Mounting concern for the state of the environment has led to a substantial increase in the collection of environmental data in the past two decades. This trend raises issues with regard to the quality assurance and quality control of the data gathering process, from sampling to analysis. The evaluation of environmental data in terms of quality, and relevance for use in the management of toxic chemicals in the enviroment, has reached a critical phase. An enormous volume of data is being generated, on both residue levels and their effects, to meet short- and long-term needs for regulatory procedures and (environmental) impact assessments. Therefore, it is important to verify not only the quality of the data collected, but also the choice of relevant test parameters. This volume deals with the evolution of analytical methodologies to the current state-of-the-art techniques, quality assurance/quality control of data acquirements, and testing procedures for screening of toxic chemicals - including their hazard identification, persistence, and fate processes in the environment. The models currently employed in environmental impact assessment and risk assessment are also discussed in detail. Public involvement and participation in regulatory decision-making processess is also described. It is intended for managers and scientists involved in environmental management and research of toxic chemicals in the environment.

Table of Contents

Preface. Acknowledgements. Introduction. Analytical Development. Evaluation of Database. Evaluation of Current Techniques. Analytical Techniques. Electroanalytical. Spectroscopic. Elution and Size Separation. Toxicity Assessment. Acute Toxicity. Subchronic and Chronic Toxicity. Genotoxicity. Ecotoxicity. References. Quality of Analytical Data. Determinants of Quality. End-use of Data. Methodologies. Speciation Changes. Sampling Techniques. QA/QC Programs. Limits of Detection, Quantitation and Reporting. References. Quality of Biological Data. Determinants of Quality. Effects of Fate Processes on Toxicity Assessment. Multi-tier Toxicity Testing. False +ve and False -ve Results. Single versus Battery of Tests. Boundary of Information. References. Screening of Toxic Chemicals. Environmental Distribution. Predictive Capabilities of Fate Processes. Bench-mark Concept. Structure-Activity Relationship. References. Hazard Evaluation. Hazard Identification. Dose-Response Relationship. Threshold Level and Safety Factor. Non-Threshold Hazards. References. Evaluation of Databases for Impact Assessment. Chemical Impact. Regulatory Needs. Environmental Databases. Data Evaluation. Environmental Influence on the Fate and Transport of Chemicals. Models, Their Predictions and Comparisons with Field Data. Biological Impact. Field Monitors. Terrestrial and Aquatic Plants. Invertebrates. Fish. Wildlife (Mammals and Birds). Assessment Models. Model Classification. Acidification Simulation Model. Aquatic Fate Models. Accuracy and Uncertainty. References. Risk Assessment. Animal Studies and Dose-Response. Uncertainties in Extrapolation to Low Levels. Estimation of Total Environmental Exposure. Methodologies in Risk Assessment. Comparative Risk Assessment. References. Regulatory Decision-Making Proc


No. of pages:
© 1991
Elsevier Science
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN: