Essentials of Psychology

Essentials of Psychology

2nd Edition - March 16, 1982

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  • Authors: John P. Houston, Helen Bee, David C. Rimm
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483264424

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Essentials of Psychology introduces contemporary psychological research and caters to the varied needs of students and instructors. The book is composed of 14 basic chapters, which provide comprehensive coverage of theories and research within each of the traditional areas of psychology. Chapters are dedicated to topics that discuss the major divisions of psychology; the physiological basis of behavior; the ways people change and the ways they stay the same over time; personality and behavior assessment; and treatment of psychological problems. Psychologists, students, and teachers of psychology will find this textbook very invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents


    Chapter 1. What Is Psychology

    Areas of Specialization

    Defining Psychology and Its Goals

    Methods of Psychology

    Exploring The Roots of Psychology


    Key Terms

    Chapter 2. The Physiological Basis of Behavior

    Level One: The Neuron

    Level Two: Functional Groups of Neurons

    Level Three: The Nervous System

    The Brain

    The Cortex and Behavior

    The Endocrine System

    Behavioral Genetics

    Genetic Management


    Key Terms

    Chapter 3. Sensation and Perception

    Sensory Thresholds

    Sensory Adaptation

    The Minor Senses

    The Major Senses I: Hearing

    The Major Senses II: Vision

    Two Perceptual Processes

    Information Processing: Complex Perceptual Abilities

    Perceptual Constancy

    Perceptual Expectations

    Perceptual Development and Learning


    Key Terms

    Chapter 4. Learning and Conditioning

    A Definition of Learning

    Classical Conditioning

    Instrumental Conditioning

    Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Compared: Biofeedback and Reinforcement

    Verbal Learning

    Basic Conditioning and Learning Phenomena


    Transfer of Training

    Learning by Observing Models

    Biological Limits


    Key Terms

    Chapter 5. Memory

    Learning and Memory: Intertwined Processes

    Measures of Retention

    The Three Components of Memory

    Interference Theory

    Decay Theory

    Information Processing I: Separate-Store Models

    Information Processing II: Levels of Processing

    Issues in Memory


    Key Terms

    Chapter 6. Cognition: Language, Concepts, and Problems

    The Field of Cognition


    Concept Formation

    Problem Solving


    Key Terms

    Chapter 7. Motivation

    The Definition of Motivation

    Approaches to Motivation

    Biological Motives I: Hunger

    Biological Motives II: Thirst

    Biological Motives III: Sex

    Sensory-Seeking Motives

    Complex Human Motives


    Key Terms

    Chapter 8. Emotion

    The Study of Emotion

    The Physiology of Emotion

    Theories of Emotion

    Innate Versus Learned Expression

    Nonverbal Expression of Emotion





    Key Terms

    Chapter 9. Development Over The Life Span

    Basic Processes and Major Theories of Development

    The Prenatal Period

    Infancy: The First Two Years

    The Preschooler: From Two to Five

    The Early School Years: From Five to Twelve

    Adolescence: From Twelve to Eighteen

    The Basic Developmental Processes: A Second Look

    Adulthood and Aging

    Dying and Death: The Final Stage


    Key Terms

    Chapter 10. Personality Theory

    Subdivisions of The Area

    Definition of Personality

    Approach #1: Freudian Theory

    Approach #2: The Trait Approach

    Approach #3: Personality As Learned Behavior

    Approach #4: Self Theories



    Key Terms

    Chapter 11. Assessing Personality and Behavior

    The Problems of Reliability and Validity

    Assessment of Personality

    Measures of Intellectual Ability

    Achievement Tests

    The Difference Between Intelligence and Achievement Tests


    Key Terms

    Chapter 12. Abnormal Psychology

    What Is Abnormality?

    Contemporary Views of Psychological Abnormality

    Diagnostic Categories of Abnormal Behavior

    Anxiety Disorders

    Somatoform Disorders

    Dissociative Disorders

    The Psychoses

    Organic Mental Disorders

    Addictive Disorders

    Psychosexual Disorders

    Personality Disorders


    Key Terms

    Chapter 13. Treating Psychological Problems

    A Psychodynamic Approach: Psychoanalysis

    Existential—Humanistic Therapies

    Behavior Therapy

    The Eclectic Approach

    Comparing The Three Principal Psychological Approaches

    Some Other Alternatives

    Medical Approaches

    Broad Spectrum Approaches to Therapy: Two Examples


    Key Terms

    Chapter 14. Social Behavior

    What Is Social Psychology?

    Some Basic Intrapersonal Processes That Affect Social Interactions

    An Interpersonal Process: Attraction

    The Effects of Groups


    Key Terms

    Statistics Appendix




    Name Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 586
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: March 16, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483264424

About the Authors

John P. Houston

Helen Bee

David C. Rimm

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