European Glacial Landscapes

European Glacial Landscapes

The Last Deglaciation

1st Edition - September 1, 2022

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  • Editors: David Palacios, Philip Hughes, Jose Garcia-Ruiz, Nuria de Andrés
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323918992

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Description

European Glacial Landscapes: The Role of Glaciers in Shaping the Landscape of Europe During the Last Deglaciation brings together relevant experts on the history of glaciers and their impact on the landscape of the main European regions. The European glaciers ended their maximum expansion of the Last Glacial Cycleapproximately 20,000 years ago, when ice-sheets covered all the Scandinavian countries, Finland, much of the British Isles, the shores of the Baltic Sea and Central-Europe until roughly the present Rhine River. The glaciers covered also large areas of the main European mountains, such as the Urals, the Carpathians, the Alps, the Balkans, the Pyrenees, etc. Glaciers were also present even in the southernmost mountains, sometimes forming remarkable ice caps with cirque glaciers on relatively low mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Soon after the Last Glacial Maximum from around 20,000 years ago a rapid process of glacial retreat began throughout Europe, which was interrupted several times by abrupt cooling of the climate, which caused rapid, though limited, re-advance of the glaciers, until the beginning of the Holocene, 11,700 years ago when climate became relatively stable and warm. These successive glacial advances and retreats during the Last Deglaciation have shaped much of the European landscape, reflecting abrupt climatic fluctuations. The Last deglaciation is especially important for the landscape of Europe because the evidence is so well-preserved since it records the most recent evidence of the Pleistocene ice age. In recent decades, research on the origin and age of the resulting glacial landforms has greatly improved in many regions of Europe. In addition, the evolution of the climate is becoming better known through detailed analysis of lacustrine and marine sediments, and Greenland ice cores.As our knowledge on abrupt climate changes since the Last Glacial Maximum progresses, new uncertainties arise that are critical for understanding (i) the influence of atmospheric and oceanic currents on palaeoclimates and their spatial representation; (ii) the existence of asynchronies in the timing of occurrence of ice masses expansion and shrinkage; (iii) the time lags between oceanic and atmospheric changes, on one hand, and changes in precipitation and temperature patterns, on the other; (iv) the way in which climate changes disseminate through Europe and, consequently, the lag between climate changes and the expansion or contraction of glaciers; (v) the role of the large continental ice-sheets on the European climate, and particularly on the response of mountain glaciers, with special reference to the Mediterranean mountains. All these contributions are included in this book, in which the reader will find a complete review organized according to the main climatic periods of the so-called Termination 1 the important Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

Key Features

  • Provides a synthesis that highlights the main similarities or differences, through both space and time, during the Last Deglaciation of Europe
  • Features research from experts in palaeo-climatology, palaeo-oceanography and palaeo-glaciology on the Last Deglaciation in Europe during Termination 1 and the important Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition
  • Includes detailed color figures and maps, providing a comprehensive comparison of the glacial landscapes of European Pleistocene glaciers

Readership

Geography, Geology, Environmental Sciences, Physics and Earth Science departments. National Parks, Natural Museums, Landscape agencies, Local mountain museums, environmental agencies, as well as mountain associations, guides, etc, which have a very strong support in many European Regions

Table of Contents

  • PART I Introduction 1. Previous synthesis of Last Deglaciation in Europe. José M. García-Ruiz. 2. Justification and structure of the book. Method of standardizing dates, figures and digital version. David Palacios, Nuria Andrés Philip Hughes, José M. García-Ruiz. 3. The cause of Deglaciations. David Palacios, Philip Hughes, José M. García-Ruiz, Nuria Andrés. PART II Climate changes during the Last Deglaciation in the eastern North Atlantic region. 4. Introduction Filipa Naughton 5. The Heinrich-1 Stadial. Filipa Naughton, Samuel Toucanne, Amaelle Landais, Teresa Rodrigues, Natalia Vazquez Riveiros, María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi. 6. The Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Filipa Naughton, Samuel Toucanne, Amaelle Landais, Teresa Rodrigues, Natalia Vazquez Riveiros, María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi. 7. The Younger Dryas. Filipa Naughton, Samuel Toucanne, Amaelle Landais, Teresa Rodrigues, Natalia Vazquez Riveiros, María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi. PART III. The European glacial landforms during main deglaciation (18.9-14.6 ka). 8. Concept and global context of the glacial landforms from deglaciation. José M. García-Ruiz. SECTION 1 European regions that were covered by the European Ice Sheet Complex (EISC). 9. The EISC evolution during deglaciation. Monica Winsborrow, Sarah Greenwood, Anna Hughes. 10. Fennoscandia: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Sarah L. Greenwood, Rachael S. Avery, Anna L.C. Hughes. 11. Northern Central Europe: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Leszek Marks, Albertas Bitinas, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Andreas Börner, Rimante Guobyte, Vincent Rinterknecht, Karol Tylmann. 12. European Russia: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Olga Korsak, Andrey Vashkov, Olga Nosova. 13. The Barents Sea: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Monica Winsborrow. Mariana Esteves, Henry Patton and Karin Andreassen. 14. The North Sea and Mid Norwegian Continental Margin: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Hans Petter Sejrup, Berit O. Hjelstuen. 15. Britain and Ireland: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Philip Hughes, Chris D. Clark, Phil Gibbard, Neil Glasser, Matthew Tomkins. 16. The Ural Mountains: glacial landforms during deglaciation. John Inge Svendsen, Jan Mangerud, Dmitry Nazarov, Carl Regnell. 17. Iceland: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Ívar Örn Benediktsson, Skafti Brynjólfsson, Lovísa Ásbjörnsdóttir. 18. The Tatra Mountains: glacial landforms during deglaciation J. Zasadni, M. Makos, P. Kłapyta. 19. The Romanian Carpathians: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Petru Urdea, Florina Ardelean, Mircea Ardelean, Alexandru Onaca. 20. The Alps: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Susan Ivy-Ochs, Giovanni Monegato, Jürgen M. Reitner. 21. The Pyrenees: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Magali Delmas, Yanni Gunnell, Marc Calvet, Théo Reixach, Marc Oliva. 22. The Iberian Mountains: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Marc Oliva, José M. Fernández-Fernández, David Palacios. 23. The Italian Mountains: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Adriano Ribolini, Matteo Spagnolo, Carlo Giraudi. 24. The Balkans: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Philip Hughes, James Allard, Jamie Woodward. 25. The Anatolian Mountains: glacial landforms during deglaciation. Naki Akçar. 26. The European glacial landscapes from the main deglaciation. José M. García-Ruiz, Philip Hughes, David Palacios, Nuria Andrés. PART IV The European glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial (14.6-12.9 ka). 27. Concept and global context of the glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. David Palacios. SECTION 1 European regions that were covered by the European Ice Sheet Complex (EISC). 28. The EISC evolution during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Sarah Greenwood, Anna Hughes, Monica Winsborrow. 29. Fennoscandia: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Sarah L. Greenwood, Rachael S. Avery, Anna L.C. Hughes. 30. Northern Central Europe: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Leszek Marks, Albertas Bitinas, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Andreas Börner, Rimante Guobyte, Vincent Rinterknecht, Karol Tylmann. 31. European Russia: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Olga Korsak, Andrey Vashkov, Olga Nosova. 32. The Barents Sea: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Monica Winsborrow. Mariana Esteves, Henry Patton and Karin Andreassen. 33. The North North Sea and Mid Norwegian Continental Margin: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Hans Petter Sejrup, Berit O. Hjelstuen. 34. Britain and Ireland: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Philip Hughes, Chris D. Clark, Phil Gibbard, Neil Glasser, Matthew Tomkins. 35. The Ural Mountains: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. John Inge Svendsen, Jan Mangerud, Dmitry Nazarov, Carl Regnell. 36. Iceland: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Ívar Örn Benediktsson, Skafti Brynjólfsson, Lovísa Ásbjörnsdóttir. 37. The Tatra Mountains: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. J. Zasadni, M. Makos, P. Kłapyta. 38. The Romanian Carpathians: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Petru Urdea, Florina Ardelean, Mircea Ardelean, Alexandru Onaca. 39. The Alps: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Susan Ivy-Ochs, Giovanni Monegato, Jürgen M. Reitner. 40. The Pyrenees: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Magali Delmas, Yanni Gunnell, Marc Calvet, Théo Reixach, Marc Oliva. 41. The Iberian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Marc Oliva, José M. Fernández-Fernández, David Palacios. 42. The Italian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Adriano Ribolini, Matteo Spagnolo, Carlo Giraudi. 43. The Balkans: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Philip Hughes, James Allard, Jamie Woodward. 44. The Anatolian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Naki Akçar. 45. European glacial landscapes from the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. David Palacios, Nuria Andrés, José M. García-Ruiz, Philip Hughes. PART V The European glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka). 46. Concept and global context of the glacial landforms from Younger Dryas. José M. García-Ruiz, David Palacios, Philip Hughes. 47. The EISC evolution during the Younger Dryas. Anna Hughes, Sarah Greenwood, Monica Winsborrow. 48. Fennoscandia: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Jan Mangerud, Anna L.C. Hughes, Mark D. Johnson, Juha Pekka Lunkka. 49. Western and northern Norway: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Jan Mangerud. 50. Northern Central Europe: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Leszek Marks, Albertas Bitinas, Mirosław Błaszkiewicz, Andreas Börner, Rimante Guobyte, Vincent Rinterknecht, Karol Tylmann. 51. European Russia: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Olga Korsak, Andrey Vashkov, Olga Nosova. 52. The Barents Sea: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Monica Winsborrow. Henry Patton, Mariana Esteves and Karin Andreassen. 53. The North Sea and Mid Norwegian Continental Margin: deglaciation landforms from the Younger Dryas. Hans Petter Sejrup, Berit O. Hjelstuen 54. Britain and Ireland: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Philip Hughes, Chris D. Clark, Phil Gibbard, Neil Glasser, Matthew Tomkins. 55. The Ural Mountains: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. John Inge Svendsen, Jan Mangerud, Dmitry Nazarov, Carl Regnell. 56. Iceland: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Ívar Örn Benediktsson, Skafti Brynjólfsson, Lovísa Ásbjörnsdóttir. 57. The Tatra Mountains: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. J. Zasadni, M. Makos, P. Kłapyta. 58. The Romanian Carpathians: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Petru Urdea, Florina Ardelean, Mircea Ardelean, Alexandru Onaca. 59. The Alps: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Susan Ivy-Ochs, Giovanni Monegato, Jürgen M. Reitner. 60. The Pyrenees: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Magali Delmas, Yanni Gunnell, Marc Calvet, Théo Reixach, Marc Oliva. 61. The Iberian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Marc Oliva, José M. Fernández-Fernández, David Palacios. 62. The Italian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Adriano Ribolini, Matteo Spagnolo, Carlo Giraudi. 63. The Balkans: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Philip Hughes, James Allard, Jamie Woodward. 64. The Anatolian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Younger Dryas. Naki Akçar. 65. The European glacial landscapes from the Younger Dryas. José M. García-Ruiz, David Palacios, Philip Hughes, Nuria Andrés. PART VI The Synthesis of the European Landscapes from Last Deglaciation. 66. The importance of European glacial landscapes in a context of great climatic variability. David Palacios, Philip Hughes, José M. García-Ruiz, Nuria Andrés.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 646
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: September 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323918992

About the Editors

David Palacios

David Palacios
David Palacios is Full Professor of Physical Geography at the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. He has been the coordinator for Spanish National Projects since 1998 to the present, and Spanish coordinator of two European Projects. He has served as founder and director of the High Mountain Physical Geography excellence research group for 12 years, and has authored over 200 international research papers, 100 chapters, and has edited five books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Philip Hughes

Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He obtained his first degree in geography at the University of Exeter graduating in 1999. This was followed by a Masters in Quaternary Science, then a PhD in Geography (2004), both at the University of Cambridge (Darwin College). His PhD was on the glacial history of the Pindus Mountains, Greece. This was then followed by a postdoctoral research project examining the glacial history of Montenegro at the University of Manchester (2004-2006). He has since worked on glaciation across the Mediterranean mountains in Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Spain and with recent research activities focusing on the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. His research has utilised U-series dating and cosmogenic nuclides to date moraines in a variety of different lithologies, from limestones to basalts. In addition to studies of Mediterranean mountain glaciations he has also published on global glaciations and stratigraphy in Quaternary science. In addition to several edited scientific volumes on glaciation, in 2016 he published the textbook The Ice Age with co-authors Jürgen Ehlers and Philip Gibbard. In 2011 Philip also edited with these co-authors the highly successful Elsevier volume Quaternary Glaciation: Extent and Chronology – A Closer Look. Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Physical Geography, University of Manchester, UK

Jose Garcia-Ruiz

Jose Garcia-Ruiz
José M. García-Ruiz is Ad Honorem Research Professor of the National Research Council of Spain (CSIC) at the Pyrenean Institute of Ecology. He was the Head of the University College of La Rioja (1982-1984), the head of the Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (1988-1990) and President of the Spanish Society of Geomorphology (1994-1996). His main focuses of interest have been related with the interactions between land use changes and their consequences on soil erosion, connectivity between hillslopes and fluvial channels, and fluvial dynamics. The evolution of mountain landscapes since mid-Holocene has been also a main focus of research, in relation with deforestation caused by paleolithic shepherds and Middle Ages transhumant herds, including the recent afforestation caused by land abandonment and the decline of transhumance systems. In parallel, he has published a high number of studies on glacial evolution in northern Iberian Peninsula, particularly in the Pyrenees.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ad Honorem Research Professor, Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (IPE-CSIC), Spain

Nuria de Andrés

Nuria de Andrés
Nuria de Andrés is Professor of Physical Geography at the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). Her PhD was on the application of GIS to the study of hazards in tropical high volcanoes (Mexico and Peru). She has participated in 22 research projects funded in public calls and she is currently leading a research project on the reconstruction of neoglacial oscillations in Iceland. She has published nearly a hundred research papers on the dynamics of deglaciation in mountains and its impact on geodiversity. Her research work focuses on the study of glacier and periglacial geomorphology in mountain areas through the application of different dating techniques and GIS. In addition to the Iberian mountains, she has conducted research in other mountain regions (northern Iceland, Western United States, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Peruvian Andes), which has given her a broad understanding of land surface processes in cold climate environments. She heads the High Mountain Physical Geography excellence research group.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Geography Department, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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