Essentials of Modern Physics Applied to the Study of the Infrared - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080028644, 9781483147208

Essentials of Modern Physics Applied to the Study of the Infrared

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Infrared Science and Technology

Authors: Armand Hadni
Editors: G. A. Boutry P. Goerlich T. S. Moss
eBook ISBN: 9781483147208
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 744
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Description

Essentials of Modern Physics Applied to the Study of the Infrared covers topics about the essentials of modern physics.
The book starts with the situation of research into the infrared and the problems to which it gives rise, and then discusses instrumentation in the infrared: optics, sources, receivers and electronics. The book describes the interaction between the infrared and matter within the framework of Lorentz's general theory and in the particular case of solids using Born's theory and introducing the notion of phonons. The region of the electromagnetic spectrum and the developments in science and industry, including X-ray analysis, molecular beam experiments, radio, and television are considered. The book tackles the sources of infrared as well as infrared detectors.
The text will be useful to physicists, engineers, and laboratory technicians.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Introduction. The Rise and Increasing Complexity of Infrared Research

I. The Discovery of the Infrared

II. The Fundamental Research

III. Rapid Progress after the War

III.1. Industrial Production of Spectrometers

III.2. Spectra Atlases

III.3. A New Optics

III.4. The Semiconductors

IV. The Immediate Future

IV.1. Lasers and Electronic Transitions in the Infrared

IV.2. Interaction between Infrared and Waves of Thermal Motion in Solids

IV.3. Application to Modern Chemistry, Television and Cybernetics

Chapter 1. Elements of Instrumental Optics in the Infrared

I. Energy Quantities Relative to Radiations

I.1. Energy Flux radiated from a Source

I.2. Intensity of a Point Source towards One Direction

I.3. Luminance

I.4. The Spread of a Beam

I.5. Emittance of a Source

I.6. Illumination of a Screen

I.7. Flux transported per Unit of Wavelength, Specific Luminance, Emittance, Intensity and Illumination

II. Radiation Dispersion

II.1. General Points

II.2. True Monochromators (prism monochromators)

II.3. Pseudo Monochromators: Perot-Fabry Etalons and Gratings

III. The Problem of Eliminating Stray Light

III.1. Filters by Reflection

III.2. Filters by Transmission

III.3. Filters based on Selective Modulation

IV. Multiplex Spectrometry

IV.1. Spectrometer and Spectrograph, Multiplex Spectrometry

IV.2. Interferometric Amplitude Modulator

IV.3. Michelson's Interferometer, Modulation of Amplitude and Fourier's Analysis

IV.4. Spectrometers with Grids or Multiple Slits

V. Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 2. Sources of Infrared

I. Introduction

II. Thermal Emission

II.1. Classical Theory of the Black Body, Continuous Emission

II.2. Quantum Theory of the Black Body

II.3. Thermal Emission: Continuous or Selective Emission

II.4. Discharges in Gases, Black Body Emission of Plasma

III. Mechanism of the Emission: Atomic or Molecular, Spontaneous or Stimulated

III.1. Einstein's Coefficients, Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission, Absorption

III.2. Spontaneous Emission of Cold Sources in the Infrared

III.3. Stimulated Emission of Cold Sources in the Infrared: Lasers

IV. Emission of Waves by Electric Circuits

IV.1. Hertz's Experiments (1877)

IV.2. Field radiated by an Oscillating Dipole

IV.3. High Frequency Sinusoidal Oscillations of a Triode

IV.4. Velocity Modulation Tubes

IV.5. Harmonics Generation

IV.6. The Cerenkov and the Smith-Purcell Effects

IV.7. Cyclotronic Generator and Tunnel Diodes

V. Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 3. Infrared Detectors

I. Introduction

II. Thermal Detectors

II.1 General Description, Temperature Rise of the Target

II.2. Specific Volume

II.3. Electric Resistance

II.4. Thermoelectricity

II.5. Pyroelectricity

II.6. Photoemissivity of Electrons

II.7. Absorption of a Semiconductor in the Zone where it becomes Transparent

II.8. Thermosensitive Fluorescence

II.9. Thermochroism

II.10. Evaporography

III. Quantum Detectors

III.1. Quantum Detectors using the Electronic Levels of a Semiconductor

III.2. Electronic Levels of an Ion, or of a Pair of Ions

IV. Crystal Detectors

V. Amplifiers, Noise Spectrum

VI. Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 4. Propagation of Infrared in Empty Space and in Matter— Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz's Theory

I. Introduction

II. The Equation of Propagation of an Electromagnetic Wave, the Search for a Plane Solution

II.1. General Relationships between E, B, H, D

II.2. Equations of Propagation for E and H

II.3. Finding a Solution when the Medium propagates a Plane Wave

II.4. Interpretation of the Complex Index

III. Applications

III.1. Transversality of the Plane Wave

III.2. Characteristic Impedance of the Medium

IV. Calculation of the Dielectric Constant from the Atomic Structure, Dispersion of the Index of Refraction and the Absorption Coefficient, Lorentz's Theory

IV.1. Electronic and Ionic Polarizability at a First Approximation

IV.2. Contribution of Free Carriers: Plasma

IV.3. Contribution of Polar Molecules in Free Rotation, Dispersion of Polar Gases in the Infrared

IV.4. Polarizability of Orientation

IV.5. Local Field of Lorentz

V. Conclusion

V.1. Variation of the Polarizability in Terms of the Frequency

V.2. Variation of n and k in Terms of the Frequency for a Medium containing only Electronic, Ionic, or Vibrational Oscillators

Bibliography

Chapter 5. Waves of Thermal Agitation in a Solid, Interactions with the Infrared

I. Introduction

II. Einstein's Theory and Debye's Theory on the Vibrations of a Solid

II.1. Quantification of the Elastic Vibrations of a Solid (Einstein 1907)

II.2. Einstein's Theory

II.3. Debye's Theory

III. Exact Solution for the Problem of the Natural Vibrations of a Solid

III.1. Linear Chain of Diatomic Molecules

III.2. Three-dimensional Lattice

IV. Interactions between Electromagnetic Waves and Thermal Waves of Agitation in a Perfect Crystal

IV.1. Electromagnetic Character of Certain Waves of Thermal Agitation in a Polar Crystal

IV.2. First Order Effects in the Interaction of the Electromagnetic Infrared Waves with the Thermal Agitation Waves of a Crystal

IV.3. Second Order Effects in the Interaction of Electromagnetic Infrared Waves with the Thermal Agitation Waves of a Crystal

IV.4. Interactions with the Visible Electromagnetic Waves: the Scattering of Photons by Phonons

V. Crystal Defects, Localized Vibrations and One-phonon Transitions

V.1. General Theory for Homopolar Compounds

V.2. Case of Silicon

V.3. Case of Diamond

V.4. Case of Germanium

V.5. Case of Ionic Crystals

V.6. Case of Glasses

V.7. A-centres and U-centres

V.8. Mixed Crystals

V.9. Conclusion

VI. Monograph of the Principal Crystals concerning their Transmission and Reflection in the Infrared

VI.1. Historical Interest of the Problem

VI.2. Calculation of the Apparent Transmission and Reflection of a Plate with Plane Parallel Faces

VI.3. Cubic Homopolar Compounds: Ge, Si, C

VI.4. Alkali Halides

VI.5. Other Cubic Crystals with the NaCl Structure

VI.6. Other Cubic Crystals with the CsCl Structure

VI.7. Alkaline Earth Halides (Fluorite Structure)

VI.8. Other Crystals with the Fluorite Structure

VI.9. Antifluorite Structure

VI.10. Blende Structure

VI.11. Wurtzite Structure

VI.12. Cuprite Structure

VI.13. Corundum Structure

VI.14. Silica Structure

VI.15. Rutile Structure

VI.16. Other Structures

VII. Conclusion

Bibliography

Chapter 6. A New Field of Research—The Far Infrared

I. Introduction

II. Instrumentation in the Far Infrared

II.1. Spectrometry and Fourier Transpose Spectroscopy

II.2. Far Infrared Monochromators

II.3. Special Devices for the Far Infrared

II.4. Far Infrared Instruments Commercially Available

III. Internal Molecular Vibrations of Low Frequency

III.1. Valence Vibrations of Heavy Atoms

III.2. Angular Vibrations

III.3. Distortion Vibrations of Certain Rings

III.4. Internal Librations

IV. Pure Rotations

IV.1. Light Molecules

IV.2. Heavy Molecules

IV.3. Interactions between Pure Rotations and Librations

IV.4. Case of Liquids

V. External Vibrations of Molecules

V.1. Molecular Crystals

V.2. Water of Crystallization

V.3. Adsorbed Water

V.4. Clathrates and Other Interstitial Crystals

V.5. Molecular Association, Hydrogen Bonds

VI. Electronic Transitions in the Far Infrared

VI.1. Rare Earth Ions

VI.2. Transition Elements

VI.3. Magnetic Resonances

VII. Superconductivity in the Far Infrared

VII.1. Transmission of Thin Films

VII.2. Reflection on Bulk Surfaces

VII.3. Conclusion

VIII. Free Carriers Absorption

IX. Ferroelectricity

X. Other Types of Transitions in the Far Infrared

X.1. Emission of Gas Plasmas

X.2. Fundamental One-phonon Transitions in Crystals

X.3. One-phonon Transitions induced by Impurities, the Case of Glasses

X.4. Two-phonon Transitions: Addition and Difference Bands

X.5. Transitions involving more than Two Phonons

X.6. Spin Resonance

X.7. Cyclotron Resonance

XI. Conclusion

XI.1. Progress in Instrumentation

XI.2. Scientific Developments

Bibliography

Appendix

Index


Details

No. of pages:
744
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483147208

About the Author

Armand Hadni

About the Editor

G. A. Boutry

P. Goerlich

T. S. Moss