Enzymes in Food Processing

Enzymes in Food Processing

2nd Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Editor: Gerald Reed
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161541

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Description

Enzymes in Food Processing, Second Edition provides an understanding of the action of enzymes and the changes in enzyme technology. This book discusses the introduction of enzyme processes into the food industry. Organized into 20 chapters, this edition starts with an overview of the practical application of enzymes to the manufacture and processing of foods, such as the use of enzymes to clarify wine, produce dextrose, tenderize meat, and liquefy candy centers. This book then discusses the variables that affect all enzymes, which include moisture content, temperature, and pH. This text examines as well the different characteristics of competitive and noncompetitive inhibitions. Other chapters focus on the properties and actions of carbohydrases, which cause the chemical bonds to unite simple sugars into the polymeric saccharides. The final chapter deals with the allergic reactions that commercial enzymes may cause to humans. Microbiologists, food technologists, nutritionists, and food scientists will find this book extremely useful.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Preface to the First Edition (Excerpt)

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    I. The Subject Matter

    II. Natural Occurrence of Enzymes in Raw Materials and Foods

    III. Fermentations

    IV. Traditional Sources of Enzymes for Use in Food Processing

    References

    Chapter 2 The Nature of Enzymatic Reactions

    I. Illustration of Enzyme Action by Analogy

    II. Historical Development of the Enzyme Concept

    III. Food Enzymes

    IV. Immobilized Enzymes

    V. Future Developments

    References

    Chapter 3 General Characteristics of Enzymes

    I. Enzyme Units

    II. Enzyme Kinetics

    III. Enzyme Specificity

    IV. Isoenzymes

    V. Nomenclature

    References

    Chapter 4 Effect of Temperature and pH

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of Temperature

    III. Regeneration of Enzyme Activity

    IV. Effect of Moisture

    V. Effect of pH

    References

    Chapter 5 Enzyme Inhibition and Activation

    I. Enzyme Inhibition

    II. Enzyme Activation

    References

    Chapter 6 Carbohydrases

    I. Scope

    II. Chemistry of Carbohydrates

    III. General Characteristics of the Action of Carbohydrases

    IV. Amylases

    V. Transglycosylation

    VI. Debranching Enzymes

    VII. Invertases

    VIII. Lactases

    IX. Cellulases

    X. Pectic Enzymes

    XI. Pectin Methylesterases

    References

    Chapter 7 Proteolytic Enzymes

    I. The Substrate

    II. Specificity of Proteases

    III. Major Uses of Proteases and Criteria for the Choice of Enzymes

    IV. Papain and Chymopapain

    V. Ficin

    VI. Bromelain

    VII. Trypsin

    VIII. Chymotrypsin

    IX. Pepsin

    X. Rennin

    XI. Cathepsins

    XII. Exopeptidases

    XIII. Enzymes Hydrolyzing Scleroproteins

    XIV. Microbial Proteases

    References

    Chapter 8 Lipases and Esterases

    I. Introduction

    II. Lipases and Esterases

    III. Pancreatic Lipases

    IV. Milk Lipase

    V. Lipases of Botanical Origin

    VI. Microbial Lipases

    References

    Chapter 9 Oxidoreductases

    I. Glucose Oxidase

    II. Galactose Oxidase

    III. Lipoxygenase (Lipoxidase)

    IV. Ascorbic Acid Oxidase

    V. Xanthine Oxidase

    VI. Catecholase (Polyphenol Oxidase)

    VII. Peroxidase

    VIII. Catalase

    References

    Chapter 10 Production of Microbial Enzymes

    I. Introduction

    II. Proteases

    III. Amylases

    IV. Pectinolytic Enzymes

    References

    Chapter 11 Enzyme Uses in the Milling and Baking Industries

    I. Introduction

    II. Amylases

    III. Proteases

    IV. Lipoxidase and Lipase

    V. Lactase

    VI. Pentosanase

    References

    Chapter 12 Modified Starches, Corn Syrups Containing Glucose and Maltose, Corn Syrups Containing Glucose and Fructose, and Crystalline Dextrose

    I. Introduction

    II. Technologies Based on Inorganic Catalysts

    III. Technologies Based on Enzymatic Catalysis

    References

    Chapter 13 Dairy Industry

    I. Natural Enzymes of Milk

    II. Hydrogen Peroxide-Catalase Treatment

    III. Rennin and the Formation of Milk Curd

    IV. Lipolysis and Proteolysis during Cheese Ripening

    V. Lactase

    VI. Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes in the Dairy Industry

    References

    Chapter 14 Fruits, Fruit Products, and Wines

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Pectic Substances and Pectic Enzymes in Fruits

    III. Commercially Available Pectic Enzymes

    IV. Specific Applications of Enzymes in Fruit Juice Technology

    References

    Chapter 15 Distilled Alcoholic Beverages

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Work with Fungal Amylases

    III. Industrial Use of Fungal Amylases

    IV. Conversion as a Limiting Factor in Fermentation

    V. World-Wide Use of Fungal Amylases

    References

    Chapter 16 Beer

    I. Introduction

    II. The Brewing Process

    III. Indigenous Enzymes in the Mashing Process

    IV. Exogenous Enzymes in the Mashing Process

    V. Exogenous Enzymes in Beer Finishing Operations

    VI. Miscellaneous Enzymes

    References

    Chapter 17 Meat and Other Proteinaceous Foods

    I. The Tenderization of Meat

    II. Other Applications of Enzymes in the Meat Industry

    References

    Chapter 18 Miscellaneous Applications of Enzymes

    I. Removing Diacetyl from Beer

    II. Solubilizing Tea Solids

    III. Detoxifying Thioglucoside-Containing Seed

    IV. Beet Sugar Processing

    V. Degreasing Bones for Gelatin Production

    VI. Lysozyme

    VII. Solubilizing Fish Protein

    VIII. Elimination of Flatulence Factor

    IX. Simultaneous Gelatinization and Enzymatic Thinning of Starch

    X. Peeling and Cleaning Shellfish

    XI. Thinning Sugar Cane Juice

    XII. Clouding Agent from Citrus Peel

    XIII. Candied Fruits

    XIV. Inhibiting Softening of Pickles

    XV. Digestive Aids

    XVI. Feed Supplementation

    XVII. Macerating or Cooking Enzymes

    XVIII. Cell Wall Lysis

    References

    Chapter 19 Applications of Glucose Oxidase

    I. Applications of Glucose Oxidase in Food Processing

    II. "Desugaring" Eggs

    III. Modification of Fructose-Glucose Ratio

    IV. Low Glucose Corn Syrup

    V. Maturing Flour

    VI. To Curdle Milk

    VII. Protecting Animal Fats against Oxidation

    VIII. Preventing Shrimp Discoloration

    IX. Deoxygenating Beer

    X. Protection of Water and Oil Emulsions

    XI. Citrus Drink and Concentrate Stabilization

    XII. Glucose Oxidase in the Treatment of White Wine

    XIII. Improved Thermal Stability

    XIV. Coated Film

    XV. Miscellaneous Applications

    References

    Chapter 20 Health and Legal Aspects of the Use of Enzymes

    I. General Health Aspects

    II. Legal Aspects

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 590
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161541

About the Editor

Gerald Reed

Affiliations and Expertise

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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