Experimental Endocrinology

Experimental Endocrinology

A Sourcebook of Basic Techniques

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Author: M Zarrow
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146777

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Experimental Endocrinology: A Sourcebook of Basic Techniques focuses on techniques and methodologies used in conducting experiments on endocrinology. The manual discusses the sources, nature, action, and assays of hormones and estrogens. Biosynthesis, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of hormones; sites of estrogen formation; and biogenesis, metabolism, and mechanism of action are discussed. The book also focuses on the nature, action, and assays of progestogens, relaxin, androgens, epinephrine and norepinephrine, adrenal corticoids, and thyroid hormones. Experiments are presented to show the varying effects of these hormones on animals. The manual also focuses on somatotropin, corticotropin, and thyrotropin. Sites of formation; nature of the hormones; action of STH, ACTH, and TSH; and biogenesis, metabolism, and mechanism of action are discussed. The book also discusses gonadotropins, oxytocin, vasopressin, and melanocyte stimulating hormone; parathormone; insulin and glucagon; and invertebrate hormones. The manual is a reliable source of information for students and readers interested in studying endocrinology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter1 Introduction

    Sources of the Hormones

    Nature of the Hormones

    Action of the Hormones

    The Assay of Hormones

    Biosynthesis, Metabolism, and Mechanisms of Action of Hormones

    Useful References in Endocrinology

    Chapter 2 The Estrogens

    Sites of Estrogen Formation

    Nature of the Estrogens

    Action of the Estrogens

    The Assay of Estrogen

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action


    Experiment 2-1. The Estrous Cycle

    Experiment 2-2. Cyclic Running Activity and the Estrous Cycle

    Experiment 2-3. Ovariectomy: Rat, Mouse, Guinea Pig

    Experiment 2-4. Bioassay of Estrogens by the Vaginal Smear Technique

    Experiment 2-5. Uterine Atrophy Following Castration

    Experiment 2-6. Bioassay of Estrogens by the Increase in Uterine Weight

    Experiment 2-7. The Effect of Estrogen on Oviduct Weight of the Immature Bird

    Experiment 2-8. A Microbioassay Estrogen

    Experiment 2-9. Suppressive Action of Various Steroids on Estradiol-Induced Uterine Growth

    Experiment 2-10. Weight, Water Content, and Spontaneous Activity of the Uterus during the Estrous Cycle

    Experiment 2-11. The Action of Estrogen on Serum Calcium Levels

    Experiment 2-12. Extraction and Purification of Estrogens from Urine

    Experiment 2-13. Modified Kober Reaction for Use with Purified Extracts Prepared in Experiment 2-12

    Experiment 2-14. Extraction of Estrogens from Urine of Pregnancy (Simplified Procedure)

    Experiment 2-15. Colorimetric Estimation of Urinary Estrogens by the Kober Reaction (Simplified Procedure)

    Experiment 2-16. Fluorometric Estimation of Estrogens (Simplified Procedure)


    Chapter 3 The Progestogens

    Sites of Progestogen Formation

    Nature of the Progestogens

    Action of the Progestogens

    The Assay of Progestogens

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 3-1. The Induction of Pseudopregnancy

    Experiment 3-2. The Decidual Cell Reaction

    Experiment 3-3. Assay of Progesterone by the Decidual Cell Response

    Experiment 3-4. The Assay of Progesterone by Measures of Endometrial Proliferation

    Experiment 3-5. The Assay of Progestogens by Stromal Cell Hypertrophy of the Mouse Uterus

    Experiment 3-6. Assay of Progesterone by Estimation cf Carbonic Anhydrase of the Uterus

    Experiment 3-7. Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on the Maintenance of Gestation

    Experiment 3-8. Extraction and Estimation of Pregnanediol from Urine


    Chapter 4 Relaxin

    Sites of Relaxin Formation

    Nature of Relaxin

    Action of Relaxin

    The Assay of Relaxin

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 4-1. Relaxation of the Pubic Symphysis of the Guinea Pig

    Experiment 4-2. The Action of Relaxin on the Interpubic Ligament of the Mouse

    Experiment 4-3. Measurement of the Interpubic Ligament of the Mouse during Gestation

    Experiment 4-4. Inhibition of Contractions of the Uterus


    Chapter 5 The Androgens

    Sites of Androgen Production

    Nature of the Androgens

    Action of the Androgens

    The Assay of Androgens

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action


    Experiment 5-1. Orchidectomy in the Rodent

    Experiment 5-2. Caponization of the Cockerel

    Experiment 5-3. The Bioassay of Androgens by the Chick Comb Method

    Experiment 5-4. The Bioassay of Androgens in the Rat or Mouse

    Experiment 5—5. Androgenic Activity of Different Steroids

    Experiment 5-6. Total Neutral 17-Ketosteroid Determination

    Experiment 5-7. Myotropic Action of Androgens as Demonstrated by the Levator Ani Test

    Experiment 5-8. The Effect of Androgens on Renal ß-Glucuronidase

    Experiment 5-9. Electroejaculatory Test

    Experiment 5-10. Male Sexual Behavior

    Experiment 5—11. Fighting Behavior in Male Mice


    Chapter 6 Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Sites of Formation

    Nature of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Action of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Assay of the Medullary Hormones

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 6-1. Adrenal Demedullation

    Experiment 6-2. Liver Glycogenolysis

    Experiment 6-3. Effect of Catechol Amines on Blood Sugar

    Experiment 6-4. Effect of Epinephrine on Corticotropin Release

    Experiment 6-5. Smooth Muscle Contractions

    Experiment 6-6. Effect of Catechol Amines on Blood Pressure

    Experiment 6-7. Determination of Catechol Amines


    Chapter 7 The Adrenal Corticoids

    Sites of Formation of the Adrenal Corticoids

    The Nature of the Adrenal Corticoids

    Action of the Adrenal Corticoids

    The Assay of the Adrenal Corticoids

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Synthetic Corticoids and Anticorticoids

    Experiment 7-1. Adrenalectomy

    Experiment 7-2. Self-Selection of Drinking Fluids by the Adrenalectomized Rat

    Experiment 7-3. Survival of Adrenalectomized Rats

    Experiment 7-4. Survival at Low Temperature

    Experiment 7-5. Eosinophil Depletion

    Experiment 7-6. Muscle Work

    Experiment 7-7. Changes in Chemical Constituents of the Adrenal Gland

    Experiment 7-8. Histology and Histochemistry of the Adrenal Cortex

    Experiment 7-9. Paper Chromatographic Separation of Corticoids

    Experiment 7-10. Determination of Plasma and Adrenal Corticosterone in the Rat

    Experiment 7-11. Effect of Corticoids on Carbohydrate Metabolism: Steroid Diabetes in the Bird

    Experiment 7-12. Effect of Corticoids on Carbohydrate Metabolism: Deposition of Liver Glycogen in the Bird

    Experiment 7-13. Effect of Corticoids on Liver Glycogen Deposition in the Rat or Mouse


    Chapter 8 The Thyroid Hormones

    Site of Formation

    Nature of Thyroid Hormones

    Action of Thyroxine

    Assay of Thyroxine

    Biosynthesis, Mode of Action, and Metabolism of the Thyroid Hormone

    Antithyroidal Agents

    Experiment 8-1. Thyroidectomy in the Rat

    Experiment 8-2a. Oxygen Consumption in the Rat: Effect of Thyroid and Antithyroidal Agents

    Experiment 8-2b. Instructions for Using Respirometer

    Experiment 8-3. Influence of Thyroid Function on Survival under Anoxic Conditions

    Experiment 8-4. Metamorphosis of Tadpoles

    Experiment 8-5. Protein-Bound Iodine

    Experiment 8-6. Thyroid and Plasma Cholesterol

    Experiment 8-7. Rate of Radioiodine Uptake by the Thyroid Gland of the Rat

    Experiment 8-8. T3 Binding by Erythrocytes as a Diagnostic Test for Thyroid Function

    Experiment 8-9. Determination of the Rate of Thyroxine Secretion


    Chapter 9 Somatotropin, Corticotropin, and Thyrotropin

    Sites of Formation

    Nature of the Hormones

    Action of STH, ACTH, and TSH

    Assay of Somatotropin, Corticotropin, and Thyrotropin

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 9-1. Growth Stimulation in Mice or Rats

    Experiment 9-2. Preparation of a Pituitary Growth Hormone Extract

    Experiment 9-3. Response of the Tibia to Somatotropin

    Experiment 9-4. Effect of Corticotropin (ACTH) on Adrenal Weight of the Bird

    Experiment 9-4a. Effect of ACTH on the Adrenal Weight of the Rat

    Experiment 9-5. Effect of Corticotropin on Adrenal Ascorbic Acid and Cholesterol Levels

    Experiment 9-6. In Vitro Steroidogenesis with ACTH

    Experiment 9-7. Thyrotropin and the Thyroid Gland Weight of the Chick

    Experiment 9-8. Direct Measurement of Thyroid Epithelial Height as an Index of Thyrotropic Action

    Experiment 9-9. Experimental Exophthalmos in Fish

    Experiment 9-10. Thyroid Depletion of Radioiodine


    Chapter 10 The Gonadotropins

    Site of Formation

    Nature of the Gonadotropins

    Action of the Gonadotropins

    Assay of the Gonadotropins

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 10-1. Hypophysectomy, Parapharyngeal Approach

    Experiment 10-2. Hypophysectomy, Intra-aural Method

    Experiment 10-3. Hypophysectomy of the Chicken

    Experiment 10-4. Transplantation of the Hypophysis

    Experiment 10-5. Parabiosis in Rats

    Experiment 10-6. The Production of Electrolytic Lesions in the Hypothalamus

    Experiment 10-7. The Extraction of Human Pituitary Gonadotropins from Urine—Kaolin Adsorption Method

    Experiment 10-8. The Extraction of Human Pituitary Gonadotropins from Urine—Alcohol Precipitation Method

    Experiment 10-9. The Assay of FSH by Increase in Uterine Weight of the Mouse

    Experiment 10-10. The Assay of FSH by HCG Augmentation

    Experiment 10-11. The Assay of LH by Increase in Weight of the Ventral Prostate Gland of the Rat

    Experiment 10-12. Superovulation with LH or HCG

    Experiment 10-13. Assay of LH by Depletion of Ascorbic Acid of the Ovary

    Experiment 10-14. The Assay of HCG by Vaginal Cornification

    Experiment 10-15. The Assay of Prolactin by the Pigeon Crop Sac Method

    Experiment 10-16. Diagnosis of Pregnancy by the Presence of HCG in Urine


    Chapter 11 Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

    Sites of Hormone Formation

    Nature of the Neurohypophyseal Hormones

    Action of the Neurohypophyseal Hormones

    The Assay of Posterior Pituitary Hormones

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Sites of Formation of MSH

    Nature of the Hormones of the Pars Intermedia

    Action of MSH

    The Assay of MSH

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 11—1. Effect of Oxytocin and Vasopressin on Uterine Contractility

    Experiment 11-2. Effect of Oxytocin on the Mammary Gland

    Experiment 11-3. Assay for Oxytocic Substances

    Experiment 11-4. Action of ADH in the Frog

    Experiment 11-5. The Assay of ADH in the Rat

    Experiment 11-6. The Assay of MSH by Use of the Melanophore Index


    Chapter 12 Parathormone

    Site of Formation

    Nature of Parathormone

    Action of Parathormone

    Assay of Parathormone

    Biogenesis, Metabolism, and Mechanism of Action

    Experiment 12-1. Parathyroidectomy

    Experiment 12-2. Withdrawal of Blood

    Experiment 12-3. Parathyroidectomy, Survival Time, and Serum Calcium Levels

    Experiment 12-4. Effect of Parathormone on Serum Calcium

    Experiment 12-5. Self-Selection of Calcium


    Chapter 13 Insulin and Glucagon

    Sites of Formation

    Nature of Insulin and Glucagon

    Action of the Pancreatic Hormones

    Assay of Pancreatic Hormones

    Metabolism and Mechanisms of Action

    Experiment 13-1. Pancreatectomy in the Rat

    Experiment 13-2. Analysis of Urine and Blood

    Experiment 13-3. Alloxan Diabetes

    Experiment 13-4. Insulin Convulsions in Mice

    Experiment 13-5. Insulin Hypoglycemia in the Rabbit

    Experiment 13-6. Insulin Hypoglycemia in Fish

    Experiment 13-7. Glucose Tolerance Response in Rats

    Experiment 13-8. Effect of Insulin on the Uptake of Glucose by Isolated Muscle

    Experiment 13-9. Hyperglycemic Agents


    Chapter 14 The Invertebrate Hormones

    Regulation of Molting and Growth in the Insecta

    Regulation of Molting and Growth in the Crustacea: X-Organ and Y-Organ Hormones

    Regulation of Reproduction; Hormones of the Corpus Allatum, X-Organ, and Medial Neurosecretory Brain Cells in Insects and Crustacea

    Pigmentary Controls in Crustacea

    Activity Rhythms


    Regulation of Blood Carbohydrate Level

    Regulation of the Rate of Heart Beat

    Regulation of Water Balance

    Experiment 14-1. Puparium Formation in Diptera

    Experiment 14-2. Removal of the Lepidopteran Brain

    Experiment 14-3. Juvenile Hormone and Allatectomy of the Cockroach

    Experiment 14-4. Preparation of Isolated Abdomens of Lepidoptera

    Experiment 14-5. Crustacean Eyestalks and Molting

    Experiment 14-6. Eye Pigment Migration in Crustacea

    Experiment 14-7. Control of Chromatophores in Crustacea

    Experiment 14—8. Endocrine Control of Rhythmic Activity in Blattaria

    Experiment 14-9. Control of Timing in the Rhythmic Activity of Blattaria

    Experiment 14—10. Role of the Subesophageal Ganglia in Rhythmic Activity

    Experiment 14-11. Caste Determination in Termites



    A-l. Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

    A-2. Animal Hormones

    A-3. International Standard Units (IU)

    A-4. Steroid Structures and Nomenclature

    A-5. Vehicles for the Administration of Hormones

    A-6. Solubility of Some Common Steroid Hormones

    A-7. Anesthetic Dosage Table for Laboratory Animals

    A-8. Physiological Fluids for Isolated Tissues

    A-9. Miscellaneous Fluids

    A-10. Scheme for Marking Animals by Ear Punch

    A-ll. Sources and Maintenance of Invertebrates

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146777

About the Author

M Zarrow

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