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Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128008744, 9780128009963

Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine

1st Edition

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Editor: Pulok K. Mukherjee
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008744
eBook ISBN: 9780128009963
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th February 2015
Page Count: 556
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Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicines brings together current thinking and practice in the areas of characterization and validation of natural products. This book reviews all aspects of evaluation and development of medicines from plant sources, including their cultivation, collection, phytochemical and phyto-pharmacological evaluation, and therapeutic potential. Emphasis is placed on describing the full range of evidence-based analytical and bio-analytical techniques used to characterize natural products, including –omic technologies, phyto-chemical analysis, hyphenated techniques, and many more.

Key Features

  • Includes state-of-the-art methods for detecting, isolating, and performing structure elucidation by degradation and spectroscopic techniques
  • Covers biosynthesis, synthesis, and biological activity related to natural products
  • Consolidates information to save time and money in research
  • Increases confidence levels in quality and validity of natural products


Analytical/bioanalytical chemists, researchers working in natural product drug discovery/medicinal chemists, pharmacists and pharmacognosists, advanced students in these disciplines

Table of Contents

    <li>Foreword</li> <li>Preface</li> <li>Acknowledgments</li> <li>Chapter 1. Quality Related Safety Issue-Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine Farm to Pharma<ul><li>1.1. Health Care through Herbal&#xA0;Medicine</li><li>1.2. Integrated Approaches for Development of Herbal Medicine</li><li>1.3. Use of Herbs in TM</li><li>1.4. Globalization of TM</li><li>1.5. TM Inspired Drug Discovery and Drug Development</li><li>1.6. Issues for Quality Control and&#xA0;Quality Assurance of Herbal&#xA0;Medicine</li><li>1.7. Marker Analysis and Standardization of Botanicals</li><li>1.8. Pharmacovigilance of&#xA0;Herbal&#xA0;Medicine</li><li>1.9. Safety Issues on Herbal Medicine-Cytochrome P450 Study</li><li>1.10. Herb-Drug Interactions</li><li>1.11. System Biology and Metabolomics</li><li>1.12. International Harmonization</li><li>1.13. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 2. Value Chains of Herbal Medicines&#x2014;Ethnopharmacological and Analytical Challenges in a Globalizing World<ul><li>2.1. Introduction</li><li>2.2. The Concept of Value Chains</li><li>2.3. The Medicinal Plant Value Chains&#x2014;Research Needs</li><li>2.4. Medicinal Plant Value Chains in Asia</li><li>2.5. Medicinal Plant Production in&#xA0;China and India</li><li>2.6. Supply, Demand, and Sustainability</li><li>2.7. The Tea Value Chain</li><li>2.8. The Ginseng Value Chain</li><li>2.9. Plant Metabolomics and Analytical Challenges</li><li>2.10. Discussion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 3. Traditional Herbal Medicine, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacopoeial Standards: A Discussion at the Crossroads<ul><li>3.1. Introduction</li><li>3.2. Historical Perspectives on Traditional Herbal Medicine</li><li>3.3. Modern Medicine&#x2014;An American&#xA0;Case History</li><li>3.4. Traditional Herbal Medicines: Centuries of&#xA0;Empiricism</li><li>3.5. Traditional Medicine: Therapeutics, Definitions, and&#xA0;Orientations</li><li>3.6. Standard of Herbal Drugs in Early Pharmacopoeias</li><li>3.7. Other Qualitative Factors&#xA0;Not Considered in&#xA0;Pharmacopoeias</li><li>3.8. Preventive Care and Self-Responsibility</li><li>3.9. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 4. Taxonomy&#x2014;An Irreplaceable Tool for Validation of Herbal Medicine<ul><li>4.1. Introduction</li><li>4.2. Voucher Specimens</li><li>4.3. Plant Identification</li><li>4.4. Label Requirements for Botanical Supplements and Other Materials in Trade</li><li>4.5. The Problem of Lacking Vouchers and Incorrect Identification</li><li>4.6. Problems with the Lack of Taxonomic Attention</li><li>4.7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 5. Validation of Medicinal Herbs for Skin Aging<ul><li>5.1. Introduction</li><li>5.2. Consequences of Herbal Cosmetic</li><li>5.3. Skin Aging</li><li>5.4. Factors Associated with Skin Aging</li><li>5.5. Photoprotective Mechanism of&#xA0;Bioactive Molecules</li><li>5.6. Natural Bioactive Molecules against Skin Aging</li><li>5.7. Few Medicinal Plants Useful in Skin Aging</li><li>5.8. Management of Skin Aging</li><li>5.9. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 6. Proangiogenic Potential of Medicinal Plants in Wound Healing<ul><li>6.1. Introduction</li><li>6.2. Phases of Wound Healing</li><li>6.3. Angiogenesis and Its Role in Wound Healing</li><li>6.4. Plants with Proangiogenic Potential</li><li>6.5. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 7. Pharmacovigilance: Tools in Establishing the Safety and Acceptability of the Natural Health Products&#x2014;Clinical Evaluation<ul><li>7.1. Introduction</li><li>7.2. Brief Historical Review</li><li>7.3. Adverse Reactions</li><li>7.4. Pharmacovigilance</li><li>7.5. Adverse Effects and Herbal Adverse Effects</li><li>7.6. Pharmacovigilance and Herbal Pharmacovigilance</li><li>7.7. Toxicologicologist's Toolkits</li><li>7.8. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 8. Validation of Antiviral Potential of Herbal Ethnomedicine<ul><li>8.1. Introduction</li><li>8.2. Rationale for Antiviral Drug Development</li><li>8.3. Development of Effective AntiViral Drugs</li><li>8.4. Medicinal Plants as a Source of Antiviral Drugs: an Overview</li><li>8.5. Methods for the Validation of Antiviral Activity of Plants</li><li>8.6. Future Prospects and&#xA0;Directions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 9. Harmonization of Regulatory Requirements in Europe to Ensure Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicinal Products<ul><li>9.1. Introduction</li><li>9.2. HMPC: Establishment and Working Structure</li><li>9.3. Basic Legal Definitions and Access to the Market</li><li>9.4. Monographs and List Entries: Well-Established Use and Traditional Use</li><li>9.5. Procedure to Establish Monographs</li><li>9.6. Usage and Acceptance of Monographs</li><li>9.7. Guidance on Quality, Efficacy, and Safety: Coordination</li><li>9.8. Outlook</li><li>Conflict of Interest</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 10. Bioavailability of Herbal Products: Approach Toward Improved Pharmacokinetics<ul><li>10.1. Introduction</li><li>10.2. Factors Affecting Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Herbal Products</li><li>10.3. The Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Some Herbs and Phytoconstituents</li><li>10.4. Challenges in Developing a&#xA0;Herbal Formulation</li><li>10.5. Novel Drug Delivery Technology for Herbal Formulation</li><li>10.6. Phospholipid Complex of Herbs&#x2014;Modification of Bioavailability and Efficacy</li><li>10.7. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 11. Good Quality and Clinical Practices for the Future Development of Herbal Medicines<ul><li>11.1. Introduction</li><li>11.2. Quality Issues: Lack of GMP or&#xA0;Failure to Comply with <span class="smallcaps">C</i>GMP Guidelines</li><li>11.3. Safety of HMs in the United States, Europe, and Asia</li><li>11.4. Efficacy: The Importance of&#xA0;Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials</li><li>11.5. Future Outlook for HMs</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 12. Traditional Medicine-Inspired Evidence-Based Approaches to Drug Discovery<ul><li>12.1. Introduction</li><li>12.2. Ayurveda Inspiration</li><li>12.3. Reverse Pharmacology</li><li>12.4. <i>Semecarpus anacardium</i> Case</li><li>12.5. Formulation Discovery</li><li>12.6. Phytopharmaceuticals as&#xA0;Drugs</li><li>12.7. Clinical Research</li><li>12.8. The Artrex Story</li><li>12.9. Formulations for Arthritis</li><li>12.10. Rasayana and Immunoadjuvants</li><li>12.11. Discovery Approaches</li><li>12.12. Herb&#x2013;Drug Interactions</li><li>12.13. Quality Control and Standardization</li><li>12.14. Evidence-Based Ayurvedic Medicine</li><li>12.15. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 13. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Medicinal Plants<ul><li>13.1. Introduction</li><li>13.2. Cholinergic Pathway</li><li>13.3. Cholinestarase Inhibitors for Learning and Memory</li><li>13.4. Medicinal Plants for the Management of Cognitive Disorder</li><li>13.5. Phytoconstituents for the Management of Cognitive Disorder</li><li>13.6. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 14. Drugs and Drug Leads Based on Natural Products for Treatment and Prophylaxis of Malaria<ul><li>14.1. Malaria</li><li>14.2. Drug for Treatment of&#xA0;Malaria</li><li>14.3. Malaria Prevention through Vector Control</li><li>14.4. Evidence-based Use of&#xA0;Phytomedicines</li><li>14.5. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 15. Evaluation of Natural Products against Biofilm-Mediated Bacterial Resistance<ul><li>15.1. Introduction</li><li>15.2. Biofilm Formation</li><li>15.3. Mechanism for Resistance due to Biofilm</li><li>15.4. Biofilm and Quorum Sensing</li><li>15.5. Quorum Sensing as a Target for Antimicrobial Therapy</li><li>15.6. Natural Products as a QS Inhibitor</li><li>15.7. Synergy with the Natural Products and Conventional Antibiotics</li><li>15.8. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 16. Clinical Effects of Caraway, a Traditional Medicine for Weight Loss<ul><li>16.1. Introduction</li><li>16.2. Materials and Methods</li><li>16.3. Results</li><li>16.4. Discussion</li><li>16.5. Conclusions</li><li>16.6. Summary</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 17. Challenges in Identification of Potential Phytotherapies from Contemporary Biomedical Literature<ul><li>17.1. Description of Medicinal Uses of Plants</li><li>17.2. Biomedical Literature</li><li>17.3. Concept Recognition</li><li>17.4. Identifying Potential Plant&#x2013;Therapy Relationships</li><li>17.5. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 18. Botanicals as Medicinal Food and Their Effects against Obesity<ul><li>18.1. Introduction</li><li>18.2. Pathogenesis of Obesity and Management Strategies</li><li>18.3. Phytochemicals Useful against Metabolic Disorder</li><li>18.4. Herb as Food Useful in Obesity Management</li><li>18.5. Medicinal Plant for Treatment of Obesity</li><li>18.6. Prospect of Phytochemicals, Foods and Botanicals in Obesity Management</li><li>18.7. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 19. Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Analysis of Herbal Products<ul><li>19.1. Introduction</li><li>19.2. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)</li><li>19.3. Herbal Products</li><li>19.4. Types of Analysis of Herbal Products</li><li>19.5. Analysis of Herbal Products by High Performance Liquid Chromatography</li><li>19.6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 20. Ayurveda &#x2013; Opportunities for Developing Safe and Effective Treatment Choices for the Future<ul><li>20.1. Ayurveda the Science of Life</li><li>20.2. Knowledge Base of Ancient India</li><li>20.3. <i>Dravyaguna</i>: Pharmacodynamic Classification of Herbs in Ayurveda</li><li>20.4. <i>Nidana Samprapti</i>: Disease Pathogenesis in Ayurveda</li><li>20.5. <i>Panchakarma</i> Therapy: Personalized Detoxification and Rejuvenation Therapy</li><li>20.6. Ayurveda: Rediscovering Novel Therapies</li><li>20.7. <i>Rasashastra</i>: The Mystery of Ancient Chemistry</li><li>20.8. Ayur-Pharmacoepidemiology</li><li>20.9. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 21. Discovery and Development of Lead Compounds from Natural Sources Using Computational Approaches<ul><li>21.1. Introduction</li><li>21.2. NPs in Drug Discovery</li><li>21.3. Chemoinformatic Analysis of&#xA0;Natural Products</li><li>21.4. Molecular Databases Focused ON NPs and NP Derivatives</li><li>21.5. Virtual Screening and Target Fishing</li><li>21.6. NPs as Leads for Challenging and Emerging Targets</li><li>21.7. Uncovering Bioactivities OF&#xA0;NPs of Dietary Origin</li><li>21.8. Concluding Remarks</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 22. Infrared Spectroscopic Technologies for the Quality Control of Herbal Medicines<ul><li>22.1. Introduction</li><li>22.2. Technical Principles</li><li>22.3. IR Imaging Spectroscopy</li><li>22.4. Chemometrics Including Data Preprocessing</li><li>22.5. Ad- and Disadvantages of NIR and Imaging Spectroscopy</li><li>22.6. Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Metabolites</li><li>22.7. Qualitative Analysis: Classification, Discrimination and/or Authentication</li><li>22.8. IR Imaging Spectroscopy Studies</li><li>22.9. Regulatory Issues</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 23. Antimicrobial Secondary Metabolites&#x2014;Extraction, Isolation, Identification, and Bioassay<ul><li>23.1. Introduction</li><li>23.2. Extraction and Isolation of Metabolites for Antimicrobial Potentials</li><li>23.3. Identification of Compounds</li><li>23.4. Bioassay: Methods Commonly Used for the Screening of Antimicrobial Activity</li><li>23.5. Antimicrobial Secondary Metabolites</li><li>23.6. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 24. Uses of Herbals in Cardiac Diseases: Priority of Evidence Over Belief<ul><li>24.1. Introduction</li><li>24.2. Epidemiology of CVD</li><li>24.3. Herbal Drug versus Modern Medicine</li><li>24.4. Validation of Indian Medicinal Plants for Cardioprotection</li><li>24.5. Experimental Data Obtained from Indian Medicinal Plants for Cardiovascular Activity</li><li>24.6. Medicinal Plants Used for Cardiovascular Diseases Other than Indian Medicinal Plants</li><li>24.7. Data Obtained from Human Studies with Medicinal Plants for Cardiovascular Effects</li><li>24.8. Indian Initiatives</li><li>24.9. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


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© Elsevier 2015
19th February 2015
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About the Editor

Pulok K. Mukherjee

Pulok K. Mukherjee

Prof. Pulok K. Mukherjee is a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC), UK and the fellow of the National Academy of Science (FNASc) India. He is working as the Director of the School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. His work on integrated approaches for traditional medicine-inspired drug development through chemo-profiling, quality control, pharmaco-vigilance, safety surveillance, risk assessment has achieved worldwide acclaim. He has made significant contributions in the area of evaluation and validation of medicinal plants, Ethnopharmacology, and ethnomedicine. He has contributed over 200 publications in peer reviewed impact journals and has several patents. He has also published several well acclaimed books including Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine (Elsevier); Evaluation of Herbal Medicinal Products (Pharmaceutical Press), and many others. Prof. Mukherjee has been honoured with several awards and laurels from both the Government of India and abroad. For further details please visit

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India // Secretary, Society for Ethnopharmacology, India, Saktigarh, Jadavpur, India Associate Editor Associate Editor Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Elsevier Science, USA

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