment 7-7. Changes in Chemical Constituents of the Adrenal Gland

Experiment 7-8. Histology and Histochemistry of the Adrenal Cortex

Experiment 7-9. Paper Chromatographic Separation of Corticoids

Experiment 7-10. Determination of Plasma and Adrenal Corticosterone in the Rat

Experiment 7-11. Effect of Corticoids on Carbohydrate Metabolism: Steroid Diabetes in the Bird

Experiment 7-12. Effect of Corticoids on Carbohydrate Metabolism: Deposition of Liver Glycogen in the Bird

Experiment 7-13. Effect of Corticoids on Liver Glycogen Deposition in the Rat or Mouse


Chapter 8 The Thyroid Hormones

Site of Formation

Nature of Thyroid Hormones

Action of Thyroxine

Assay of Thyroxine

Biosynthesis, Mode of Action, and Metabolism of the Thyroid Hormone

Antithyroidal Agents

Experiment 8-1. Thyroidectomy in the Rat

Experiment 8-2a. Oxygen Consumption in the Rat: Effect of Thyroid and Antithyroidal Agents

Experiment 8-2b. Instructions for Using Respirometer

Experiment 8-3. Influence of Thyroid Function on Survival under Anoxic Conditions

Experiment 8-4. Metamorphosis of Tadpoles

Experiment 8-5. Protein-Bound Iodine

Experiment 8-6. Thyroid and Plasma Cholesterol

Experiment 8-7. Rate of Radioiodine Uptake by the Thyroid Gland of the Rat

Experiment 8-8. T3 Binding by Erythrocytes as a Diagnostic Test for Thyroid Function

Experiment 8-9. Determination of the Rate of Thyroxine Secretion


Chapter 9 Somatotropin, Corticotropin, and Thyrotropin

Sites of Formation

Nature of the Hormones

Action of STH, ACTH, and TSH

Assay of Somatotropin, Corticotropin, and Thyrotropin

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 9-1. Growth Stimulation in Mice or Rats

Experiment 9-2. Preparation of a Pituitary Growth Hormone Extract

Experiment 9-3. Response of the Tibia to Somatotropin

Experiment 9-4. Effect of Corticotropin (ACTH) on Adrenal Weight of the Bird

Experiment 9-4a. Effect of ACTH on the Adrenal Weight of the Rat

Experiment 9-5. Effect of Corticotropin on Adrenal Ascorbic Acid and Cholesterol Levels

Experiment 9-6. In Vitro Steroidogenesis with ACTH

Experiment 9-7. Thyrotropin and the Thyroid Gland Weight of the Chick

Experiment 9-8. Direct Measurement of Thyroid Epithelial Height as an Index of Thyrotropic Action

Experiment 9-9. Experimental Exophthalmos in Fish

Experiment 9-10. Thyroid Depletion of Radioiodine


Chapter 10 The Gonadotropins

Site of Formation

Nature of the Gonadotropins

Action of the Gonadotropins

Assay of the Gonadotropins

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 10-1. Hypophysectomy, Parapharyngeal Approach

Experiment 10-2. Hypophysectomy, Intra-aural Method

Experiment 10-3. Hypophysectomy of the Chicken

Experiment 10-4. Transplantation of the Hypophysis

Experiment 10-5. Parabiosis in Rats

Experiment 10-6. The Production of Electrolytic Lesions in the Hypothalamus

Experiment 10-7. The Extraction of Human Pituitary Gonadotropins from Urine—Kaolin Adsorption Method

Experiment 10-8. The Extraction of Human Pituitary Gonadotropins from Urine—Alcohol Precipitation Method

Experiment 10-9. The Assay of FSH by Increase in Uterine Weight of the Mouse

Experiment 10-10. The Assay of FSH by HCG Augmentation

Experiment 10-11. The Assay of LH by Increase in Weight of the Ventral Prostate Gland of the Rat

Experiment 10-12. Superovulation with LH or HCG

Experiment 10-13. Assay of LH by Depletion of Ascorbic Acid of the Ovary

Experiment 10-14. The Assay of HCG by Vaginal Cornification

Experiment 10-15. The Assay of Prolactin by the Pigeon Crop Sac Method

Experiment 10-16. Diagnosis of Pregnancy by the Presence of HCG in Urine


Chapter 11 Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Sites of Hormone Formation

Nature of the Neurohypophyseal Hormones

Action of the Neurohypophyseal Hormones

The Assay of Posterior Pituitary Hormones

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Sites of Formation of MSH

Nature of the Hormones of the Pars Intermedia

Action of MSH

The Assay of MSH

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 11—1. Effect of Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Uterine Contractility

Experiment 11-2. Effect of Oxytocin on the Mammary Gland

Experiment 11-3. Assay for Oxytocic Substances

Experiment 11-4. Action of ADH in the Frog

Experiment 11-5. The Assay of ADH in the Rat

Experiment 11-6. The Assay of MSH by Use of the Melanophore Index


Chapter 12 Parathormone

Site of Formation

Nature of Parathormone

Action of Parathormone

Assay of Parathormone

Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

Experiment 12-1. Parathyroidectomy

Experiment 12-2. Withdrawal of Blood

Experiment 12-3. Parathyroidectomy, Survival Time, and Serum Calcium Levels

Experiment 12-4. Effect of Parathormone on Serum Calcium

Experiment 12-5. Self-Selection of Calcium


Chapter 13 Insulin and Glucagon

Sites of Formation

Nature of Insulin and Glucagon

Action of the Pancreatic Hormones

Assay of Pancreatic Hormones

Metabolism and Mechanisms of Action

Experiment 13-1. Pancreatectomy in the Rat

Experiment 13-2. Analysis of Urine and Blood

Experiment 13-3. Alloxan Diabetes

Experiment 13-4. Insulin Convulsions in Mice

Experiment 13-5. Insulin Hypoglycemia in the Rabbit

Experiment 13-6. Insulin Hypoglycemia in Fish

Experiment 13-7. Glucose Tolerance Response in Rats

Experiment 13-8. Effect of Insulin on the Uptake of Glucose by Isolated Muscle

Experiment 13-9. Hyperglycemic Agents


Chapter 14 The Invertebrate Hormones

Regulation of Molting and Growth in the Insecta

Regulation of Molting and Growth in the Crustacea: X-Organ and Y-Organ Hormones

Regulation of Reproduction; Hormones of the Corpus Allatum, X-Organ, and Medial Neurosecretory Brain Cells in Insects and Crustacea

Pigmentary Controls in Crustacea

Activity Rhythms


Regulation of Blood Carbohydrate Level

Regulation of the Rate of Heart Beat

Regulation of Water Balance

Experiment 14-1. Puparium Formation in Diptera

Experiment 14-2. Removal of the Lepidopteran Brain

Experiment 14-3. Juvenile Hormone and Allatectomy of the Cockroach

Experiment 14-4. Preparation of Isolated Abdomens of Lepidoptera

Experiment 14-5. Crustacean Eyestalks and Molting

Experiment 14-6. Eye Pigment Migration in Crustacea

Experiment 14-7. Control of Chromatophores in Crustacea

Experiment 14—8. Endocrine Control of Rhythmic Activity in Blattaria

Experiment 14-9. Control of Timing in the Rhythmic Activity of Blattaria

Experiment 14—10. Role of the Subesophageal Ganglia in Rhythmic Activity

Experiment 14-11. Caste Determination in Termites



A-l. Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

A-2. Animal Hormones

A-3. International Standard Units (IU)

A-4. Steroid Structures and Nomenclature

A-5. Vehicles for the Administration of Hormones

A-6. Solubility of Some Common Steroid Hormones

A-7. Anesthetic Dosage Table for Laboratory Animals

A-8. Physiological Fluids for Isolated Tissues

A-9. Miscellaneous Fluids

A-10. Scheme for Marking Animals by Ear Punch

A-ll. Sources and Maintenance of Invertebrates

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1964
1st January 1964
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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M Zarrow

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