Exchange Systems in Prehistory

Exchange Systems in Prehistory

1st Edition - March 28, 1977

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  • Authors: T. Earle, J. Ericson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294964

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Exchange Systems in Prehistory provides an accurate description of prehistoric exchange and a more thorough investigation of the significance of exchange in prehistory. This book discusses the four aspects of archaeological research on prehistoric exchange, including systemic modeling, chemical characterization, descriptive modeling and application of ethnographic and ethnohistorical research. Organized into five parts encompassing 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic procedures in chemical characterization of any raw material. This text then describes the many steps required in the sampling and resolution of turquoise sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and the American Southwest. Other chapters consider the measures of transportation cost for raw materials, including estimates of work along probable transport routes, social distances, and intermediary populations. This book discusses as well how anomalies may be used to identify central places or general hierarchical structure in settlement. This book is a valuable resource for archeologists and sociologists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Part I Introduction

    Chapter 1 Exchange Systems in Archaeological Perspective

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemical Characterization of Raw Materials

    III. Descriptive Models of Exchange

    IV. Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Research

    V. Systemic Models of Exchange

    VI. Conclusions


    Part II Chemical Characterization of Raw Material

    Chapter 2 Turquoise Sources and Source Analysis: Mesoamerica and the Southwestern U. S. A.

    I. Introduction

    II. Archaeological Background and Sources

    III. Experimental Procedures

    IV. Results


    Chapter 3 Maya Jade: Source Location and Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Present Research

    III. Characterization Procedures

    IV. Conclusions


    Part III Descriptive Models of Exchange

    Chapter 4 Alternative Models for Exchange and Spatial Distribution

    I. Introduction

    II. The Law of Monotonic Decrement

    III. Shape of Fall-Off

    IV. Steepness of Fall-Off

    V. The Down-the-Line Model: Linear Attenuation and Exponential Fall-Off

    VI. Random Walk or Flight. Gaussian Fall-Off

    VII. Attenuation in Two Dimensions

    VIII. Equifinality and the Choice of Models

    IX. Comparisons of Fall-Off Data

    X. Concentration Effects and Directional Trade

    XI. Competing Sources

    XII. Modes of Exchange


    Chapter 5 Mass-Distance Measures for the Maya Obsidian Trade

    I. Introduction

    II. Research Phase I: Central Place of Ceremonial Centers

    III. Research Phase II: Diachronic Stability of Exchange Systems

    IV. Conclusions


    Chapter 6 Egalitarian Exchange Systems in California: A Preliminary View

    I. Introduction

    II. The Context of Studying Exchange in California

    III. A Description of Exchange Systems

    IV. A Qualitative Analysis of Certain Systemic Variables

    V. Systems Analysis: Quantitative Analysis of Specific Variables

    VI. Conclusions


    Chapter 7 Modeling Economic Exchange

    I. Introduction

    II. Elements of Models

    III. Characteristics of Exchange Networks

    IV. Organization, Understanding, and Explanation

    V. Empirical Considerations

    VI. An Illustration

    VII. Summary and Conclusions


    Chapter 8 A Network Model for the Analysis of Prehistoric Trade

    I. The Problem

    II. The Network Model

    III. Specific Analytic Approaches

    IV. Exchange Systems and Social Systems

    V. A Southwestern Example


    Chapter 9 Identification of Prehistoric Intrasettlement Exchange

    I. Introduction

    II. Identification of Intrasettlement Social Groups

    III. Intrasettlement Exchange

    IV. Conclusions


    Chapter 10 Quarry Analysis at Bodie Hills, Mono County, California: A Case Study

    I. Introduction

    II. The Bodie Hills Site

    III. Sampling Procedures and Areas

    IV. Analytical Results

    V. Discussion and Conclusions


    Part IV The Use of Ethnography and Ethnohistory

    Chapter 11 Aboriginal Economies in Stateless Societies

    I. Introduction

    II. Ceremonial Exchanges: Potlatch, Kula, Moka, Abutu

    III. Economic Determination


    Chapter 12 A Reappraisal of Redistribution: Complex Hawaiian Chiefdoms

    I. Introduction

    II. Redistribution: An Analysis of Institutional Forms

    III. Service's Hypothesis

    IV. The Evidence from Hawaii: A Complex Chiefdom

    V. Summary


    Part V Systemic Models of Exchange

    Chapter 13 The Simulation of a Linear Exchange System under Equilibrium Conditions

    Chapter 14 The Ecological Evolution of Culture: The State as Predator in Succession Theory

    I. Introduction

    II. Strategy foe the Development of Explanatory Models of Complex Sociocultural Systems

    III. Conclusion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 274
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: March 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294964

About the Authors

T. Earle

J. Ericson

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