Enzymes - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781483200576, 9781483225609

Enzymes

2nd Edition

Authors: Malcolm Dixon Edwin C. Webb
eBook ISBN: 9781483225609
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 971
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Description

Enzymes, Second Edition provides information pertinent to the developments in the field of enzymology. This book presents the properties of enzymes as chemical catalysts or simply as chemical substances.

Organized into 13 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the range of action or specificity of enzymes. This text then discusses the special techniques employed in the isolation of enzymes and explores the considerable progress in the study of the properties and functions of enzymes. Other chapters consider the mechanism of enzyme catalysis by more direct methods, including the use of isotopes. This book discusses as well the mechanism of the biosynthesis of enzymes and the means by which their chemical structure is determined by the genetic material of the chromosomes. The final chapter deals with the essential aspects of the enzymatic system linking energy-producing processes with energy-utilizing processes.

This book is a valuable resource for biochemists, physical chemists, and research workers.

Table of Contents


Preface

I. Introduction

II. Enzyme Techniques

Measurement of Velocity

Classes of Methods

Some Practical Points

The General Handling of Enzymes

The Study of an Enzyme

The Specific and Molecular Activities

Enzyme Affinities

Methods of Quantitatively Following Enzyme Reactions

(a) Spectrophotometric Methods

(b) Manometric Methods

(c) The Thunberg Method

(d) Electrode Methods

(e) Polarimetric Methods

(f) Chromatographic Methods

(g) Chemical Estimations

III. Enzyme Isolation

Importance of Enzyme Purification

Methods of Purification

(a) Test

(b) General Procedure

(c) Source of Enzyme

(d) Extraction

Fractionation Methods

(a) Fractional Precipitation by Change of pH

(b) Fractional Denaturation by Heating

(c) Fractional Precipitation with Organic Solvents

(d) Fractional Precipitation by Salts

(e) Fractional Adsorption

(f) Column Chromatography

(g) Crystallization

(h) Sequence of Fractionation Methods

(i) Other Methods

Criteria of Purity of Enzymes

Pitfalls in Working with Pure Enzymes

IV. Enzyme Kinetics

The Importance of Enzyme Kinetics

Factors Influencing Enzyme Reaction Velocity

(A) Effect of Enzyme Concentration

(B) Effect of Substrate Concentration

(c) Effect of pH

(D) Effect of Temperature

V. Enzyme Classification

Enzyme Commission's Numbering System

Rules for Systematic and Trivial Nomenclatures

(i) General Rules

(ii) Rules for Particular Classes of Enzymes

Enzyme Reactions

1. Oxidoreductases

2. Transferases

3. Hydrolases

4. Lyases

5. Isomerases

6. Ligases

VI. Enzyme Specificity

The Investigation of Enzyme Specificity

General Observations on Specificity

Stereospecificity of Enzymes

Illustrative Examples of Enzyme Specificity

Dehydrogenases

Glucose Oxidase

Methyltransferases

Transketolase and Transaldolase

Glycosyltransferases

Phosphotransferases

Esterases

Phosphatases

Glycosidases

Peptidases

Lyases

Aldose Mutarotase

Enzymes with Substrates Containing Hydrocarbon Chains

General Conclusions

VII. Enzyme Mechanisms

Mechanism of Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

Alcohol Dehydrogenase

Glyceraldehydephosphate Dehydrogenase

Lipoamide Dehydrogenase

Mechanism of Transferring (or Hydrolysing) Enzymes

(a) Identification of the Bond Affected

(b) Isotope Exchange Methods

(c) The Optical Inversion Method

(d) Inferences from Competition and Other Effects

(e) Identification of Intermediate Complexes

Mechanism of Lyases

Fumarate Hydratase

Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase

Mechanism of Isomerases

Epimerases

Methylmalonyl-CoA Racemase

Cis-trans Isomerases

Ketol-Isomerases

Δ-Isomerases

Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase

Mechanism of Ligases

Triple-Transfer Mechanism

Ternary Complex Mechanisms

Mechanism of Metalloenzymes

Metal-Activated Peptidases

Zinc-Containing Dehydrogenases

Metalloflavoproteins

Haemoprotein Enzymes

VIII. Enzyme Inhibitors

Types of Inhibitors

Competitive Inhibitors

Non-Competitive Inhibitors

'Mixed-Type' Inhibitors

Graphical Presentation of Inhibitor Effects

Determination of Inhibitor Constants

Other Types of Inhibitors

Inhibitors with Very High Affinities

Effect of pH on Inhibition

Some Important Inhibitors

Poisons of Heavy Metals

Reagents for Thiol Groups

Heavy Metals

Irreversible Organophosphorus Inhibitors

Inhibitors of Respiration and Phosphorylation

Competitive Inhibitors

Antienzymes

IX. Enzyme Cofactors

Specific Coenzymes

Hydrogen Carriers

Lipoate

Glutathione

Ascorbate

Quinones

Cytochromes

Cytochrome Oxidase

Other Hydrogen Carriers

Amino-Group Carriers

2-Oxoglutarate

Phosphate Carriers

Nucleoside 5'-Diphosphates

Mixed Phosphate and Glycosyl Transfers

Acyl-Group Carriers

Coenzyme A

Carriers of One-Carbon Groups

Tetrahydrofolate

Adenosylhomocysteine

Cobamide Coenzymes

Prosthetic Groups as Carriers

Flavin Groups

Pyridoxal Phosphate

Thiamine Pyrophosphate

Biotin

Other Coenzymes

Phosphomutase Coenzymes

Glutathione as a Specific Coenzyme

Relationship Between Coenzymes and Vitamins

Significance of 'Nucleotide' Structure in Coenzymes

Enzyme Activators

Simple Electrolytes

Lipophilic Ions

Polynucleotide Templates

The Distinction Between Prosthetic Group, Coenzyme and Substrate

X. Enzyme Structure

Molecular Weight

Protein Structure

Number of Peptide Chains

Aminoacid Composition

Aminoacid Sequence

Structure and Configuration of the Enzyme Protein

The Chemistry of the Active Centre

Number of Active Centres Per Molecule

Chemical Nature of the Active Centre

XI. Enzyme Formation

The Biosynthesis of Enzymes

Biosynthesis of Proteins

Induction and Repression

Enzyme Formation from Precursors

The Activation of Pepsinogen

The Activation of Prorennin

The Activation of Trypsinogen

The Activation of Chymotrypsinogen

The Activation of Procarboxypeptidases

Activation of the Pancreatic Complex

Other Precursors and their Activation

XII. Enzyme Systems

The Biological Importance of Systems of Enzymes

Linking of Enzymes

Coenzyme-Linked Dehydrogenase Systems

Distributive Function of Transferring Enzymes

Transit Time

Structurally Organized Enzyme Systems

Some Properties of Multi-Enzyme Systems

Comments on Tables

Tables of Enzyme Systems

1. The Glycolysis System

2. The Citric Cycle

3. The Glyoxylate Cycle in Plants and Micro-Organisms

4. Fatty Acid Breakdown and Synthesis

5. The Glucose 6-Phosphate Oxidation System

6. A Hydrogen-Transport System in Plants

7. Phenylalanine Oxidation System

8. The Glyoxalase System

9. The Galactose-Inverting System

10. Methionine Metabolism

11. Glycogen Synthesis

12. Interconversion of Pentoses in Lactobacillus

13. Synthesis of Isoprenoid Compounds

14. Urea Formation in Liver

15. Phosphatide Synthesis

16. Synthesis and Breakdown of NAD and NADP

17. Coenzyme a Synthesis

18. Nucleotide Synthesis

19. Formation of Sucrose in Photosynthesis

XIII. Enzyme Biology

Enzymes as the Basis of Life

Enzymes and Cell-Structure

Intracellular Structures

Intracellular Localization of Enzymes

Enzyme Localization and Cell Physiology

Intraparticulate Organization

Comparative Enzyme Biochemistry

(a) Comparison of Tissues

(b) Comparison of Enzymes

The Enzymology of Genetics

The Effects of Mutations

The Use of Mutations in Elucidating Metabolic Patterns

The Origin of Enzymes

Table of Enzymes

List of Symbols

'Atlas' of Crystalline Enzymes

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
971
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483225609

About the Author

Malcolm Dixon

Edwin C. Webb