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Essentials of Medical Biochemistry - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124166875, 9780124166974

Essentials of Medical Biochemistry

2nd Edition

With Clinical Cases

Authors: N. V. Bhagavan Chung-Eun Ha
eBook ISBN: 9780124166974
Paperback ISBN: 9780124166875
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st June 2015
Page Count: 752
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Essentials of Medical Biochemistry, Second Edition: With Clinical Cases is the most condensed, yet detailed biochemistry overview available on the topic. It presents contemporary coverage of the fundamentals of biochemistry, emphasizing relevant physiologic and pathophysiologic biochemical concepts.

Pivotal clinical case studies aid in understanding basic science in the context of diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, and the text illuminates key topics in molecular immunology and hemostasis.

Users will find basic and fundamental concepts that will aid students and professionals in biochemistry, medicine, and other healthcare disciplines. the text is a useful refresher that will help users meet USMLE and other professional licensing examination requirements, providing thorough introductions, key points, multicolored illustrations of chemical structures and figures, fact-filled tables, and recommended reading lists.

Key Features

  • Presents essential biochemical concepts within the context of their biological functions
  • Contains key clinical case studies in each chapter to enhance understanding of basic science and aid in further comprehension
  • Offers instructional overview figures, flowcharts, tables and multicolored illustrations
  • Includes integrated, recommended reading reference lists within the text
  • Provides an online ancillary package inclusive of PowerPoint images and more than 500 study questions to aid in comprehension and USMLE exam preparation


First-year medical students and graduate students in basic biochemistry, physiology, dentistry, and pharmacology.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
    • List of Authors
  • Chapter 1. The Human Organism: Organ Systems, Cells, Organelles, and Our Microbiota
    • Key Points
    • Organ Systems: Integrated Function at the Highest Level
    • Cells: Structures and Functions
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 2. Water, Acids, Bases, and Buffers
    • Key Points
    • Properties of Water
    • Buffers
    • H+ Concentration and pH
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 3. Amino Acids
    • Key Points
    • L-α-Amino Acids: Structure
    • Classification
    • Electrolyte and Acid–Base Properties
  • Chapter 4. Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins and Disorders of Protein Misfolding
    • Key Points
    • Covalent and Coordinate Covalent Bonds in Protein Structure
    • Noncovalent Interactions in Protein Structure
    • Primary Structure
    • Secondary Structure
    • Tertiary Structure
    • Quaternary Structure
    • Denaturation
    • Conversion of Precursor Proteins to Active Proteins by Proteolysis
    • Protease Inhibitors Used as Therapeutic Agents for Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections
    • Protein Folding and Intracellular Degradation of Misfolded and Defective Proteins
    • Autophagy
    • Protein Misfolding and Fibrillogenic Diseases
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 5. Energetics of Biological Systems
    • Key Points
    • Thermodynamics
    • Chemical Kinetics
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 6. Enzymes and Enzyme Regulation
    • Key Points
    • Nomenclature
    • Catalysis
    • Active Site and Enzyme–Substrate Complex
    • Michaelis–Menten Model for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions
    • Inhibition
    • Irreversible Inhibition
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 7. Clinical Enzymology and Biomarkers of Tissue Injury
    • Key Points
    • Diagnosis and Prognosis of Disease
    • Serum and Plasma Markers in the Diagnosis of Tissue Damage
    • Enzymes as Analytical Reagents
    • Enzymes as Therapeutic Agents
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 8. Simple Carbohydrates
    • Key Points
    • Classification
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 9. Heteropolysaccharides: Glycoconjugates, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids
    • Key Points
    • Glycoproteins
    • Cell Membrane Constituents
    • Cell-Surface Glycoproteins
    • Serum Glycoproteins
    • Molecular Mimicry of Oligosaccharides and Host Susceptibility
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 10. Connective Tissue: Fibrous and Nonfibrous Proteins and Proteoglycans
    • Key Points
    • Protein Fibers
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 11. Gastrointestinal Digestion and Absorption
    • Key Points
    • Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Gastrointestinal Hormones
    • Digestion and Absorption of Major Food Substances
    • Absorption of Water and Electrolytes
    • Thermic Effect of Food
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 12. Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
    • Key Points
    • Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Metabolism
    • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 13. Electron Transport Chain, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Other Oxygen-Consuming Systems
    • Key Points
    • Mitochondrial Structure and Properties
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • The Mitochondrial Genome
    • Nuclear Control of Respiratory Chain Expression
    • Mitochondrial Diseases
    • Other Reducing-Equivalent Transport and Oxygen-Consuming Systems
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 14. Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Gluconeogenesis, Glycogen Synthesis and Breakdown, and Alternative Pathways
    • Key Points
    • Gluconeogenesis
    • Glycogen Metabolism
    • Alternative Pathways of Glucose Metabolism and Hexose Interconversions
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 15. Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
    • Key Points
    • Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids
    • Metabolism of Ammonia
    • Metabolism of Some Individual Amino Acids
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 16. Lipids I: Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids
    • Key Points
    • Oxidation of Fatty Acids
    • Other Pathways of Fatty Acid Oxidation
    • Metabolism of Ketone Bodies
    • Synthesis of Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Metabolism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Trans-Fatty Acids
    • Essential Fatty Acids
    • Metabolism of Eicosanoids
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 17. Lipids II: Phospholipids, Glycosphingolipids, and Cholesterol
    • Key Points
    • Phospholipids
    • Phosphatidylcholines
    • Phosphosphingolipids
    • Catabolism and Storage Disorders of Sphingolipids
    • Phospholipids and Glycosphingolipids in Clinical Medicine
    • Cholesterol
    • Conversion of Acetyl-Coa to Hmg-Coa
  • Chapter 18. Lipids III: Plasma Lipoproteins
    • Key Points
    • Structure and Composition
    • Metabolism
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 19. Contractile Systems
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Muscle Systems
    • Nonmuscle Systems
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 20. Perturbations of Energy Metabolism: Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus
    • Key Points
    • Energy Metabolism
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes Mellitus
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 21. Structure and Properties of DNA
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Chromosomes and Chromatin
    • Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 22. DNA Replication, Repair, and Mutagenesis
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • General Features of DNA Replication
    • The Enzymology of DNA Replication
    • DNA Mutations and DNA Repair
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 23. RNA and Protein Synthesis
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Structure of RNA
    • Messenger RNA
    • Enzymatic Synthesis of RNA
    • Prokaryotic Transcription
    • Transcription in Eukaryotes
    • Genetic Code
    • Attachment of Amino Acid to tRNA Molecule
    • Initiator tRNA Molecules and Selection of Initiation Codon
    • Ribosomes
    • Protein Synthesis
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 24. Regulation of Gene Expression
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Regulation of mRNA Synthesis
    • Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes
    • Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
    • Mechanisms of Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 25. Nucleotide Metabolism
    • Key Points
    • One-Carbon Metabolism
    • Formation of 5-Phosphoribosyl-1-Pyrophosphate
    • Biosynthesis of Purine Nucleotides
    • Conversion of Nucleoside Monophosphates to Diphosphates and Triphosphates
    • Formation of Purine Deoxyribonucleotides
    • Regulation of Purine Biosynthesis
    • Inhibitors of Purine Biosynthesis
    • Catabolism of Purine Nucleotides
    • Disorders of Purine Nucleotide Metabolism
    • Biosynthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
    • Coordination of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis
    • Catabolism of Pyrimidine Nucleotides
    • Abnormalities of Pyrimidine Metabolism
  • Chapter 26. Hemoglobin
    • Key Points
    • Structure of Hemoglobins
    • Functional Aspects of Hemoglobin
    • Inherited Disorders of Hemoglobin Structure and Synthesis
    • Derivatives of Hemoglobin
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 27. Metabolism of Iron and Heme
    • Key Points
    • Iron Metabolism
    • Heme Biosynthesis
    • Disorders of Heme Biosynthesis
    • Heme Catabolism
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 28. Endocrine Metabolism I: Introduction and Signal Transduction
    • Key Points
    • Hormonal Amines
    • Peptide, Protein, and Glycoprotein Hormones
    • Steroid Hormones
    • Types of Hormone Receptors
    • Cell Surface Receptors
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 29. Endocrine Metabolism II: Hypothalamus and Pituitary
    • Key Points
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 30. Endocrine Metabolism III: Adrenal Glands
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Synthesis of Corticosteroids
    • Adrenal Medulla
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 31. Endocrine Metabolism IV: Thyroid Gland
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Thyroid Hormone Synthesis
    • Transport and Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones
    • Biological Actions of Thyroid Hormones
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 32. Endocrine Metabolism V: Reproductive System
    • Key Points
    • Sex Determination
    • Testes
    • Female Reproductive System
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 33. Immunology
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • What Generates the Immune Response?
    • Components of the Immune System
    • Communication within the Immune Response
    • The Complement System and Inflammation
    • Antibodies
    • B-Cell Development and Antibody Diversity
    • T-Cell Development and T-Cell Receptor Diversity
    • T-Cell Activation and Differentiation
    • The Adaptive Immune Response: Specific Antibody Response
    • The Adaptive Immune Response: Cell-Mediated Immune Response
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 34. Biochemistry of Hemostasis
    • Key Points
    • Hemostatic Response Occurs in Two Phases
    • Hemostatic System Factors and Protein Structure/Function Relationships
    • Reactions of the Coagulation Cascade: The Procoagulant Subsystem
    • Shutting Off Coagulation: The Anticoagulant Subsystem
    • Clot Removal: The Fibrinolytic Subsystem
    • Vitamin K, Oral Anticoagulants, and their Mechanisms of Action
    • Hemostatic System Dysfunction: Bleeding and Thrombosis
    • Laboratory Assessment of Coagulation System Functions
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 35. Mineral Metabolism
    • Key Points
    • Calcium and Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
    • Essential Trace Elements
    • Required Reading
    • Enrichment Reading
  • Chapter 36. Vitamin Metabolism
    • Key Points
    • Introduction
    • Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    • Water-Soluble Vitamins
    • Required Reading
  • Chapter 37. Water, Electrolytes, and Acid–Base Balance
    • Key Points
    • Water Metabolism
    • Homeostatic Controls
    • Water and Osmolality Controls
    • Electrolyte Balance
    • Acid–Base Balance
    • Required Reading
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
1st June 2015
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:

About the Authors

N. V. Bhagavan

N. V. Bhagavan

N. V. Bhagavan is an Emeritus Professor in the department of Anatomy, Biochemistry,

and Physiology at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

An active professor, researcher, and teacher, he has many years of experience in both

the instruction and practice of clinical biochemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA

Chung-Eun Ha

Chung-Eun Ha

Chung-Eun Ha is an Associate Professor in the department of Native Hawaiian Health

at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Since 2001,

he has been teaching medical biochemistry to students who come from disadvantaged

backgrounds. He is also actively involved in the various aspects of molecular biology

and biochemical research in the field of clinical medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA


"The contents of the book are quite up to date. The book covers basic, traditional biochemical topics as well as recent developments driven by genomics that caught the interests of everyone, including biochemist and health care personnel and future doctors. Adopting such a concise textbook that covers the many aspects of biochemistry and their relevance to diseases would prepare our pre-med students with a broad understanding of the mechanisms of a large number of health problems. The book would also be a very useful starting point for those who are experts in other fields of basic research but have an interest or need to relate basic biochemical processes to and disease mechanisms in a broad range...This book is very concise on most of the topics it covers. It describes the principles to the point the students need without lengthy elaborations that takes too much time that students often find hard to find due to heavy study load. Accompanied by case studies, this is a very good book for medical orientated students."--Dr. Yuzhu Zhang, Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, Illinios Institute of Technology
"The writing style is in general easy to read and the topics that I have reviewed seemed to be explained well."--Dr. William E. Seifert, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Purdue University
"We adopted the Bhagavan text because it is the most comprehensive and authoritative text on the market and is suitable for our students who have already had at least one semester of biochemistry prior to acceptance in medical school...The chapters on genomics and hematology are handled better by Bhagavan than in other books that I'm familiar with. It was probably this coverage in Bhagavan that made it our choice. The hematology section is better than that in most full hematology books."--Dr. Eugene Allanson, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center

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