Exergy - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080970899, 9780080970905


2nd Edition

Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

Authors: Ibrahim Dincer Marc A. Rosen
eBook ISBN: 9780080970905
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080970899
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 23rd November 2012
Page Count: 576
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This book deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents.

Key Features

  • Offers comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications, along with the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments
  • Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies
  • Written in an easy-to-follow style, starting from the basics to advanced systems


Upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students, researchers, scientists and engineers studying or working in mechanical, chemical, energy, environmental, process, and industrial engineering.

Table of Contents



About the Authors

Chapter 1. Thermodynamic Fundamentals

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Energy

1.3 Entropy

1.4 Exergy

1.5 Illustrative Examples

1.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 2. Exergy and Energy Analyses

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Why Energy and Exergy Analyses?

2.3 Nomenclature

2.4 Balances for Mass, Energy, and Entropy

2.5 Exergy of Systems and Flows

2.6 Exergy Consumption

2.7 Exergy Balance

2.8 Reference Environment

2.9 Efficiencies and Other Measures of Merit

2.10 Procedure for Energy and Exergy Analyses

2.11 Energy and Exergy Properties

2.12 Implications of Results of Exergy Analyses

2.13 Closing Remarks


Chapter 3. Chemical Exergy

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Chemical Exergy Definition

3.3 Chemical Exergy for Solid Species

3.4 Chemical Exergy of Gas Mixtures

3.5 Chemical Exergy of Nonenvironmental Substances and Fuels

3.6 Effect of Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure and Environment Composition on Chemical Exergy

3.7 Case Study: CCPP with Supplemental Firing

3.8 Closing Remarks


Chapter 4. Exergy, Environment And Sustainable Development

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Exergy and Environmental Problems

4.3 Exergy and Sustainable Development

4.4 Illustrative Example

4.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 5. Applications of Exergy in Industry

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Questions Surrounding Industry’s Use of Exergy

5.3 Advantages and Benefits of Using Exergy

5.4 Understanding Energy Conservation Through Exergy

5.5 Disadvantages and Drawbacks of Using Exergy

5.6 Possible Measures to Increase Applications of Exergy in Industry

5.7 Closing Remarks


Chapter 6. Exergy Analysis of Psychrometric Processes

6.1 Basic Psychrometric Concepts

6.2 Balance and Efficiency Equations for Air-Conditioning Processes

6.3 Case Studies

6.4 Operation and Design of Experimental System

6.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 7. Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 System Description

7.3 General Analysis

7.4 System Exergy Analysis

7.5 Results and Discussion

7.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 8. Exergy Analysis of Absorption Cooling Systems

8.1 Introduction

8.2 ACSs

8.3 System Descriptions

8.4 Energy and Exergy Analyses

8.5 Performance and Efficiency

8.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 9. Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principal Thermodynamic Considerations in TES

9.3 Exergy Evaluation of a Closed TES System

9.4 Relations between Temperature and Efficiency for Sensible TES

9.5 Exergy Analysis of Thermally Stratified Storages

9.6 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Cold TES Systems

9.7 Exergy Analysis of Aquifer TES Systems

9.8 Examples and Case Studies

9.9 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 10. Exergy Analysis of Drying Processes and Systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Exergy Losses Associated with Drying

10.3 Analysis

10.4 Importance of Matching Supply and End-Use Heat for Drying

10.5 Illustrative Example

10.6 Energy Analysis of Fluidized Bed Drying of Moist Particles

10.7 Exergy Analysis of Advanced Drying System: Industrial Wood Chips Drying

10.8 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11. Exergy Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems

11.1 Exergy Analysis of Solar PV Systems

11.2 Exergy Analysis of Solar Ponds

11.3 Solar Exergy Maps

11.4 Exergy Analysis of Wind Energy Systems

11.5 Exergy Analysis of Geothermal Energy Systems

11.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 12. Exergy Analysis of Steam Power Plants

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Analysis

12.3 Spreadsheet Calculation Approaches

12.4 Example: Analysis of a Coal Steam Power Plant

12.5 Example: Impact on Power Plant Efficiencies of Varying Boiler Temperature and Pressure

12.6 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of Coal-Fired and Nuclear Steam Power Plants

12.7 Improving Steam Power Plant Efficiency

12.8 Closing Remarks


Chapter 13. Exergy Analysis of Cogeneration and District Energy Systems

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Cogeneration

13.3 District Energy

13.4 Integrated Systems for Cogeneration and District Energy

13.5 Simplified Illustrations of the Benefits of Cogeneration

13.6 Case Study for Cogeneration-Based District Energy

13.7 Closing Remarks


Chapter 14. Exergy Analysis of Integrated Trigeneration and Multigeneration Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Trigeneration

14.3 Multigeneration

14.4 Integrated Multigeneration Systems

14.5 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Trigeneration System

14.6 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Multigeneration System

14.7 Closing Remarks


Chapter 15. Exergy Analysis of Cryogenic and Liquefaction Systems

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Gas Liquefaction Systems

15.3 Exergy Analysis of a Multistage Cascade Refrigeration Cycle for Natural Gas Liquefaction

15.4 Exergy Analysis of an Integrated Hydrogen Liquefaction Using Geothermal Energy

15.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 16. Exergy Analysis of Crude Oil Distillation Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Analysis Approach and Assumptions

16.3 Description of Crude Oil Distillation System Analyzed

16.4 System Simulation

16.5 Energy and Exergy Analyses

16.6 Results and Discussion

16.7 Closing Remarks


Chapter 17. Exergy Analysis of Hydrogen Production Systems

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Hydrogen Production Processes

17.3 Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

17.4 Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energy

17.5 Case Studies

17.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 18. Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Background

18.3 Exergy Analysis of a PEM Fuel Cell Power System

18.4 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Combined SOFC–Gas-Turbine Systems

18.5 Exergy Analysis of Advanced Fuel Cell Systems: MCFCS

18.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 19. Exergy Analysis of Aircraft Flight Systems

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Exergy Analysis of a Turbojet

19.3 Flight Characteristics

19.4 Cumulative Rational Efficiency

19.5 Cumulative Exergy Loss

19.6 Contribution of Exhaust Gas Emission to Cumulative Exergy Loss

19.7 Breakdown of Exergy of Exhaust Gas Emission

19.8 Closing Remarks


Chapter 20. Exergoeconomic Analysis of Thermal Systems

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Economic Aspects of Exergy

20.3 Modeling and Analysis

20.4 Key Difference between Economic and Thermodynamic Balances

20.5 Example: Coal-Fired Electricity Generation

20.6 Case Study: Electricity Generation from Various Sources

20.7 Exergoeconomics Extended: Exergy, Cost, Energy, and Mass Analysis

20.8 Specific Exergy Cost Analysis

20.9 Closing Remarks


Chapter 21. Exergy Analysis of Countries, Regions, and Economic Sectors

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Background and Objective

21.3 Applying Exergy to Macrosystems

21.4 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Utilization in Saudi Arabia

21.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 22. Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment

22.1 Introduction

22.2 LCA

22.3 Exergetic LCA

22.4 Case Study 1: EXLCA of Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Vehicles

22.5 Case Study 2: EXLCA of a Nuclear-Based Hydrogen Production Process

22.6 Closing Remarks


Chapter 23. Exergy and Industrial Ecology

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Industrial Ecology

23.3 Linkage between Exergy and Industrial Ecology

23.4 Illustrative Example

23.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 24. Exergy and Multiobjective Optimization

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Optimization Formulations

24.3 Optimization Methods

24.4 Multiobjective Optimization

24.5 Illustrative Example: Air Compressor Optimization

24.6 Case Study: GT Power Generation Plant

24.7 Closing Remarks

Chapter 25. Exergy in Policy Development and Education

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Exergy Methods for Analysis and Design

25.3 The Role and Place for Exergy in Energy-Related Education and Awareness Policies

25.4 The Role and Place for Exergy in Education Policies

25.5 Closing Remarks


Chapter 26. Closing Remarks and Future Expectations

Appendix A. Glossary of Selected Terminology

General Thermodynamic Terms

Exergy Quantities

Exergy Consumption, Energy Degradation, and Irreversibility

Environment and Reference Environment

Efficiencies and Other Measures

Energy and Exergy Methods

Economics and Exergy

Appendix B. Conversion Factors

Appendix C. Thermophysical Properties


Greek Letters







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© Elsevier Science 2013
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

Ibrahim Dincer

Dr. Ibrahim Dincer is full Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada. He is also Vice President for Strategy of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and Vice-President of the World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (WSSET). Renowned for his pioneering work on sustainable energy technologies, he has authored and co-authored numerous books and book chapters, more than a thousand refereed journal and conference papers, as well as technical reports. He has chaired national and international conferences, symposia, workshops and technical meetings. He has delivered more than 300 keynote and invited lectures. His main research interests include energy conversion and management, hydrogen and fuel cell systems and renewable energy technologies. Dr. Dincer is an active member of various scientific societies, and serves as Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board member on several international journals, including Elsevier`s International Journal of Hydrogen Energy and Applied Energy. Dr. Dincer has received research, teaching and service awards, including the Premier’s Research Excellence Award in Ontario, Canada, in 2004. More recently, he has been identified as one of the 2014, 2015 and 2016 Most Influential Scientific Minds in Engineering. This honor, presented by Thomson Reuters, is given to researchers who rank in the top 1% for number of citations in their subject field in a given year.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Oshawa, Canada

Marc A. Rosen

Marc A. Rosen is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering and the founding Editor-in-Chief of Sustainability. He has written numerous books and journal articles. Professor Rosen received the President's Award from the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering in 2012. Currently, he is a Professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, where he served as founding Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada


"This thorough text examines the concept and its applications, beginning with the basics of thermodynamics in which all energy-related variables are based and continuing into relevant aspects of industrial development, psychrometric processes, heat pump systems, thermal energy storage and drying processes and systems, and renewable energy systems.. This is the second edition, expanded and covering both theoretical and practical aspects."--ProtoView.com, February 2014