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Enzymes in Food Processing  - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780125848527, 9780323161541

Enzymes in Food Processing

2nd Edition

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Editor: Gerald Reed
eBook ISBN: 9780323161541
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1975
Page Count: 590
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Enzymes in Food Processing, Second Edition provides an understanding of the action of enzymes and the changes in enzyme technology. This book discusses the introduction of enzyme processes into the food industry. Organized into 20 chapters, this edition starts with an overview of the practical application of enzymes to the manufacture and processing of foods, such as the use of enzymes to clarify wine, produce dextrose, tenderize meat, and liquefy candy centers. This book then discusses the variables that affect all enzymes, which include moisture content, temperature, and pH. This text examines as well the different characteristics of competitive and noncompetitive inhibitions. Other chapters focus on the properties and actions of carbohydrases, which cause the chemical bonds to unite simple sugars into the polymeric saccharides. The final chapter deals with the allergic reactions that commercial enzymes may cause to humans. Microbiologists, food technologists, nutritionists, and food scientists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Preface to the First Edition (Excerpt)

Chapter 1 Introduction

I. The Subject Matter

II. Natural Occurrence of Enzymes in Raw Materials and Foods

III. Fermentations

IV. Traditional Sources of Enzymes for Use in Food Processing


Chapter 2 The Nature of Enzymatic Reactions

I. Illustration of Enzyme Action by Analogy

II. Historical Development of the Enzyme Concept

III. Food Enzymes

IV. Immobilized Enzymes

V. Future Developments


Chapter 3 General Characteristics of Enzymes

I. Enzyme Units

II. Enzyme Kinetics

III. Enzyme Specificity

IV. Isoenzymes

V. Nomenclature


Chapter 4 Effect of Temperature and pH

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Temperature

III. Regeneration of Enzyme Activity

IV. Effect of Moisture

V. Effect of pH


Chapter 5 Enzyme Inhibition and Activation

I. Enzyme Inhibition

II. Enzyme Activation


Chapter 6 Carbohydrases

I. Scope

II. Chemistry of Carbohydrates

III. General Characteristics of the Action of Carbohydrases

IV. Amylases

V. Transglycosylation

VI. Debranching Enzymes

VII. Invertases

VIII. Lactases

IX. Cellulases

X. Pectic Enzymes

XI. Pectin Methylesterases


Chapter 7 Proteolytic Enzymes

I. The Substrate

II. Specificity of Proteases

III. Major Uses of Proteases and Criteria for the Choice of Enzymes

IV. Papain and Chymopapain

V. Ficin

VI. Bromelain

VII. Trypsin

VIII. Chymotrypsin

IX. Pepsin

X. Rennin

XI. Cathepsins

XII. Exopeptidases

XIII. Enzymes Hydrolyzing Scleroproteins

XIV. Microbial Proteases


Chapter 8 Lipases and Esterases

I. Introduction

II. Lipases and Esterases

III. Pancreatic Lipases

IV. Milk Lipase

V. Lipases of Botanical Origin

VI. Microbial Lipases


Chapter 9 Oxidoreductases

I. Glucose Oxidase

II. Galactose Oxidase

III. Lipoxygenase (Lipoxidase)

IV. Ascorbic Acid Oxidase

V. Xanthine Oxidase

VI. Catecholase (Polyphenol Oxidase)

VII. Peroxidase

VIII. Catalase


Chapter 10 Production of Microbial Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Proteases

III. Amylases

IV. Pectinolytic Enzymes


Chapter 11 Enzyme Uses in the Milling and Baking Industries

I. Introduction

II. Amylases

III. Proteases

IV. Lipoxidase and Lipase

V. Lactase

VI. Pentosanase


Chapter 12 Modified Starches, Corn Syrups Containing Glucose and Maltose, Corn Syrups Containing Glucose and Fructose, and Crystalline Dextrose

I. Introduction

II. Technologies Based on Inorganic Catalysts

III. Technologies Based on Enzymatic Catalysis


Chapter 13 Dairy Industry

I. Natural Enzymes of Milk

II. Hydrogen Peroxide-Catalase Treatment

III. Rennin and the Formation of Milk Curd

IV. Lipolysis and Proteolysis during Cheese Ripening

V. Lactase

VI. Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes in the Dairy Industry


Chapter 14 Fruits, Fruit Products, and Wines

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Pectic Substances and Pectic Enzymes in Fruits

III. Commercially Available Pectic Enzymes

IV. Specific Applications of Enzymes in Fruit Juice Technology


Chapter 15 Distilled Alcoholic Beverages

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Work with Fungal Amylases

III. Industrial Use of Fungal Amylases

IV. Conversion as a Limiting Factor in Fermentation

V. World-Wide Use of Fungal Amylases


Chapter 16 Beer

I. Introduction

II. The Brewing Process

III. Indigenous Enzymes in the Mashing Process

IV. Exogenous Enzymes in the Mashing Process

V. Exogenous Enzymes in Beer Finishing Operations

VI. Miscellaneous Enzymes


Chapter 17 Meat and Other Proteinaceous Foods

I. The Tenderization of Meat

II. Other Applications of Enzymes in the Meat Industry


Chapter 18 Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes

I. Removing Diacetyl from Beer

II. Solubilizing Tea Solids

III. Detoxifying Thioglucoside-Containing Seed

IV. Beet Sugar Processing

V. Degreasing Bones for Gelatin Production

VI. Lysozyme

VII. Solubilizing Fish Protein

VIII. Elimination of Flatulence Factor

IX. Simultaneous Gelatinization and Enzymatic Thinning of Starch

X. Peeling and Cleaning Shellfish

XI. Thinning Sugar Cane Juice

XII. Clouding Agent from Citrus Peel

XIII. Candied Fruits

XIV. Inhibiting Softening of Pickles

XV. Digestive Aids

XVI. Feed Supplementation

XVII. Macerating or Cooking Enzymes

XVIII. Cell Wall Lysis


Chapter 19 Applications of Glucose Oxidase

I. Applications of Glucose Oxidase in Food Processing

II. "Desugaring" Eggs

III. Modification of Fructose-Glucose Ratio

IV. Low Glucose Corn Syrup

V. Maturing Flour

VI. To Curdle Milk

VII. Protecting Animal Fats against Oxidation

VIII. Preventing Shrimp Discoloration

IX. Deoxygenating Beer

X. Protection of Water and Oil Emulsions

XI. Citrus Drink and Concentrate Stabilization

XII. Glucose Oxidase in the Treatment of White Wine

XIII. Improved Thermal Stability

XIV. Coated Film

XV. Miscellaneous Applications


Chapter 20 Health and Legal Aspects of the Use of Enzymes

I. General Health Aspects

II. Legal Aspects




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© Academic Press 1975
28th April 1975
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Gerald Reed

Affiliations and Expertise

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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