Exotic Plant Pests and North American Agriculture

Exotic Plant Pests and North American Agriculture

1st Edition - December 1, 1983

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  • Editor: Charles Wilson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146722

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Exotic Plant Pests and North American Agriculture examines the threat posed by exotic pests introduced to North American agriculture. It considers the impact of introduced pests on humans, and it highlights the need for intensified research efforts and international cooperation to prevent further introductions. Organized into 17 chapters plus an epilogue, this volume begins with a historical overview of pest introductions, including insects and mites, and possible introductions in the future. It then discusses the impact of introduced weeds in North America; ecology and genetics of exotic species; how to detect and stop pest introductions; and research on exotic insects, plant pathogens, and weeds. The reader is also introduced to the use of exotic natural enemies for biological control of exotic pests, prediction of potential epidemics caused by exotic pests, insurance against exotic plant pathogens, and international cooperation on controlling exotic pests. Scientists, plant pathologists, ecologists, and those working in academics, government research laboratories, and regulatory agencies will benefit from reading this book.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Impact of Introduced Pests on Man

    I. Diseases of Crop Plants

    II. Weeds

    III. Insects


    2. History of Insect Introductions

    I. introduction

    II. Biogeographic Considerations

    III. Modes of Entry

    IV. Incremental Increase in Foreign Species, 1620-1980

    V. Composition of Present Immigrant Fauna

    VI. Economic Status of Immigrant Insects and Mites

    VII. Geographic Origins of Immigrant Fauna

    VIII. Conclusions


    3. History of Plant Pathogen Introductions

    I. Hypothesis

    II. Logic

    III. Plant Introduction as a Government Activity

    IV. Entrance of Pathogens with Hosts

    V. Return of Native Plants from Abroad

    VI. Entrance of Pathogens without Hosts

    VII. Entrance of Hosts without Pathogens

    VIII. The Importance of Alternate Hosts

    IX. The Importance of Vectors

    X. Introduction of Pathogens by Travelers

    XI. Variable Host Range

    XII. Chance of Establishment

    XIII. Changing Virulence of Pathogens

    XIV. Changing Susceptibility of Hosts

    XV. Pathogens Introduced into the United States

    XVI. Pathogens Exported from the United States

    XVII. Other Pathogens of World Interest

    XVIII. Discussion


    4. History of Weed Introductions

    I. Introduction

    II. The Importance of Introduced Weeds in North America

    III. The Nature of Weeds

    IV. Modes of Weed Introduction

    V. A Chronicle of Weed Introductions in North America

    VI. Legal Considerations

    VII. Synopsis and Conclusions


    5. Where Are the Exotic Insect Threats?

    I. Introduction

    II. Recognition of Insect Pest Species

    III. Characteristics of Organisms That Influence Pest Status

    IV. Domestic Pest Threats

    V. Conclusions and Recommendations


    6. Where Are the Exotic Disease Threats?

    I. Introduction

    II. Awareness of Exotic Diseases and Exotic Disease Threats

    III. Realization or Actualization of Exotic Diseases in Our Agriculture

    IV. Where Are the Exotic Diseases?

    V. Conclusions


    7. Where Are the Principal Exotic Weed Pests?

    I. Definition of a Weed

    II. Distribution of Weeds

    III. Evaluating Exotic Plants

    IV. Exotic Weeds That May Threaten U.S. Agriculture

    V. Concluding Comments

    Appendix 1

    Appendix 2


    8. Ecology and Genetics of Exotics

    I. Introduction

    II. Density Dependence and Density Independence

    III. Temperature

    IV. Moisture

    V. Other Factors

    VI. Biological Competition

    VII. Natural versus Agricultural Ecosystems

    VIII. Stability-Complexity of Natural Ecosystems

    IX. Genetic Interactions

    X. Conclusions


    9. Stopping Pest Introductions

    I. Legal Basis for Stopping Pest Introductions

    II. Pest Risk Reduction System

    III. Suppression and Eradication Programs for Introduced Exotics

    IV. New Trends for New Problems

    V. Conclusions


    10. How to Detect and Combat Exotic Pests

    I. Introduction

    II. History of Regulatory Plant Protection

    III. Exotic Component of the World Biotas

    IV. Biological Basis of Regulatory Plant Protection

    V. Plant Pest Information

    VI. Integrated Approach to Plant Protection

    VII. Plant Quarantine and Inspection

    VIII. Pest Detection and Monitoring

    IX. Regulatory Control Strategies

    X. Conclusion and Summary


    11. Research on Exotic Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Research Approaches

    III. Research Institutions

    IV. Conclusions

    Appendix 1

    Appendix 2

    Appendix 3


    12. Research on Exotic Plant Pathogens

    I. Introduction

    II. How Well Can We Predict?

    III. Potential of Exotic Pathogens

    IV. Stopping the Would-Be Invaders

    V. Preparing for Invasions

    VI. What Should Our Focus Be?


    13. Research on Exotic Weeds

    I. Introduction

    II. Research on Individual Species

    III. Interaction of Exotic Weeds with Other Organisms

    IV. Research on Control of Exotic Weeds

    V. Conclusions


    14. Biological Control: Exotic Natural Enemies to Control Exotic Pests

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory and Practice of Classical Biological Control

    III. Factors Affecting Success in Classical Biological Control

    IV. Summary and Conclusion


    15. Prediction Capabilities for Potential Epidemics

    I. Introduction

    II. A Two-Part Problem

    III. Modeling


    16. Buying Insurance against Exotic Plant Pathogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Diversity and Disease Loss

    III. When Diversity Is Lacking

    IV. Diversity in Agroecosystems as Insurance

    V. Fungicides, Diversity, and Insurance

    VI. Insurance Value of Different Types of Resistance

    VII. Tolerance to Disease as Insurance

    VIII. Geophytopathology and Insurance

    IX. Concluding Remarks


    17. International Cooperation on Controlling Exotic Pests

    I. Introduction

    II. International Plant Protection Convention

    III. Regional Plant Protection Organizations

    IV. International Programs, PPQ, APHIS, USDA

    V. Conclusions

    Appendix: Regional Plant Protection Organizations




Product details

  • No. of pages: 538
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: December 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146722

About the Editor

Charles Wilson

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