Essential and Toxic Element - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125642026, 9781483262079

Essential and Toxic Element

1st Edition

Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease

Editors: Ananda Prasad
eBook ISBN: 9781483262079
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1976
Page Count: 534
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Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Volume II: Essential and Toxic Elements is a collection of papers presented at an international symposium on trace elements held in Detroit, Michigan on July 10-12, 1974. The symposium provided a forum for discussing the role of essential and toxic elements such as magnesium and chromium in human health and disease.

Comprised of 21 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of magnesium deficiency and magnesium toxicity in humans, followed by an analysis of magnesium deficiency and its relation to calcium, parathyroid hormone, and bone metabolism. The reader is then introduced to the biochemistry and physiology of magnesium, along with chromium metabolism and its biochemical effects on humans. Subsequent chapters deal with the metabolism and biochemistry of selenium and sulfur; the health and disease implications of selenium and glutathione peroxidase; effect of pre-eruptive or post-eruptive fluoride administration on caries susceptibility in the rat; and perinatal effects of trace element deficiencies. The book also considers the basis of recommended dietary allowances for trace elements before concluding with a description of quantitative measures of the toxicity of mercury in humans.

This book will be useful to physicians, researchers, nutritionists, and toxicologists.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Volume I

26 Magnesium Deficiency and Magnesium Toxicity in Man

I. Introduction

II. Magnesium Deficiency

III. Magnesium Intoxication

IV. Summary


27 Magnesium Deficiency and Calcium and Parathyroid Hormone Interrelations

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Symptomatic Magnesium Deficiency in Man

III. Observations in Other Species

IV. Interrelationships among Magnesium, Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, and Bone Metabolism

V. In Vitro Studies Relating Magnesium to Parathyroid Gland Activity

VI. Effect of Parathyroid Extract in Vivo

VII. Conclusion


28 Biochemistry and Physiology of Magnesium

I. Introduction

II. Biochemistry of Magnesium

III. Physiology of Magnesium

IV. Research Needs


29 Chromium Metabolism in Man and Biochemical Effects

I. Introduction

II. Role and Structure of Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF)

III. Evidence for Chromium Deficiency in Animals and Man

IV. Chromium Content of the Diet

V. Absorption, Transport, and Excretion of Chromium

VI. Biological Effects of GTF Supplementation of the Diet

VII. Unsolved Problems and Research Needs

VIII. Summary


30 Selenium in Man

I. Introduction

II. Dietary Intake

III. Metabolism

IV. Tissue Levels

V. Deficiency

VI. Toxicity

VII. Medical Applications

VIII. Assessment of Selenium Status

IX. Research Needs



31 Selected Aspects of the Comparative Metabolism and Biochemistry of Selenium and Sulfur

I. Introduction

II. Comparative Metabolism of Selenium and Sulfur

III. Comparative Biochemistry of Selenium and Sulfur

IV. Research Needs


32 Selenium and Glutathione Peroxidase in Health and Disease—A Review

I. Introduction

II. Properties of Glutathione Peroxidase

III. Assay of Glutathione Peroxidase

IV. Distribution of Glutathione Peroxidase

V. Cellular Functions of Glutathione Peroxidase

VI. Glutathione Peroxidase in Human Diseases

VII. Research Needs


33 Metabolism and Function of Manganese

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism of Manganese

III. Biochemical and Physiological Changes Associated with Manganese Deficiency

IV. Biochemical Function of Manganese

V. Summary and Conclusions


34 Fluoride Metabolism—Effect of Preeruptive or Posteruptive Fluoride Administration on Rat Caries Susceptibility

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Conclusion

VI. Summary


35 Methodology of Trace Element Research

I. Introduction

II. Trace Element Diversity and Characteristics

III. The Essential Elements

IV. Naturally Occurring “Area” Problems with Trace Elements

V. Methodological Problems with Purified and Special Diets


36 Mineral Interrelationships

I. Introduction

II. Interaction of Trace Elements

III. Research Needs


37 Perinatal Effects of Trace Element Deficiencies

I. Introduction

II. Copper

III. Manganese

IV. Zinc

V. Magnesium

VI. Conclusion


38 Effects of Oral Contraceptive Agents on Trace Element Metabolism—A Review

I. Introduction

II. Oral Contraceptives and Trace Element Metabolism

III. Future Research Needs


39 Human Intake of Trace Elements

I. Introduction

II. Diet in the Trace Element Deficiency of Egyptians

III. Research Needs


40 Basis of Recommended Dietary Allowances for Trace Elements

I. Introduction

II. What Is a Recommended Dietary Allowance?

III. Considerations in Setting RDA

IV. RDA for Trace Elements

V. Need for More Knowledge on Which to Base RDA


41 Newer Trace Elements and Possible Application in Man

I. Introduction

II. Review and Discussion

III. Research Needs


42 Cadmium Metabolism—A Review of Aspects Pertinent to Evaluating Dietary Cadmium Intake by Man

I. Introduction

II. Present Knowledge of Cadmium Metabolism

III. Research and Information Needs


43 Review of Hypertension Induced in Animals by Chronic Ingestion of Cadmium

I. Introduction

II. Review of Hypertension Induced by Cadmium Feeding

III. Discussion

IV. Conclusions


44 The Chronic Toxicity of Cadmium

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Cadmium

III. Needs for Further Research


45 Metabolism and Toxicity of Lead

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Lead

III. Metabolic Effects

IV. Clinical Symptoms

V. Screening Methods

VI. Interaction with Other Nutrients

VII. Summary


46 Quantitative Measures of the Toxicity of Mercury in Man

I. Introduction

II. Dose-Response Relationships in Human Populations Exposed to Elemental Mercury Vapor or Methylmercury Compounds

III. Factors Affecting the Toxicity of Mercury in Man

IV. Research Needs

V. Summary


Author Index

Cumulative Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ananda Prasad

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