Epilepsy, Part I: Basic Principles and Diagnosis

Epilepsy, Part I: Basic Principles and Diagnosis

1st Edition - October 10, 2012

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  • Editors: Hermann Stefan, William Theodore
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444528988
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535054

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Description

Epilepsy, Part I, Basic Principles and Diagnosis, Volume 107, in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series offers a comprehensive review of our knowledge of the field today, including epidemiology, basic mechanisms, animal models, and topics of increasing interest such as the role of inflammation in epilepsy. It provides a comprehensive approach to description of the clinical, electrographic and imaging aspects of the epilepsies, with a clear outline of contemporary classification and the role of modern diagnostic techniques, as well as neuropsychological and psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Chapters are authored by internationally respected neurologists with varied perspectives insuring depth to the content. Epilepsy, Part II, Treatment, Volume 108, continues coverage of epilepsy with a focus on treatment. The volumes will be a very important resource for basic scientists, clinical investigators, and all health professionals treating patients with epilepsy.

Key Features

  • A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology
  • International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field
  • Describes the advances which have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences, their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Readership

Clinical neurologists and research neuroscientists

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series

    Foreword

    Preface

    Contributors

    Chapter 1 Molecular basis of acquired epileptogenesis

    Introduction

    Which genes are altered at different phases of epileptic process and what is their function?

    Conclusion

    Chapter 2 Cellular bases of focal and generalized epilepsies

    Introduction

    Intrinsic properties of neurons

    Synaptic properties of neurons

    Modulation of neuronal excitability

    Pathological processes

    Concluding comment

    Chapter 3 Epilepsy as a dynamic disease of neuronal networks

    Introduction

    How may the stability of neuronal networks be maintained and disturbed in epilepsy?

    How may transitions between normal and epileptic behavior occur in thalamocortical networks?

    How may transitions between normal and epileptic behavior occur in neuronal networks of the hippocampal system?

    How may neuronal networks involved in epileptic behavior be identified and analyzed in a clinical setting?

    Conclusion: general concepts and models

    Chapter 4 Animal models

    Introduction

    In vitro models

    In vivo animal models

    Determination of seizure susceptibility

    Models

    Syndromes or encephalopathies (not genetically induced)

    Genetic models

    Summary

    Chapter 5 Classification of epilepsies and seizures: historical perspective and future directions

    Introduction

    Generalized versus focal: a nondichotomy?

    Terms and concepts for grouping etiology

    Abandoning the rigid structure of the 1989 classification

    Chapter 6 The epidemiology of the epilepsies

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Incidence studies

    Prevalence

    Risk factors for epilepsy

    Prognosis

    Mortality

    Conclusion

    Chapter 7 Maturation of the human brain and epilepsy

    Introduction

    Developmental changes in brain morphology

    Developmental changes in myelination

    Behavioral and electroencephalographic correlates of brain development

    Developmental changes in the brain physiology

    Alterations in brain development as a consequence of seizures

    Summary

    Chapter 8 Genetics of idiopathic epilepsies

    The concept of idiopathic epilepsies

    The predominant pathogenetic concept: ion channel dysfunction

    Non-ion channel genes in idiopathic epilepsy

    Chapter 9 The genetics of focal epilepsies

    Introduction

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Familial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Familial partial epilepsy with variable foci

    Benign childhood epilepsies

    Polygenic epilepsies

    Neuronal migration disorders

    Chapter 10 Inflammation and epilepsy

    Clinical evidence

    Experimental studies

    Concluding remarks

    Chapter 11 Age-related epileptic encephalopathies

    Introduction

    Infantile spasms and west syndrome

    Lennox–gastaut syndrome

    Landau–kleffner and continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndromes

    Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy)

    Myoclonic–astatic epilepsy

    Encephalopathic childhood epilepsies associated with inherited metabolic disorders

    Conclusion

    Chapter 12 Epileptic syndromes with focal seizures of childhood and adolescence

    Introduction

    Benign focal epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)

    Benign focal epilepsy with occipital spikes of gastaut

    Benign focal epilepsy with occipital spikes of panayiotopoulos

    BFEC with other lesions, BFEC variants and a typical presentations

    Outlook for a unifying concept of benign focal epilepsy and benign epileptic encephalopathies of childhood: benign seizure susceptibility syndromes

    Chapter 13 Idiopathic generalized epilepsies

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    General management of idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Genetics of idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Clinical syndromes

    Conclusion

    Chapter 14 Temporal lobe epilepsy

    Introduction

    Clinical features

    Natural history

    Functional anatomy of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Structural basis for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathology

    Summary

    Chapter 15 Extratemporal epilepsies

    Introduction

    Frontal lobe epilepsies

    Occipital lobe epilepsy

    Parietal lobe epilepsy

    Conclusion

    Chapter 16 Reflex epilepsies

    Definition and classification

    Simple triggers

    Complex triggers

    Reflex seizures, human ictogenesis, and the nosology of the epilepsies

    Widening of the concept: epilepsies with external modification of ictogenesis

    Chapter 17 Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    Definition and introduction

    Epidemiology and relevance

    Pathogenesis

    Clinical features

    Neuropsychological measures

    Linguistic analysis

    Diagnostic measures

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Conclusion

    Chapter 18 Syncope

    Introduction

    Nomenclature, definition, and pathophysiology

    Classification

    Drug-induced (iatrogenic) syncope

    Epidemiology

    Clinical symptoms

    Prognosis

    Investigations

    Establishing a diagnosis

    Differential diagnoses

    Treatment

    Case examples

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Chapter 19 Sleep and epilepsy

    Introduction

    Seizure and spike propensity in relation to REM and NREM sleep stages in different epilepsies

    Sleep activation in epileptic networks and syndromes

    Sleep as a diagnostic tool

    Chapter 20 Electroencephalography and video-electroencephalography

    Introduction

    Methodology of electroencephalography

    Eeg in the diagnosis of epilepsy

    Eeg in focal epilepsies

    Eeg in generalized epilepsies

    Eeg in the diagnosis of status epilepticus

    Eeg in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy

    Misdiagnosis of epilepsy

    Quantification of epileptic seizures

    Limitations of surface electroencephalography

    Chapter 21 Magnetoencephalography

    Introduction

    Technical considerations

    Applications of MEG/MSI in epilepsy

    Chapter 22 Structural brain imaging

    Introduction

    Methodology

    Major findings in MRI in patients with epilepsy

    Recent improvements in imaging

    Conclusion

    Chapter 23 Functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Introduction

    EEG–fMRI

    Applications in epilepsy

    Brain connectivity

    Conclusion

    Chapter 24 Functional magnetic resonance imaging: functional mapping

    Introduction

    Motor and sensory mapping

    Language mapping

    Memory mapping

    Ictal and interictal mapping

    Conclusion

    Chapter 25 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in epilepsy

    Introduction

    Basics of magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Intracerebral metabolites detected by clinical 1h-mrs and their clinical significance

    Clinical application of 1h-mrs in epilepsy

    31P spectroscopy

    Chapter 26 Epilepsy diagnosis

    Introduction

    Localization-related epilepsy

    Secondary generalized epileptic syndromes

    Pet in primary generalized epilepsy

    Conclusion: the future of pet in epilepsy

    Chapter 27 Peri-ictal single-photon emission computed tomography

    Introduction

    Unique role of perfusion SPECT in epilepsy

    Prerequisites for conducting peri-ictal SPECT imaging

    Clinical interpretation of SPECT images

    SISCOM

    Peri-ictal SPECT analysis with statistical parametric mapping

    Peri-ictal SPECT: advantages, limitations, and precautions

    Chapter 28 Clinical neuropsychology in epilepsy

    Introduction

    Etiology of cognitive impairments in epilepsy

    Neuropsychological assessment

    Neuropsychological findings in epilepsies

    Differential diagnostics of neuropsychological impairment in epilepsy

    Conclusion

    Chapter 29 Neuropsychiatric complications of epilepsy

    Introduction

    Epidemiological aspects of psychiatric disorders in epilepsy

    Psychiatric comorbidity as an expression of epilepsy-related activity

    Why are psychiatric disorders so prevalent in epilepsy?

    Clinical manifestations of common interictal psychiatric disorders: are they unique to epilepsy?

    Impact of psychiatric comorbidities

    Treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders

    Concluding remarks

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 548
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: October 10, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444528988
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535054

About the Editors

Hermann Stefan

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Epilepsy Centre, Neurological Clinic, University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany

William Theodore

Affiliations and Expertise

Clinical Epilepsy Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA

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