Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development

2nd Edition - November 23, 2012

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  • Authors: Ibrahim Dincer, Marc Rosen
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080970905

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Exergy, Second Edition deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents.

Key Features

  • Offers comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications, along with the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments
  • Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development
  • Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies
  • Written in an easy-to-follow style, starting from the basics to advanced systems


Upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students, researchers, scientists and engineers studying or working in mechanical, chemical, energy, environmental, process, and industrial engineering

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    About the Authors

    Chapter 1. Thermodynamic Fundamentals

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Energy

    1.3 Entropy

    1.4 Exergy

    1.5 Illustrative Examples

    1.6 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 2. Exergy and Energy Analyses

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Why Energy and Exergy Analyses?

    2.3 Nomenclature

    2.4 Balances for Mass, Energy, and Entropy

    2.5 Exergy of Systems and Flows

    2.6 Exergy Consumption

    2.7 Exergy Balance

    2.8 Reference Environment

    2.9 Efficiencies and Other Measures of Merit

    2.10 Procedure for Energy and Exergy Analyses

    2.11 Energy and Exergy Properties

    2.12 Implications of Results of Exergy Analyses

    2.13 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 3. Chemical Exergy

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Chemical Exergy Definition

    3.3 Chemical Exergy for Solid Species

    3.4 Chemical Exergy of Gas Mixtures

    3.5 Chemical Exergy of Nonenvironmental Substances and Fuels

    3.6 Effect of Atmospheric Temperature and Pressure and Environment Composition on Chemical Exergy

    3.7 Case Study: CCPP with Supplemental Firing

    3.8 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 4. Exergy, Environment And Sustainable Development

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Exergy and Environmental Problems

    4.3 Exergy and Sustainable Development

    4.4 Illustrative Example

    4.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 5. Applications of Exergy in Industry

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Questions Surrounding Industry’s Use of Exergy

    5.3 Advantages and Benefits of Using Exergy

    5.4 Understanding Energy Conservation Through Exergy

    5.5 Disadvantages and Drawbacks of Using Exergy

    5.6 Possible Measures to Increase Applications of Exergy in Industry

    5.7 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 6. Exergy Analysis of Psychrometric Processes

    6.1 Basic Psychrometric Concepts

    6.2 Balance and Efficiency Equations for Air-Conditioning Processes

    6.3 Case Studies

    6.4 Operation and Design of Experimental System

    6.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 7. Exergy Analysis of Heat Pump Systems

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 System Description

    7.3 General Analysis

    7.4 System Exergy Analysis

    7.5 Results and Discussion

    7.6 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 8. Exergy Analysis of Absorption Cooling Systems

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 ACSs

    8.3 System Descriptions

    8.4 Energy and Exergy Analyses

    8.5 Performance and Efficiency

    8.6 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 9. Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Principal Thermodynamic Considerations in TES

    9.3 Exergy Evaluation of a Closed TES System

    9.4 Relations between Temperature and Efficiency for Sensible TES

    9.5 Exergy Analysis of Thermally Stratified Storages

    9.6 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Cold TES Systems

    9.7 Exergy Analysis of Aquifer TES Systems

    9.8 Examples and Case Studies

    9.9 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 10. Exergy Analysis of Drying Processes and Systems

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Exergy Losses Associated with Drying

    10.3 Analysis

    10.4 Importance of Matching Supply and End-Use Heat for Drying

    10.5 Illustrative Example

    10.6 Energy Analysis of Fluidized Bed Drying of Moist Particles

    10.7 Exergy Analysis of Advanced Drying System: Industrial Wood Chips Drying

    10.8 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 11. Exergy Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems

    11.1 Exergy Analysis of Solar PV Systems

    11.2 Exergy Analysis of Solar Ponds

    11.3 Solar Exergy Maps

    11.4 Exergy Analysis of Wind Energy Systems

    11.5 Exergy Analysis of Geothermal Energy Systems

    11.6 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 12. Exergy Analysis of Steam Power Plants

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Analysis

    12.3 Spreadsheet Calculation Approaches

    12.4 Example: Analysis of a Coal Steam Power Plant

    12.5 Example: Impact on Power Plant Efficiencies of Varying Boiler Temperature and Pressure

    12.6 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of Coal-Fired and Nuclear Steam Power Plants

    12.7 Improving Steam Power Plant Efficiency

    12.8 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 13. Exergy Analysis of Cogeneration and District Energy Systems

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Cogeneration

    13.3 District Energy

    13.4 Integrated Systems for Cogeneration and District Energy

    13.5 Simplified Illustrations of the Benefits of Cogeneration

    13.6 Case Study for Cogeneration-Based District Energy

    13.7 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 14. Exergy Analysis of Integrated Trigeneration and Multigeneration Systems

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Trigeneration

    14.3 Multigeneration

    14.4 Integrated Multigeneration Systems

    14.5 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Trigeneration System

    14.6 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Multigeneration System

    14.7 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 15. Exergy Analysis of Cryogenic and Liquefaction Systems

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Gas Liquefaction Systems

    15.3 Exergy Analysis of a Multistage Cascade Refrigeration Cycle for Natural Gas Liquefaction

    15.4 Exergy Analysis of an Integrated Hydrogen Liquefaction Using Geothermal Energy

    15.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 16. Exergy Analysis of Crude Oil Distillation Systems

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Analysis Approach and Assumptions

    16.3 Description of Crude Oil Distillation System Analyzed

    16.4 System Simulation

    16.5 Energy and Exergy Analyses

    16.6 Results and Discussion

    16.7 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 17. Exergy Analysis of Hydrogen Production Systems

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Hydrogen Production Processes

    17.3 Hydrogen Production from Fossil Fuels

    17.4 Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energy

    17.5 Case Studies

    17.6 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 18. Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Background

    18.3 Exergy Analysis of a PEM Fuel Cell Power System

    18.4 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Combined SOFC–Gas-Turbine Systems

    18.5 Exergy Analysis of Advanced Fuel Cell Systems: MCFCS

    18.6 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 19. Exergy Analysis of Aircraft Flight Systems

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Exergy Analysis of a Turbojet

    19.3 Flight Characteristics

    19.4 Cumulative Rational Efficiency

    19.5 Cumulative Exergy Loss

    19.6 Contribution of Exhaust Gas Emission to Cumulative Exergy Loss

    19.7 Breakdown of Exergy of Exhaust Gas Emission

    19.8 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 20. Exergoeconomic Analysis of Thermal Systems

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Economic Aspects of Exergy

    20.3 Modeling and Analysis

    20.4 Key Difference between Economic and Thermodynamic Balances

    20.5 Example: Coal-Fired Electricity Generation

    20.6 Case Study: Electricity Generation from Various Sources

    20.7 Exergoeconomics Extended: Exergy, Cost, Energy, and Mass Analysis

    20.8 Specific Exergy Cost Analysis

    20.9 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 21. Exergy Analysis of Countries, Regions, and Economic Sectors

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Background and Objective

    21.3 Applying Exergy to Macrosystems

    21.4 Case Study: Energy and Exergy Utilization in Saudi Arabia

    21.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 22. Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 LCA

    22.3 Exergetic LCA

    22.4 Case Study 1: EXLCA of Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    22.5 Case Study 2: EXLCA of a Nuclear-Based Hydrogen Production Process

    22.6 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 23. Exergy and Industrial Ecology

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Industrial Ecology

    23.3 Linkage between Exergy and Industrial Ecology

    23.4 Illustrative Example

    23.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 24. Exergy and Multiobjective Optimization

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Optimization Formulations

    24.3 Optimization Methods

    24.4 Multiobjective Optimization

    24.5 Illustrative Example: Air Compressor Optimization

    24.6 Case Study: GT Power Generation Plant

    24.7 Closing Remarks

    Chapter 25. Exergy in Policy Development and Education

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Exergy Methods for Analysis and Design

    25.3 The Role and Place for Exergy in Energy-Related Education and Awareness Policies

    25.4 The Role and Place for Exergy in Education Policies

    25.5 Closing Remarks


    Chapter 26. Closing Remarks and Future Expectations

    Appendix A. Glossary of Selected Terminology

    General Thermodynamic Terms

    Exergy Quantities

    Exergy Consumption, Energy Degradation, and Irreversibility

    Environment and Reference Environment

    Efficiencies and Other Measures

    Energy and Exergy Methods

    Economics and Exergy

    Appendix B. Conversion Factors

    Appendix C. Thermophysical Properties


    Greek Letters






Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2012
  • Published: November 23, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080970905

About the Authors

Ibrahim Dincer

Dr. Ibrahim Dincer is professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Ontario Tech. University and visiting professor at Yildiz Technical University. He has authored numerous books and book chapters, and many refereed journal and conference papers. He has chaired many national and international conferences, symposia, workshops, and technical meetings. He has also delivered many plenary, keynote and invited lectures. He is an active member of various international scientific organizations and societies, and serves as editor in chief, associate editor, regional editor, and editorial board member for various prestigious international journals. He is a recipient of several research, teaching and service awards, including the Premier׳s Research Excellence Award in Ontario, Canada. For the past seven years in a row he has been recognized by Thomson Reuters as one of The Most Influential Scientific Minds in Engineering and one of the Most Highly Cited Researchers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Full professor of Mechanical Engineering, Ontario Tech. University, Canada

Marc Rosen

Marc Rosen
Marc A. Rosen is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering and the founding Editor-in-Chief of Sustainability. He has written numerous books and journal articles. Professor Rosen received the President's Award from the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering in 2012. Currently, he is a Professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, where he served as founding Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada

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