Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders

Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders

1st Edition - February 18, 2022

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  • Editor: Nagy Youssef
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128230626
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230398

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Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, examines the epigeneticmechanisms involved in modifying DNA following prolonged stress or trauma. This is accomplished through theevaluation of both the physiological and molecular effects of stress on the body that can eventually lead to stressdisorders. The book begins by providing a psychiatric, biological, and phenomenological foundation for understandingstress disorders, before delving into the genomics of stress disorders. From here, chapter authors discuss a range ofrecent epigenetic research in the area, highlighting epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), exciting developmentsin noncoding RNA studies, possible effects of prolonged stress on telomere shortening, and the long-term physicaleffects of PTSD on the health of patients. The book also examines the effect of adversity during sensitive periods ordevelopment and across the life span. The book concludes by looking at possible transgenerational stress-inducedepigenetic alterations on future offspring and important areas of research for public health, along with the potential forepigenetic therapeutics or “epidrugs.”

Key Features

  • Examines the epigenetics of stress, trauma, and related stress disorders
  • Connects new research to clinical practice and highlights implications for patient care, drug discovery, and
    public health
  • Discusses the epigenetic effect of adversity across the life span, and transgenerational stress-induced epigenetic
  • Features chapter contributions from international experts in the field


Human geneticists, human genomicists, translational researchers in genomic medicine, epigenetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, neurology and psychiatry, life science researchers, developmental biologists. Clinicians and graduate students in the biosciences, psychiatrists, mental health counselors

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: The physiology of stress and the human body’s response to stress
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Stress as an environmental factor
  • The basics of the stress response
  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  • Allostasis and allostatic load
  • Allostatic load and disease burden
  • Allostatic load and the brain
  • Cortisol as the primary driver of the chronic stress response
  • Glucocorticoids and the brain
  • Molecular mechanism of cortisol action
  • Intracellular negative feedback and glucocorticoid resistance
  • Epigenetics
  • Effect of chronic stress on systemic cortisol dynamics
  • Effect of chronic stress on neurotransmitter function and behavior
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 2: Posttraumatic stress disorder: Diagnosis, measurement, and assessment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction to PTSD and stress-related disorders
  • Proper diagnosis according to DSM-5
  • Risk factors for PTSD
  • Comorbidities and complications of PTSD
  • Differential diagnosis of PTSD
  • PTSD vs acute stress disorder
  • Tools for diagnosis
  • Chapter 3: Nikola Tesla: An autobiographical case study of trauma and resilience
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Nikola Tesla’s mental symptoms and mental experiences
  • Chapter 4: Management of posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Management algorithm
  • Treatment algorithm
  • Shared decision making
  • The role of PTSD checklist-5 (PCL-5) in management
  • Trauma-focused psychotherapies
  • Prolonged exposure therapy
  • Cognitive processing therapy
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
  • Specific cognitive-behavioral therapies for PTSD
  • Brief eclectic psychotherapy
  • Narrative exposure therapy
  • Written narrative exposure
  • Second-line therapies
  • Nontrauma-based psychotherapies
  • Other psychotherapies
  • First-line pharmacotherapies
  • Second-line pharmacotherapies
  • Medications to avoid in PTSD treatment
  • Complementary and alternative techniques
  • Internet-based and tele-therapies
  • Management of PTSD comorbidities
  • Summary
  • Chapter 5: Depression and epigenetics: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and assessment
  • Abstract
  • Epidemiology
  • Neurobiology and pathophysiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis and assessment
  • Chapter 6: Depression management and pharmacoepigenetics
  • Abstract
  • Principles of depression management
  • Depression management strategies
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Psychotherapy
  • Neurostimulation
  • Depression management in special populations
  • Pharmacoepigenetics
  • Chapter 7: Psychotherapy for stress disorders: A military perspective
  • Abstract
  • Overview of behavioral health in the military health system
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Depression
  • Epigenetics and psychotherapy
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8: How stress affects gene expression through epigenetic modifications
  • Abstract
  • Introduction—Biology of stress
  • Epigenetics
  • Gene expression
  • Stress-induced epigenetic and gene expression changes in animal models
  • Stress-induced epigenetic modifications and gene expression changes in humans
  • Timing of stress is important—epigenetic modifications and gene expression changes at different times during life
  • Transgenerational transmission of stress-induced epigenetic marks
  • Limitations and future directions
  • Chapter 9: Proposed effect of epigenetic alterations on stress-related disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Genetic background and mechanisms of stress-related disorders
  • Epigenetic mechanisms in the process of stress-related disorders
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 10: PTSD and physiology: The long-term effects of PTSD and relation to epigenetics, physical health, and chronic diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • PTSD and adverse physical health
  • Epigenetic studies of PTSD and implications for physical health
  • Future directions
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 11: Epigenomic biomarkers of posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Genetics of PTSD
  • Epigenetics of PTSD
  • DNA methylation
  • Accelerated epigenetic aging and PTSD
  • Histone modifications
  • Noncoding RNAs
  • Toward the development of PTSD multiomics biomarkers
  • Gaps, challenges, and future directions
  • Chapter 12: Adversity across time: Do sensitive periods across the life span determine adversity-induced epigenetic changes?
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Studies by timing of stress exposure
  • Methodological considerations
  • Summary and concluding remarks
  • Chapter 13: PTSD, telomeres, and aging
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Chapter 14: Accelerated aging in mood disorders
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Mood disorders
  • Clinical evidence of accelerated aging in mood disorders
  • Pathophysiology of accelerated aging in mood disorders
  • Biological clock findings in mood disorders
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 15: Epigenetics, stress, and depression
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Materials and methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Chapter 16: Capturing the epigenome: Differences among blood, saliva, and brain samples
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Early days of research on neuropsychiatric epigenetics in animals and humans
  • Comparison of DNA methylation among blood, saliva, and buccal samples
  • Salivary DNA methylation analyses
  • Salivary DNA methylation studies of PTSD and trauma
  • Studies on correlations between brain and peripheral tissue DNA methylation and its databases
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 17: Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and noncoding RNAs
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Major depressive disorder
  • MicroRNAs
  • Long noncoding RNAs
  • MicroRNA and posttraumatic stress disorder
  • MicroRNAs and major depressive disorder
  • Long noncoding RNAs and posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Long noncoding RNAs and major depressive disorder
  • Heritability of abnormal ncRNA and epigenetic profile after trauma
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 18: MicroRNAs in posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Epigenetics: The roles of microRNAs
  • MicroRNAs, stress, and PTSD
  • Current challenges, pitfalls, and future perspectives
  • Chapter 19: Potential transgenerational epigenetic effects of prolonged stress and psychological trauma
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Studies on transgenerational effect of trauma and PTSD
  • Transgenerational effects of trauma and stress and physical health
  • Discussion
  • Chapter 20: Targeting epigenetics as future treatments of trauma- and stress-or-related disorders. Epidrugs and epinutraceuticals
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • PTSD—Patterns of gene expression
  • Neurotransmitter systems and their epigenetic relationships with PTSD
  • Epigenetics of comorbid depression and anxiety in PTSD
  • The implications of epigenetics for the treatment of PTSD and stress-related disorders
  • Conclusions and future perspectives
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 420
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: February 18, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128230626
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128230398

About the Editor

Nagy Youssef

Dr. Nagy Youssef is an Associate Professor at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, and Psychiatry Educator for medical students at the Office of Academic Affairs. His primary academic activities involve educational activities, curricula, and educational program research and development. His clinical research interests include mechanistic and therapeutic innovation for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders and suicide prevention. He is especially interested in brain modulation therapeutics including brain stimulation as well as resilience boosting to prevent or treat severe psychiatric disorders and suicide. He has conducted research studies (as PI or co-investigator) especially in areas of treatment-resistant mood disorders and PTSD in civilians, veterans, and active duty personnel, and has presented his research in several scientific peer-reviewed publications, published abstracts, and in lectures nationally and internationally. Dr. Youssef also supervises students and residents in treating patients with a wide array of psychiatric conditions in the outpatient clinic.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Clinical Research & Professor of Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Health The Ohio State University College of Medicine

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