European Glacial Landscapes

European Glacial Landscapes

Maximum Extent of Glaciations

1st Edition - November 18, 2021

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  • Editors: David Palacios, Philip D. Hughes, Jose M. García Ruiz, Nuria de Andrés
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234983
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236079

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Description

European Glacial Landscapes: Maximum Extent of Glaciations brings together relevant experts on the history of glaciers and their impact on the landscape of the main regions of Europe. In some regions the largest recorded glaciations occurred before the Last Glacial Cycle, in one of the major glacial cycles of the Middle Pleistocene. However, the best-preserved evidence of glaciation in the landscape is from the Last Glacial Cycle (Late Pleistocene). The book also analyses these older glacial landforms that can sometimes still be seen in the landscape today. This analysis provides a better understanding of the succession of Pleistocene glaciations and the intervening interglacial periods, examining their possible continental synchrony or asynchrony of past glacier behaviour. The result of this analysis gives important new insights and information on the origin and effects of climatic and geomorphological variability across Europe. European Glacial Landscapes: Maximum Extent of Glaciations examines the landscapes produced by glaciers throughout Europe, the geomorphological effects of glaciations, as well as the chronology and evolution of the past glaciers, with the aim of understanding the interrelationship between glacial expansion and climate changes on this continent. This book is a valuable tool for geographers, geologist, environmental scientists, researchers in physics and earth sciences.

Key Features

  • Provides a synthesis that highlights the main similarities or differences, through both space and time, during the maximum recorded expansions of Pleistocene glaciers in Europe
  • Features research from experts in glacial geomorphology, palaeo-glaciology, palaeo-climatology and palaeo-oceanography on glacial expansion in Europe
  • Includes detailed color figures and maps, providing a comprehensive comparison of the glacial landscapes of European Pleistocene glaciers

Readership

Geography, Geology, Environmental Sciences, Physics and Earth Science departments. National Parks, Natural Museums, Landscape agencies, Local mountain museums, environmental agencies, as well as mountain associations, guides, which have a very strong support in many European Regions

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • About the editors
  • Part I: Introduction
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 1.1 The advance in knowledge of the glacial landscapes
  • 1.2 Objectives of the book
  • 1.3 The glaciated European regions
  • 1.4 The climatic context during the sculpting of the European glacial landscapes
  • 1.5 The age and characteristics of European glacial landscapes
  • 1.6 Standardised ages and maps used in the book
  • References
  • Chapter 2. The Quaternary ice ages
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 2.1 The discovery of the Quaternary ice ages
  • 2.2 The antecedents of the Quaternary ice ages
  • 2.3 Causes and characteristics of the Quaternary ice ages
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Previous synthesis of European Glacial Landscapes
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Part II: The distribution of glacial landscapes in Europe
  • Section 1: European regions that were covered by the European Ice Sheet Complex (EISC)
  • Chapter 4. The European Ice Sheet Complex
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Glacial landscapes of Fennoscandia
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Scandinavian Mountains
  • 5.3 Fennoscandian Shield
  • 5.4 Baltic Sea
  • 5.5 Denmark and Skåne
  • 5.6 Glacial research in Fennoscandia
  • References
  • Chapter 6. Glacial landscapes of Northern Central Europe
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Glacial landscapes of European Russia
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 8. The Eurasian Arctic
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Barents Sea
  • 8.3 High Arctic islands and archipelagos
  • 8.4 Kara Sea and Arctic Russia
  • 8.5 Glacial knowledge of the Eurasian Arctic
  • References
  • Chapter 9. The North Sea and Mid-Norwegian continental margin
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 9.1 The North Sea
  • 9.2 The Mid-Norwegian continental margin
  • References
  • Chapter 10. Glacial landscapes of Britain and Ireland
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Ireland
  • 10.3 Wales
  • 10.4 England
  • 10.5 Scotland
  • References
  • Section 2: European regions that not were covered by the EISC
  • Chapter 11. Glacial landscapes of the Ural Mountains
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 11.1 Brief description of the mountain range’s geology and geomorphology
  • 11.2 Climate
  • 11.3 Today’s glaciers
  • 11.4 Ice Age glaciations
  • 11.5 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 12. Glacial landscapes of Iceland
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 13. Glacial landscapes of the Tatra Mountains
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 14. Glacial landscapes of the Romanian Carpathians
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 The Eastern Carpathians
  • 14.3 The Southern Carpathians
  • 14.4 The Apuseni Mountains
  • 14.5 Progress in the knowledge of the glacial landscapes
  • References
  • Chapter 15. Glacial landscapes of the Alps
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 16. Glacial landscape of the Pyrenees
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 17. The Iberian Peninsula (except for the Pyrenees)
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 The Cantabrian Mountains
  • 17.3 The NW ranges
  • 17.4 Central Range
  • 17.5 Iberian Range
  • 17.6 Sierra Nevada
  • 17.7 Progress in the knowledge of the glacial landscapes
  • References
  • Chapter 18. The Italian Peninsula
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 The Northern Apennines
  • 18.3 Central Apennines
  • 18.4 Southern Apennines
  • 18.5 Progress in the knowledge of the glacial landscapes
  • References
  • Chapter 19. Glacial landscapes of the Balkans
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Greece
  • 19.3 Albania, North Macedonia, Kosovo
  • 19.4 Dinaric Alps, Montenegro, Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia
  • 19.5 Bulgaria
  • References
  • Chapter 20. The Anatolian Peninsula
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Part III: Climate changes during the Last Glacial Cycle in the eastern North Atlantic region
  • Section 1: The Last Glacial Cycle
  • Chapter 21. An overview of the Last Glacial Cycle
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 22. Ice volume and sea-level changes during Last Glacial Cycle: evidence from marine records
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 23. Definition of the Last Glacial Cycle marine stages and chronology
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 24. Abrupt climatic variability: Dansgaard–Oeschger events
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 25. Abrupt (or millennial or suborbital) climatic variability: Heinrich events/stadials
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 26. The Global Last Glacial Maximum: the Eastern North Atlantic (marine sediments) and the Greenland Ice Sheet climatic signal
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Part IV: European glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (Before 29 ka)
  • Chapter 27. Concept and global context of the glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 27.1 Pleistocene glacial cycles
  • 27.2 Pre-LGM glaciations in Europe
  • 27.3 The importance of the pre-LGM glaciations on the landscapes of Europe
  • References
  • Section 1: European regions that were covered by the European Ice Sheet Complex (EISC)
  • Chapter 28. The EISC evolution prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 28.1 Overview of EISC evolution
  • 28.2 Implications for ice sheet–climate system interactions
  • 28.3 Landscapes of the EISC prior to the LGM
  • 28.4 Outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 29. Fennoscandia: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Denmark and Skåne
  • 29.3 Fennoscandian Shield
  • 29.4 Scandinavian Mountain range
  • References
  • Chapter 30. Northern Central Europe: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 31. European Russia: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 31.1 European Russia glacial landforms from MIS 16
  • 31.2 European Russia glacial landforms from Penultimate Glacial Cycle (Saalian, MIS 8–6)
  • 31.3 European Russia glacial landforms from MIS 5, 4, and 3
  • References
  • Chapter 32. The Eurasian Arctic: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (before 29 ka)
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Barents Sea
  • 32.3 High Arctic islands and archipelagos
  • 32.4 Kara Sea and Arctic Russia
  • References
  • Chapter 33. The North Sea and Mid-Norwegian Continental Margin: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 34. Britain and Ireland: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 34.1 Middle Pleistocene glaciations
  • 34.2 Late Pleistocene pre-Last Glacial Maximum glaciations
  • 34.3 Summary
  • References
  • Section 2: European regions that not were covered by the EISC
  • Chapter 35. The Ural Mountains: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 35.1 Introduction
  • 35.2 Style of glaciation
  • 35.3 Middle Pleistocene glaciations
  • 35.4 Pre-LGM glacial advances during the Last Glacial Cycle
  • 35.5 MIS 4 was a cold period with a major drop in the glacier equilibrium line altitudes
  • 35.6 Ice-free interval during MIS 3
  • 35.7 Possible regrowth of glaciers during a late stage of MIS 3
  • 35.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 36. Iceland: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 37. The Tatra Mountains: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 38. The Romanian Carpathians: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.2 Eastern Carpathians
  • 38.3 Southern Carpathians
  • References
  • Chapter 39. The Alps: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 39.1 Introduction
  • 39.2 Early and Middle Pleistocene glaciations
  • 39.3 Late Pleistocene (Last Glacial Cycle) glaciations
  • References
  • Chapter 40. The Pyrenees: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 40.1 The most extensive glaciation of the Late Pleistocene occurred before the LGM
  • 40.2 Preliminary indications of major glacier fluctuations during MIS 3
  • 40.3 Middle Pleistocene glaciation: still poorly documented
  • References
  • Chapter 41. The Iberian Mountains: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 41.1 Introduction
  • 41.2 Cantabrian Mountains
  • 41.3 NW ranges
  • 41.4 Central Range
  • 41.5 Iberian Range
  • 41.6 Betic Range
  • References
  • Chapter 42. The Italian mountains: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 42.1 Introduction
  • 42.2 Northern Apennines
  • 42.3 Central Apennines
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 43. The Balkans: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 43.1 Middle Pleistocene glaciations
  • 43.2 Late Pleistocene, pre-LGM glaciation
  • References
  • Chapter 44. The Anatolian mountains: glacial landforms prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 44.1 Introduction
  • 44.2 Eastern Black Sea Mountains
  • 44.3 Western Taurus Mountains
  • 44.4 Northwestern Anatolia
  • References
  • Section 3: Synthesis of Part III
  • Chapter 45. The European glacial landscapes prior to the Last Glacial Maximum - synthesis
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 45.1 Glacial landforms of the European Ice Sheet Complex prior to the Last Glacial Maximum
  • 45.2 Glacial landforms beyond the EISC: on Iceland and in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe
  • 45.3 Major similarities/differences between regions and their causes
  • 45.4 The pre-LGC European landscapes in a global context
  • 45.5 Pending research
  • References
  • Part V: The European glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum (29–19 ka)
  • Chapter 46. Concept and global context of the glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 46.1 The Last Glacial Maximum
  • 46.2 Defining the LGM
  • 46.3 The geomorphological legacy of the LGM
  • References
  • Section 1: European regions that were covered by the European Ice Sheet Complex (EISC)
  • Chapter 47. European Ice Sheet Complex evolution during the Last Glacial Maximum (29–19 ka)
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 47.1 EISC evolution during the Last Glacial Maximum (29–19 ka)
  • 47.2 LGM landscapes and landforms of the EISC
  • 47.3 Cold-based ice landscapes of the LGM EISC
  • 47.4 Outlook
  • References
  • Chapter 48. Fennoscandia: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 48.1 Introduction
  • 48.2 Denmark and Skåne
  • 48.3 Fennoscandian Shield
  • 48.4 Ice sheet thickness: the Baltic Sea and the Scandinavian Mountains
  • References
  • Chapter 49. Northern Central Europe: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 50. European Russia: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 51. The Eurasian Arctic: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 51.1 Introduction
  • 51.2 Barents Sea
  • 51.3 High Arctic islands and archipelagos
  • 51.4 Kara Sea and Arctic Russia
  • References
  • Chapter 52. The North Sea and Mid-Norwegian continental margin: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 53. Britain and Ireland: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 53.1 The evolving limits of the Last Glacial Maximum in Britain and Ireland
  • 53.2 Lateral limits
  • 53.3 Vertical limits
  • 53.4 Timing of advance and maximum extension of the BIIS in the Late Devensian (MIS 2) and the geomorphological legacy
  • References
  • Section 2: European regions that were not covered by the EISC
  • Chapter 54. The Ural Mountains: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 54.1 Introduction and background
  • 54.2 LGM moraines in the forefield of the Chernov Glacier
  • 54.3 Moraines in forefield of Moscow University Glacier
  • 54.4 Moraine ridge in the Hynotayakha Valley SW of Bol. Shchuchye
  • 54.5 Lake sediments in Bol. Shchuchye
  • 54.6 Enigmatic moraine ridge on the northern tip of the Polar Urals
  • 54.7 The emergence of mountain glaciers and their size and distribution during the LGM
  • 54.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 55. Iceland: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 55.1 Introduction
  • 55.2 Last Glacial Maximum limits on the southern Iceland shelf
  • 55.3 Last Glacial Maximum limits around the West Fjords Peninsula
  • 55.4 Geomorphological signatures of Last Glacial Maximum ice flow
  • 55.5 Modelling perspectives of the Iceland Ice Sheet during Last Glacial Maximum
  • 55.6 Problems and potentials of the Iceland Ice Sheet during Last Glacial Maximum
  • References
  • Chapter 56. The Tatra Mountains: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 57. The Romanian Carpathians: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum (29–19 ka)
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 57.1 Introduction
  • 57.2 Eastern Carpathians
  • 57.3 Southern Carpathians
  • 57.4 Apuseni Mountains
  • References
  • Chapter 58. The Alps: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • References
  • Chapter 59. The Pyrenees: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 59.1 Introduction
  • 59.2 Precise constraints on LGM glacier positions in the eastern half of the range
  • 59.3 Imprecise constraints on LGM glacier positions in the western half of the range
  • 59.4 A precipitation gradient between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the LGM?
  • References
  • Chapter 60. The Iberian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 60.1 Introduction
  • 60.2 Cantabrian Mountains
  • 60.3 NW ranges
  • 60.4 Iberian Range
  • 60.5 Central Range
  • 60.6 Betic Range
  • References
  • Chapter 61. The Italian mountains: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 61.1 Introduction
  • 61.2 Northern Apennines
  • 61.3 Central Apennines
  • 61.4 Southern Apennines
  • 61.5 Sicily
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 62. The Balkans: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 62.1 Introduction
  • 62.2 Greece
  • 62.3 Bulgaria
  • 62.4 North Macedonia/Kosovo
  • 62.5 Montenegro
  • 62.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 62.7 Croatia
  • 62.8 Slovenia
  • 62.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 63. The Anatolian Mountains: glacial landforms from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 63.1 Introduction
  • 63.2 Eastern Black Sea Mountains
  • 63.3 Western Taurus Mountains
  • 63.4 Central Taurus Mountains
  • 63.5 Northwestern Anatolia
  • 63.6 Central Anatolia
  • 63.7 Anatolian LGM glaciations: a synthesis
  • References
  • Section 3: Synthesis of Part IV
  • Chapter 64. The European glacial landscapes from the Last Glacial Maximum - synthesis
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 64.1 Glacial landforms of the European Ice Sheet Complex from the Last Glacial Maximum
  • 64.2 Glacial landforms beyond the EISC: Iceland, the Urals, and the mountains of Central and Southern Europe
  • 64.3 Major similarities/differences between regions and their causes
  • 64.4 The European landscapes in a global context
  • 64.5 Pending research
  • References
  • Part VI: Synthesis of the European Landscapes from maximum glacial extension
  • Chapter 65. The importance of European glacial landscapes in a context of great climatic variability
  • Abstract
  • Chapter Outline
  • 65.1 Maximum glaciations—final summary
  • 65.2 The importance of European glacial landscapes in the context of global climate change
  • 65.3 The importance of European glacial landscapes as geoheritage
  • 65.4 Deglaciation—the end of widespread glaciation in Europe
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 546
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: November 18, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128234983
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236079

About the Editors

David Palacios

David Palacios
David Palacios is Full Professor of Physical Geography at the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. He has been the coordinator for Spanish National Projects since 1998 to the present, and Spanish coordinator of two European Projects. He has served as founder and director of the High Mountain Physical Geography excellence research group for 12 years, and has authored over 200 international research papers, 100 chapters, and has edited five books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Philip D. Hughes

Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He obtained his first degree in geography at the University of Exeter graduating in 1999. This was followed by a Masters in Quaternary Science, then a PhD in Geography (2004), both at the University of Cambridge (Darwin College). His PhD was on the glacial history of the Pindus Mountains, Greece. This was then followed by a postdoctoral research project examining the glacial history of Montenegro at the University of Manchester (2004-2006). He has since worked on glaciation across the Mediterranean mountains in Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Spain and with recent research activities focusing on the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. His research has utilised U-series dating and cosmogenic nuclides to date moraines in a variety of different lithologies, from limestones to basalts. In addition to studies of Mediterranean mountain glaciations he has also published on global glaciations and stratigraphy in Quaternary science. In addition to several edited scientific volumes on glaciation, in 2016 he published the textbook The Ice Age with co-authors Jürgen Ehlers and Philip Gibbard. In 2011 Philip also edited with these co-authors the highly successful Elsevier volume Quaternary Glaciation: Extent and Chronology – A Closer Look. Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Physical Geography, University of Manchester, UK

Jose M. García Ruiz

Jose M. García Ruiz
José M. García-Ruiz is Ad Honorem Research Professor of the National Research Council of Spain (CSIC) at the Pyrenean Institute of Ecology. He was the Head of the University College of La Rioja (1982-1984), the head of the Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (1988-1990) and President of the Spanish Society of Geomorphology (1994-1996). His main focuses of interest have been related with the interactions between land use changes and their consequences on soil erosion, connectivity between hillslopes and fluvial channels, and fluvial dynamics. The evolution of mountain landscapes since mid-Holocene has been also a main focus of research, in relation with deforestation caused by paleolithic shepherds and Middle Ages transhumant herds, including the recent afforestation caused by land abandonment and the decline of transhumance systems. In parallel, he has published a high number of studies on glacial evolution in northern Iberian Peninsula, particularly in the Pyrenees.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ad Honorem Research Professor, Pyrenean Institute of Ecology (IPE-CSIC), Spain

Nuria de Andrés

Nuria de Andrés
Nuria de Andrés is Professor of Physical Geography at the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). Her PhD was on the application of GIS to the study of hazards in tropical high volcanoes (Mexico and Peru). She has participated in 22 research projects funded in public calls and she is currently leading a research project on the reconstruction of neoglacial oscillations in Iceland. She has published nearly a hundred research papers on the dynamics of deglaciation in mountains and its impact on geodiversity. Her research work focuses on the study of glacier and periglacial geomorphology in mountain areas through the application of different dating techniques and GIS. In addition to the Iberian mountains, she has conducted research in other mountain regions (northern Iceland, Western United States, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Peruvian Andes), which has given her a broad understanding of land surface processes in cold climate environments. She heads the High Mountain Physical Geography excellence research group.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Geography Department, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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