Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128053294, 9780128053324

Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation

1st Edition

Authors: S. M. Gandhi B. C. Sarkar
eBook ISBN: 9780128053324
Paperback ISBN: 9780128053294
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 25th May 2016
Page Count: 410
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Description

Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation offers a thorough overview of methods used in mineral exploration campaigns, evaluation, reporting and economic assessment processes. Fully illustrated to cover the state-of-the-art exploration techniques and evaluation of mineral assets being practiced globally, this up-to-date reference offers balanced coverage of the latest knowledge and current global trends in successful mineral exploration and evaluation. From mineral deposits, to remote sensing, to sampling and analysis, Essentials of Mineral Exploration and Evaluation offers an extensive look at this rapidly changing field.

Key Features

  • Covers the complete spectrum of all aspects of ore deposits and mining them, providing a "one-stop shop" for experts and students
  • Presents the most up-to-date information on developments and methods in all areas of mineral exploration
  • Includes chapters on application of GIS, statistics, and geostatistics in mineral exploration and evaluation
  • Includes case studies to enhance practical application of concepts

Readership

Geologists, mineralogists, mineral explorers, graduate students in mineral exploration departments

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Some Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in the Text
    • Weights and Measures
  • Chapter 1. Metals and Minerals: Global Trends, Outlook, and Mineral Exploration
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 General
    • 1.2 Emerging Economies of the New World
    • 1.3 Program for Progress
    • 1.4 Recycling and Conservation
    • 1.5 Some Environmental Benefits of Metals Recycling
    • 1.6 Substitution
    • 1.7 Global Flow of Metals and Minerals
    • 1.8 Global Demand of Mineral Resources up to 2050
    • 1.9 Shifting Markets Create New Opportunities
    • 1.10 The Great Fall of China and Global Volatility
    • 1.11 Challenges of Developing Adequate Supply of Minerals
    • 1.12 The Need for Intense Mineral Exploration
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Mineral Deposits: Types and Associations
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Definitions
    • 2.3 The Rock Cycle
    • 2.4 Rock-Forming Minerals
    • 2.5 Ore Body
    • 2.6 Formation of Mineral Deposit
    • 2.7 Chemical and Physical Controls of Ore Deposition
    • 2.8 Ore Deposit Types
    • 2.9 Composition of the Deposit
    • 2.10 Classification Based on Form
    • 2.11 Classification Based on the Theory of Origin
    • 2.12 Classification Based on Ore Formation Processes and Element Associations
    • 2.13 Placers
    • 2.14 Metallogenic Provinces and Epochs
    • 2.15 Metallogenic Provinces in relation to Plate Tectonic Setting
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Reconnaissance and Prospecting
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Reconnaissance
    • 3.2 Reconnaissance Map
    • 3.3 Reconnaissance Survey
    • 3.4 Geological Survey
    • 3.5 Geological Mapping
    • 3.6 Digital Elevation Models
    • 3.7 Prospecting
    • 3.8 Prospecting Types
    • 3.9 Preliminary Field Trip
    • 3.10 Prospecting Methods
    • 3.11 Guides for Prospecting
    • 3.12 Classification of Guides
    • 3.13 Mineralogical Guides
    • 3.14 Stratigraphic and Lithologic Guides
    • 3.15 Structural Guides
    • 3.16 Geochemical Guides
    • 3.17 Animal Activity
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Remote Sensing Techniques
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Remote Sensing
    • 4.3 Why Remote Sensing
    • 4.4 Major Remote Sensing Satellite Systems
    • 4.5 Radar and Thermal Infrared Sensors
    • 4.6 Digital Image Processing
    • 4.7 Application of Remote Sensing
    • 4.8 Advantages of Satellite Imageries
    • 4.9 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System
    • 4.10 Remote Sensing Versus Aerial Photography/Photogrammetry
    • 4.11 Remote Sensing and Multispectral Imaging
    • 4.12 Remote Sensing Versus SONAR
    • 4.13 Remote Sensing Industry—Present Trends and Outlook
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Geophysical Exploration
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Geophysical Methods and Targets
    • 5.3 Choice of a Technique
    • 5.4 Gravity Techniques—Gravity Gradiometry, Geodesy, Microgravity Surveys
    • 5.5 Magnetic Techniques
    • 5.6 Electromagnetic Methods
    • 5.7 Radiometric (Gamma Ray) Method—Aeroradiometric Surveys
    • 5.8 Seismic Methods
    • 5.9 Electrical Techniques
    • 5.10 Thermal Methods
    • 5.11 Remote Sensing Methods
    • 5.12 Borehole Geophysics (Geophysical Logging)
    • 5.13 Lithology Logs
    • 5.14 Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys
    • 5.15 Very Low Frequency Surveys
    • 5.16 Other Methods
    • 5.17 Geophysical Inversion Technique
    • 5.18 Emerging Geophysical Technique
    • 5.19 Airborne Geophysical Survey
    • 5.20 High-Definition Airborne Gravity Gradiometry
    • 5.21 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
    • 5.22 Future Trends
    • 5.23 Marine Geophysical Exploration Survey
    • 5.24 Satellite Geophysics
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Geochemical Exploration
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 The Geochemical Cycle
    • 6.3 General Principles
    • 6.4 Geochemical Exploration Surveys
    • 6.5 Various Geochemical Exploration Surveys
    • 6.6 Other Advanced Techniques
    • 6.7 Design of Geochemical Survey
    • 6.8 Sampling for Geochemical Surveys
    • 6.9 Geochemical Maps
    • 6.10 Interpretation of Data
    • 6.11 Geochemical Data Processing
    • 6.12 Analysis of Exploration Data and Identifying Geochemical Anomalies
    • 6.13 Geochemical Survey Interpretation
    • 6.14 Typical Geochemical Exploration Program
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Geological Exploration
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Minerals Activity Project
    • 7.3 Mineral Exploration
    • 7.4 Evolution of Exploration Technology
    • 7.5 Development of Exploration Technology
    • 7.6 Challenges for Mineral Exploration
    • 7.7 Designing an Exploration Approach
    • 7.8 The Exploration Cycle
    • 7.9 Environmental Impacts of Mineral Exploration and Development
    • 7.10 Mine Closure Plan
    • 7.11 Greenfields Versus Brownfields exploration
    • 7.12 Resourcing the Future
    • 7.13 Project Funding
    • 7.14 Ingredients of a Successful Exploration Campaign
    • 7.15 Mineral Exploration and Development—Geographic Location
    • 7.16 Expected Revenues, Costs, and Risks
    • 7.17 Exploration Expenditure
    • 7.18 Discovery Depends Upon Various Factors
    • 7.19 Mineral Exploration Under Deep Cover
    • 7.20 Interpretation and 3D Modeling
    • 7.21 Economic Concepts for Exploration Strategy
    • 7.22 Research and Training
    • 7.23 Scarcity of Exploration Geoscientists
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Drilling
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Categories of Drilling Rig
    • 8.3 Drilling Methods
    • 8.4 Selection of Drill
    • 8.5 Selection of Drilling Fluid
    • 8.6 Selection of Pump
    • 8.7 Exploration Drilling Methods
    • 8.8 The Coiled Tubing Drill Rig
    • 8.9 Samples From Drilling Campaign
    • 8.10 Core Recovery
    • 8.11 Core Storage
    • 8.12 Core Splitting
    • 8.13 Core Logging
    • 8.14 High-Tech Core Scanning and Interpretation
    • 8.15 Deductions From Drill Core Samples
    • 8.16 Portable XRF Analyzer
    • 8.17 Deviation of Drill Holes
    • 8.18 Directional Core Drilling
    • 8.19 Surveying Boreholes
    • 8.20 Drill Sections
    • 8.21 Planning a Drill Campaign
    • 8.22 Drilling for Sampling Purposes
    • 8.23 Angle of Intersection
    • 8.24 Drilling for New Ore
    • 8.25 When to Stop Drilling
    • Appendix
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Sampling and Analysis
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Sampling
    • 9.3 Geological Sampling Methods
    • 9.4 Criteria for the Selection of a Sampling Procedure
    • 9.5 Collection of Samples
    • 9.6 Errors in Sampling
    • 9.7 Preparation of Samples
    • 9.8 Screening and Particle Size Distribution
    • 9.9 Sample Preparation Methods for Analysis
    • 9.10 Analysis of Geochemical Samples
    • 9.11 High-Quality Analyses for Exploration
    • 9.12 Sources of Error
    • Appendix: Gy’s Sampling Reduction Formula
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Geographic Information System and Common Earth Model
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Geographic Information System
    • 10.2 Common Earth Model
    • 10.3 3D & 4D GIS Geomodeling
    • 10.4 Common Earth Model at Exploration Stages
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Conventional and Statistical Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Conventional Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • 11.3 Drawbacks of Conventional Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • 11.4 Statistical Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • 11.5 Characterization of a Distribution
    • 11.6 Probability Models
    • 11.7 Graphical Estimation of Logarithmic Mean and Logarithmic Variance
    • 11.8 Numerical Estimation of Logarithmic Mean and Logarithmic Variance
    • 11.9 Estimation of Average of a Mineral Deposit
    • 11.10 Estimation of Central 90% Confidence Limits of Mean of a Lognormal Population
    • 11.11 Number of Samples
    • 11.12 Demerits of Statistical Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Geostatistical Resource/Reserve Estimation
    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Background
    • 12.2 Geostatistics
    • 12.3 Random Function
    • 12.4 Regionalized Variable
    • 12.5 Why Geostatistics
    • 12.6 Semivariogram Function
    • 12.7 Mathematical Models of Semivariogram
    • 12.8 Kriging: Concepts and Applications
    • 12.9 Integrated Geostatistical Modeling Process
    • 12.10 Mineral Inventory
    • 12.11 Grade–Tonnage Relations
    • 12.12 A Step-by-Step Summary for an Integrated Geostatistical Study
    • 12.13 Geostatistics in Mineral industry
    • 12.14 Limitations of Use of Geostatistics
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Mineral Resources Classification
    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 History of the Development of Reporting Standards
    • 13.3 Exploration Results
    • 13.4 Competent Person and Responsibility
    • 13.5 Mineral Resource Classification
    • 13.6 The JORC Code
    • 13.7 Reporting Terminology
    • 13.8 Codification of UNFC System
    • 13.9 The Russian Federation Classification System
    • 13.10 The Chinese Reserve and Resource Reporting System
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Valuation of Mineral Properties
    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Periodic Change in Mineral Property Values
    • 14.3 Exploration Assets and the Exploration Procedure
    • 14.4 Valuation Techniques, Approaches, and Methodology
    • 14.5 Mineral Valuation Codes
    • 14.6 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Appendix. Case Study of Rampura-Agucha Zinc-Lead Deposit, India
    • A.1 Rampura-Agucha Zinc-Lead Deposit—From Discovery to Development Saga
    • A.2 Rampura-Agucha Ore Deposit Characteristics and Its Genesis
    • A.3 Ancient Mining and Smelting for Silver/Lead in Rampura-Agucha Area
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
410
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128053324
Paperback ISBN:
9780128053294

About the Author

S. M. Gandhi

Dr. S.M. Gandhi obtained his M. Tech and Ph.D degrees in Applied Geology in 1967 and 1975, respectively, from Sagar University, India. He joined Hindustan Zinc (HZL) in 1971 as Exploration/Mining geologist and worked in Zawar group of mines until 1974. Between 1974 and 1979, he was a Canadian Commonwealth Fellow and carried out research on Lithogeochemical Exploration Techniques for base metals in Eastern Canada and obtained a Ph.D from Univ. of New Brunswick (UNB), Canada, in 1978. During his stay in North America, besides serving as a faculty member in UNB in mineral exploration and exploration geochemistry, Dr. Gandhi visited and worked in various world-class base and precious metal prospects/deposits along with multinational exploration groups in Canada and USA. He has 62 scientific publications in peer-reviewed, national and international journals. He is now a consultant in Mineral Exploration & Mineral Evaluation and a guest faculty member in a few Universities, teaching Mineral Exploration courses.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mineral Exploration & Evaluation Consultant, Tamil Nadu, India

B. C. Sarkar

Prof. B. C. Sarkar obtained his five-year Integrated M.Sc. degree in Applied Geology from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1980. He served Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited during 1980-81 and Hindustan Zinc Limited during 1981-89 as Geologist and Senior Geologist. Prof. Sarkar obtained his Ph.D. degree in Mining Geostatistics and D.I.C. in Mineral Resources Engineering from Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London in 1988 on a Government of India Scholarship. During his PhD, Prof Sarkar developed an Integrated Geological-Geostatistical System (details published in Mining Magazine, London 1988) and applied it to five mineral deposits across the globe representing different mineralisation types. Having worked in Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd. (MECL), Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) and presently being with Indian School of Mines (ISM) since December 1989, Prof. Sarkar contributed significantly to the mineral exploration developments of various explored and un-explored deposit areas and mines in the country and abroad. Prof Sarkar has been the Chairman of MEAI organised All India Exploration Geologists Meet in 2014 and is the recipient of various awards in recognition of scholarship, impeccable devotion to work and outstanding achievements in the field of Mineral Exploration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Department Head of Applied Geology, Indian School of Mines, Jharkhand, India