Essentials of Pain Medicine

Essentials of Pain Medicine

4th Edition - October 1, 2017

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  • Authors: Honorio Benzon, Srinivasa N. Raja, Scott Fishman, Spencer Liu, Steven P Cohen
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323401968
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323445412

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Description

Accessible, concise, and clinically focused, Essentials of Pain Medicine, 4th Edition, by Drs. Honorio T. Benzon, Srinivasa N. Raja, Scott M. Fishman, Spencer S. Liu, and Steven P. Cohen, presents a complete, full-color overview of today’s theory and practice of pain medicine and regional anesthesia. It provides practical guidance on the full range of today’s pharmacologic, interventional, neuromodulative, physiotherapeutic, and psychological management options for the evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons in pain.

Key Features

  • Covers all you need to know to stay up to date in practice and excel at examinations – everything from basic considerations through local anesthetics, nerve block techniques, acupuncture, cancer pain, and much more.
  • Uses a practical, quick-reference format with short, easy-to-read chapters.
  • Presents the management of pain for every setting where it is practiced, including the emergency room, the critical care unit, and the pain clinic.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Section I. Basic Considerations
  • Chapter 1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pain Signaling Process
  • Somatosensation, Nociception, and Pain
  • Peripheral Mechanisms
  • Spinal Mechanisms
  • Spinal Modulation
  • Supraspinal Mechanisms
  • Supraspinal Modulation of Nociception
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 2. Neurochemistry of Somatosensory and Pain Processing
  • Neurochemistry of Pain Transduction
  • Neurochemistry of Pain Transmission
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 3. Taxonomy: Definition of Pain Terms and Chronic Pain Syndromes
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Pain of Psychological Origin
  • Section II. Clinical Evaluation and Diagnostic Examinations
  • Chapter 4. Physical Examination of the Patient With Pain
  • General Observations
  • Mental Status Examination
  • Inspection
  • Palpation
  • Range of Motion
  • Strength
  • Sensation
  • Reflexes and Coordination
  • Special Tests and Provocative Testing
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 5. Pain Assessment
  • Introduction
  • Challenges of Pain Measurement
  • Types of Self-Report Pain Scales
  • Behavioral Observation
  • Experimental Pain Assessment
  • Functional Neuroimaging
  • Special Populations
  • Cognitively Impaired
  • Using Technology for Pain Assessment
  • Assessing Pain Cross-Culturally
  • Summary and Recommendations
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 6. Psychological Evaluation and Testing
  • Clinical Interview
  • Standardized Testing
  • Special Topics
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 7. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and Pain Management
  • Introduction
  • Somatic Symptom Disorder
  • Conversion Disorder (Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder)
  • Factitious Disorder
  • Malingering
  • Acknowledgments
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 8. Neurophysiologic Testing for Pain
  • Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Studies
  • Quantitative Sensory Testing
  • Short Latency Somatosensory Evoked Potentials
  • Laser Evoked Potentials and Contact Heat Evoked Potentials
  • Sympathetic Skin Response
  • Quantitative Sweat Test
  • Nociceptive Reflexes
  • Ultrasonography as a Complementary Technique
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 9. Anatomy, Imaging, and Common Pain-Generating Degenerative Pathologies of the Spine
  • Anatomy
  • Imaging Overview
  • Degenerative Disc Disease
  • Disc Herniation
  • Facet Joint
  • Intraspinal Facet Cysts
  • Spinal Stenosis
  • Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
  • Osteoporotic Compression Fractures
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 10. Determination of Disability
  • Disability Programs
  • Disability Evaluations
  • Managing Disability in Pain Practices
  • Key Points
  • Section III. Perioperative Pain Management
  • Chapter 11. Preventive Analgesia
  • Terminology
  • Pathophysiology of Preventive Analgesia
  • Preventive Analgesia in Clinical Investigations
  • Conceptual Challenges of Preventive Analgesia
  • Future Considerations
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 12. Perioperative Nonopioid Infusions for Postoperative Pain Management
  • Intravenous Ketamine Infusion
  • Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion
  • Intravenous Naloxone Infusion
  • Magnesium Infusion
  • Esmolol Infusion
  • Alpha-2 Agonists
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 13. Patient-Controlled Analgesia
  • Safety and Efficacy of Patient-Controlled Analgesia
  • Types of Patient-Controlled Analgesia
  • Special Conditions
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 14. Intrathecal Opioids for Postoperative Pain
  • Mechanism of Action of Intrathecal Opioids
  • Advantages of Intrathecal Opioids
  • Side Effects of Intrathecal Opioids
  • Clinical Uses of Intrathecal Opioids for Postoperative Analgesia
  • Adjuvants to Intrathecal Opioids
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 15. Epidural Opioids for Postoperative Pain
  • Pharmacology of Epidural Opioids
  • Injection of Single-Dose Epidural Opioids
  • Continuous Infusion of Epidural Opioids
  • Side Effects of Epidural Opioids
  • Patient Outcomes and Epidural Morphine
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 16. Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks
  • Introduction
  • Indications For Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks
  • Equipment and Techniques
  • Infusion Management
  • Potential Risks/Complications
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 17. Pediatric Postoperative Pain
  • Anatomic and Physiologic Differences
  • Pain Assessment
  • Nonopioid Analgesics
  • Opioid Analgesia
  • Regional Analgesia
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 18. Chronic Pain After Surgery
  • What is Chronic Pain After Surgery?
  • Prevention of Chronic Pain After Surgery
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Section IV. Chronic Pain Syndromes
  • Chapter 19. Migraine Headache and the Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
  • Migraine Headache
  • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TAC)
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 20. Tension-Type Headache, Chronic Tension-Type Headache, and Other Chronic Headache Types
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology of Tension-Type Headache
  • Other Chronic Headache Types
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 21. Postmeningeal Puncture Headache and Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension
  • Postmeningeal Puncture Headache
  • Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 22. Cervicogenic Headache
  • Introduction
  • Diagnostic Criteria
  • Etiology
  • Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology
  • Common Sources of Cervicogenic Headache
  • Cervical Myofascial Pain
  • Cervical Discogenic Pain
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 23. Orofacial Pain
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy and Pathophysiology
  • Headache Attributed to Disorder of Cranial Bone
  • Headache Attributed to Disorder of Neck
  • Headache Attributed to Rhinosinusitis
  • Headache Attributed to Disorder of Teeth, Jaws, or Related Structures
  • Headache or Facial Pain Attributed to Temporomandibular Disorder
  • Cranial Neuralgias and Central Causes of Facial Pain and Other Headaches
  • Other Terminal Branch Neuralgias
  • Head or Facial Pain Attributed to Herpes Zoster
  • Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome
  • Burning Mouth Syndrome
  • Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (Atypical Face Pain)
  • Central Neuropathic Facial Pain
  • Anesthesia Dolorosa
  • Facial Pain Attributed to Multiple Sclerosis
  • Central Poststroke Pain
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 24. Overview of Low Back Pain Disorders
  • Epidemiology
  • Anatomy
  • Spinal Mechanics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Management
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 25. Myofascial Pain Syndrome
  • Prevalence
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 26. Fibromyalgia and Centralized Pain States
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia
  • General Treatment Approach
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 27. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 28. Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia
  • Herpes Zoster
  • Postherpetic Neuralgia
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 29. Postamputation Pain
  • Definitions and Epidemiology
  • Special Populations
  • Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Postamputation Pain
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 30. Central Pain States
  • Epidemiology of Central Pain
  • Taxonomy
  • Pathophysiologic Mechanisms
  • Clinical Presentations
  • Experimental Models of Central Pain Secondary to Spinal Cord Injury
  • Therapeutic Options
  • Other Interventional Therapies
  • Future Directions
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 31. Pelvic Pain
  • Epidemiology
  • Pelvic Pain Differential and Etiology
  • Etiology
  • Theory
  • History and Physical Exam
  • Medical Treatment
  • Procedural Pain Medicine
  • Surgical Techniques
  • Alternative/Complementary Pain Medicine
  • Conclusion: why multidisciplinary?
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 32. Painful Peripheral Neuropathies
  • Terminology and Classification
  • Epidemiology
  • Mechanisms of Neuropathic Pain
  • Evaluation of the Patient with Neuropathic Pain
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Treatment of Neuropathic Pain
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 33. Entrapment Neuropathies
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
  • Meralgia Paresthetica
  • Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Morton’s Neuroma
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Section V. Cancer Pain and Pain in Special Situations
  • Chapter 34. Approach to the Management of Cancer Pain
  • Assessment of Cancer Pain
  • Treatment of Cancer Pain
  • Common Analgesics
  • Adjuvant Pain Medicines
  • Additional Considerations
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 35. Management of Pain at End of Life
  • Palliative Care and Hospice
  • Painful Syndromes in Cancer and Other Life-Threatening Illnesses
  • Assessment of Pain at the End of Life
  • Medication Administration at End of Life
  • Complex Pain Syndromes at End of Life
  • Other Symptoms Common at End of Life
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 36. Pain Management in the Emergency Department
  • Chronic Pain
  • Acute Pain
  • Specific Problems
  • Pain Management in Pediatrics
  • Analgesia During Procedures
  • Specific Agents
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 37. Chronic Pain Management in Children and Adolescents
  • Assessment of Chronic Pain in Children
  • Interdisciplinary Approach to Pediatric Chronic Pain Management
  • Functional Imaging of Pediatric Chronic Pain States
  • Pediatric Chronic Pain Syndromes
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Headaches in Children
  • Evaluation and Management of Headache
  • Abdominal Pain in Children
  • Pediatric Cancer Pain
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 38. Sickle Cell Disease
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Differential Diagnosis And Evaluation
  • Management Of Acute Sickle Cell Pain
  • Keys To Successful Management Of Acute Sickle Cell Disease Pain In The Emergency Department
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 39. Pain Management During Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Drugs During Pregnancy
  • Drugs During Lactation
  • Imaging During Pregnancy
  • Pain Syndromes During Pregnancy and Lactation
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 40. Pain Control in the Critically Ill Patient
  • Assessment
  • Therapeutic Agents
  • Delirium
  • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 41. Geriatric Pain
  • Presentation of Disease/Comorbidity
  • Aging-Associated Physiology and Pathology
  • Drug Metabolism17
  • Comprehensive Pain Assessment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Section VI. Pharmacology and Pharmacologic Modalities
  • Chapter 42. Major Opioids in Pain Management
  • Rationale
  • Guidelines
  • Initiation of Chronic Opioid Therapy
  • Administration
  • Treatment Endpoints and Opioid Selection
  • Selected Opioids
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 43. Opioids Used for Mild to Moderate Pain
  • Specific Short-Acting Opioids
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 44. The Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic and Emerging Prescribing Guidelines
  • Emerging Prescribing Guidelines
  • Patient Evaluation and Risk Stratification
  • Development Of a Treatment Plan and Goals
  • Informed Consent and Treatment Agreement
  • Initiating An Opioid Trial
  • Ongoing Monitoring and Adapting the Treatment Plan
  • Periodic Drug Testing
  • Mental Health Consultation and Referral
  • Discontinuing Opioid Therapy
  • Documentation In Medical Records
  • Compliance With Controlled Substance Laws and Regulations
  • Additional Practices For Safer Prescribing
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 45. Legal and Regulatory Issues in Pain Management
  • Laws and Policies Affecting Pain Management
  • Litigation Involving Pain Management
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 46. Urine Drug Testing in Pain Medicine
  • History of Urine Drug Testing
  • Bodily Specimens That Can Be Tested
  • Urine Drug Testing
  • Threshold Of Detectability
  • Why Perform An Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test
  • Who Should Get an Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test
  • When To Get an Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test
  • How Often To Get an Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test
  • What is the Evidence for Getting An Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test?
  • How to Interpret an Immunoassay Screen and Urine Drug Test
  • Adulteration
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 47. Substance Use Disorders and Detoxification
  • Substance Use and Chronic Pain
  • Risks of Pharmacological Treatment for Chronic Pain
  • Diagnosis of Substance use Disorders
  • Treatment of Substance Use Disorders in Patients With Chronic Pain
  • Long-Term Opioid Therapy
  • Why is detoxification necessary?
  • Opioid Detoxification
  • Benzodiazepine Detoxification
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 48. Psychopharmacology for Pain Medicine
  • Epidemiology
  • Psychiatric Nosology
  • Major Depression and Subthreshold Depression
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Mood Stabilizers
  • Other Antiepileptic Drugs
  • Neuroleptic Drugs
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 49. Membrane Stabilizers
  • Introduction
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Local Anesthetics
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 50. Recommendations for Pharmacologic Therapy of Neuropathic Pain
  • Neuropathic Pain—Epidemiology and Assessment
  • Constructing the Evidence Base for Recommendations for Neuropathic Pain Pharmacotherapy
  • Pharmacologic Therapy of Neuropathic Pain—Summary of Evidence
  • Pharmacology of Drugs Implied in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain
  • Future Directions
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 51. Nonopioid Analgesics: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors, and Acetaminophen
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Specific Medications
  • Safety, Toxicity, and Adverse Effects
  • Medication Selection
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 52. Intravenous Infusions for Refractory Cancer and Chronic Pain States
  • Local Anesthetic (Lidocaine)
  • Ketamine
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Immunoglobulin
  • Magnesium
  • Phentolamine
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 53. Pharmacologic Management of Myofascial Pain
  • Mechanisms of Muscle Pain
  • Painful Conditions with Myofascial Involvement
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 54. Pharmacologic Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
  • Intravenous Ketamine
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Calcitonin
  • Magnesium
  • Gabapentin and Pregabalin
  • Tadalafil
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide Cream
  • N-Acetylcysteine Tablets
  • Mannitol
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 55. Pharmacology for the Interventional Pain Physician
  • Corticosteroids
  • Botulinum Toxin Therapy
  • Skin Antiseptic Agents
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 56. Role of Cannabinoids in Pain Management
  • History of Cannabinoids in Medicine
  • Classification of Cannabinoids
  • Pharmacology of Cannabinoids
  • Cannabinoids as Analgesics
  • Risks and Side Effects Of Cannabinoids
  • Regulatory, Professional, and Legal Considerations
  • Cannabinoids in the Pain Clinic
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Section VII. Therapeutic Interventions
  • Chapter 57. Ablative Neurosurgical Procedures for Treatment of Chronic Pain
  • General Comments
  • Dorsal Root Entry Zone Lesions/Caudalis Dorsal Root Entry Zone
  • Peripheral Neurectomy/Ganglionectomy
  • Sympathectomy
  • Cordotomy
  • Commissural Myelotomy
  • Intracerebral Lesions
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 58. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Approaches to Pain Management
  • Overview of Modalities
  • Heat and Cold
  • Electricity
  • Overview of a Comprehensive Rehabilitation Program
  • Therapeutic Exercise
  • Treatment Interventions Specific to Spine-Related Conditions
  • Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Pain Management
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 59. Psychologic Interventions for Chronic Pain
  • Behavioral Interventions
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
  • Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Strategies
  • Self-Management and Peer Support
  • Multidisciplinary Treatment
  • Inpatient Versus Outpatient Care
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 60. Acupuncture
  • History and Theories
  • Meridians, Acupoints, and Myofascial Trigger Points
  • Technique
  • Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia
  • Indications
  • Adverse Effects, Complications, and Medical Consent of Acupuncture
  • Precautions and Relative Contraindications
  • Clinical Research Data on Acupuncture Treatment
  • Updates Since the Nih Consensus Statement
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 61. Tai Chi and Chronic Pain
  • Introduction
  • Philosophy, History, and Development of Tai Chi
  • Tai Chi Health Benefits
  • Tai Chi Benefits in Chronic Pain Conditions
  • Limitations of Evidence
  • Future Research
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Section VIII. Interventional Techniques for Pain Management
  • Chapter 62. Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injections
  • Introduction
  • Technique
  • Injectate Composition
  • Mechanism(S) of Action
  • Efficacy
  • Ilesi vs. Tfesi
  • Complications
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 63. Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections and Selective Nerve Root Blocks
  • Introduction
  • Technique
  • Anatomy
  • Injectate Composition and Delivery
  • Efficacy
  • Complications
  • Neurologic Injury
  • Other Complications
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 64. Antitumor Necrosis Factor-α Drugs and Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs for Low Back Pain
  • Introduction
  • Role of Inflammation in Low Back Pain
  • A Brief Introduction to Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • Antitumor Necrosis Factor-α Drugs and Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs for Low Back Pain
  • Epidural Dmard Administration for Low Back Pain
  • Systemic Dmard Use for Low Back Pain
  • Adverse Effects of Dmard Use for Low Back Pain
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 65. Facet Syndrome
  • Anatomy and Function
  • Pathophysiology
  • Prevalence
  • Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic Blocks
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 66. Sacroiliac Joint Pain
  • Anatomy, Function, and Innervation
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis and Presentation
  • Treatment
  • Key Points
  • Appendix 66.1. Tests for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
  • Chapter 67. Piriformis Syndrome
  • Anatomy of the Piriformis Muscle and the Sciatic Nerve
  • Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms, and Treatment
  • Techniques of Piriformis Muscle and Perisciatic Nerve Injections
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 68. Pulsed Radiofrequency, Water-Cooled Radiofrequency, and Cryoneurolysis
  • Background and Technique
  • Clinical Uses
  • Clinical Efficacy
  • Clinical Efficacy
  • Side Effects and Complications
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 69. Discography
  • Overview of Spinal Pain
  • Mechanisms of Discogenic Pain
  • Prevalence
  • The Controversy Surrounding Discography
  • Correlation Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Discography
  • Effect of Surgical Outcomes
  • Alternatives to Provocation Discography
  • Interpretation
  • Complications And Disc Injury
  • Summary
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 70. Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty
  • Introduction
  • Indications
  • Osteoporosis
  • Diagnosis and Initial Evaluation
  • Prevention
  • Contraindications
  • Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Technique
  • Complications
  • Clinical Evidence For Kyphoplasty And Vertebroplasty For The Treatment Of Vertebral Compression Fractures
  • Controversies
  • Implications
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 71. Neurolytic Sympathetic Blocks
  • Celiac Plexus Block
  • Superior Hypogastric Plexus Block
  • Ganglion Impar Block
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 72. Central and Peripheral Neurolysis
  • Introduction
  • Patient Selection
  • Patient Preparation
  • Neurolytic Agents
  • Neuroaxial Neurolysis
  • Peripheral Neurolysis
  • Additional Techniques Of Neurolysis
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 73. Spinal Cord Stimulation
  • Introduction
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Patient Selection and Preoperative Considerations
  • Equipment
  • Procedure
  • Complications
  • Programming and Technical Overview
  • Scs Types: Traditional, High-Frequency, and Burst Scs
  • Outcomes: Clinical Studies of Traditional Scs
  • Clinical Studies of Burst Scs
  • Clinical Studies of High-Frequency Scs
  • Cost Effectiveness
  • Peripheral, Cortical, and Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Recommendations
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 74. Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
  • History and Pathophysiology
  • Evidence
  • Technical Considerations
  • Radial Nerve
  • Ulnar Nerve
  • Median Nerve
  • Popliteal Area
  • Selected Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
  • Adverse Events
  • Future Applications of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 75. Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation
  • Introduction
  • Dorsal Root Ganglion “Gatekeeper” in Pain Transmission
  • Anatomy of the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  • Role of the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Impulse Propagation
  • Somatotopy of the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  • Dorsal Root Ganglion as Target for the Treatment of Chronic Pain
  • Dorsal Root Ganglionectomy
  • Radiofrequency Techniques Adjacent to the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  • Neurostimulation of the Dorsal Root Ganglion
  • In Vitro Studies
  • Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation in Humans
  • Clinical Results
  • Side Effects and Complications
  • Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation in Perspective
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 76. Implanted Drug Delivery Systems for Control of Chronic Pain
  • Introduction
  • Complications
  • Medication Classes
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 77. Fluoroscopy and Radiation Safety
  • Fluoroscopy Machine
  • Radiation Safety
  • Radiological Contrast Media
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 78. Efficacy of Interventional Procedures for Neuropathic Pain
  • Introduction
  • Neural Blockade Techniques
  • Neural Destructive Techniques, Pulse Radiofrequency
  • Section IX. Other Nerve Blocks in Pain Medicine
  • Chapter 79. Ultrasound-Guided Procedures for Pain Management: Spine Injections and Relevant Peripheral Nerve Blocks
  • Introduction
  • Basics of Ultrasound
  • Axial Procedures
  • Peripheral Procedures
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 80. Deep Muscle Injections: Piriformis, Scalene Muscle, Iliopsoas Injections
  • Introduction
  • Piriformis Syndrome
  • Diagnosis
  • Conservative Treatment
  • Injection Treatment
  • Injectate
  • Iliopsoas Pain
  • Diagnosis
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Iliopsoas Injections
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
  • Diagnosis
  • Relevant Anatomy
  • Scalene Muscle Injection
  • Results of Injection
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 81. Ultrasound-Guided Musculoskeletal Injections—Shoulder, Hip, and Knee
  • Shoulder
  • Hip
  • Knee Joint
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 82. Head and Neck Blocks
  • Indications and Contraindications
  • Trigeminal Nerve and Ganglion
  • Procedures
  • Sphenopalatine Ganglion
  • Procedure
  • Occipital Nerve Block
  • Ultrasound-Guided Occipital Nerve Block
  • Glossopharyngeal Nerve Block
  • Cervical Plexus Block
  • Technique
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 83. Truncal Blocks: Paravertebral, Intercostal, Pectoral Nerve, Suprascapular, Ilioinguinal, Iliohypogastric Nerve, and Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocks
  • Paravertebral Block
  • Intercostal Nerve Block
  • Pectoral Nerve Blocks
  • Suprascapular Nerve Blocks
  • Ilioinguinal and Iliohypogastric Nerve Blocks
  • Transversus Abdominis Plane Block
  • Key Points
  • Chapter 84. Fluoroscopy and Ultrasound-Guided Sympathetic Blocks: Stellate Ganglion, Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks, and Visceral Sympathetic Blocks
  • Introduction
  • Stellate Ganglion and Cervical Sympathetic Chain Blockade
  • Lumbar Sympathetic Block
  • Abdominal Sympathetic Blockade
  • Superior Hypogastric Plexus Block
  • Ganglion Impar Block
  • Chapter 85. Interventional Pain Procedures in Patients on Anticoagulants
  • Introduction
  • Stratification of Risks
  • Aspirin Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • P2Y12 Inhibitors Clopidogrel, Prasugrel, and Ticagrelor
  • Older Anticoagulants: Warfarin, Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin, Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Clotting Factor Inhibitors: Fondaparinux and the Novel Oral Anticoagulants
  • Laboratory Tests and Reversal of the Novel Oral Anticoagulants
  • Reversal of the Novel Oral Anticoagulants
  • Antidepressants
  • Herbal Medications
  • Summary and Concluding Statements
  • Chapter 86. Interventional Pain Procedures and the Risk of Infection
  • Introduction
  • Infection Rates
  • Preoperative Risk Reduction
  • Intraprocedural Risk Reduction
  • Postoperative Risk Reduction
  • Infection Management
  • Conclusion
  • Key Points
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 872
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: October 1, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323401968
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323445412

About the Authors

Honorio Benzon

Professor of Anesthesiology

Senior Associate Chair for Academic Affairs

Feinberg School of Medicine

Northwestern University

Chief, Division of Pain Medicine

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Chicago, IL

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anesthesiology, Associate Chair for Academic Affairs and Promotions, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois

Srinivasa N. Raja

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anesthesiology, Critical Care Medicine and Neurology, Director of Pain Research, Division of Pain Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Scott Fishman

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chief, Division of Pain Medicine, Vice Chair, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California

Spencer Liu

Affiliations and Expertise

Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology, Attending Anesthesiologist, Director of Acute Pain Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York

Steven P Cohen

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Director of Medical Education, Pain Management Division, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

About the Editor

Robert Hurley

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina

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