Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

1st Edition - February 2, 2015

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  • Editor: L van Velzen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782422389
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782422310

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Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal.

Key Features

  • Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
  • Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
  • Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils


Environmental technologists specialising in the remediation of contaminated nuclear sites, as well as consultants, academics and postgraduate studentswith an interest in environmental remediation of contaminated nuclear sites (from a variety of departments including environmental engineering, radiochemistry, nuclear engineering, biology, ecology)

Table of Contents

    • Related titles
    • List of contributors
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
    • Part One. Contaminated nuclear and NORM sites: types and characteristics
      • 1. Radioactive and other environmental contamination from uranium mining and milling
        • 1.1. Introduction
        • 1.2. The front end of the nuclear fuel cycle
        • 1.3. Uranium mining and milling (UMM) legacy sites and their remediation
        • 1.4. Life-cycle management of UMM sites
        • 1.5. Future trends
        • 1.6. Sources of further information
      • 2. Radioactive contamination and other environmental impacts of waste from nuclear and conventional power plants, medical and other industrial sources
        • 2.1. Introduction: radioactively contaminated sites and other environmental impacts from nuclear and radioactive installations
        • 2.2. Environmental impacts from nuclear power plant radioactive effluents
        • 2.3. Environmental impacts from coal power plant radioactive effluents and solid waste
        • 2.4. Solid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants
        • 2.5. Solid radioactive wastes from facilities for medical, research or industrial purposes
        • 2.6. Environmental impacts from nuclear and radiological accidents
        • 2.7. Future trends
        • 2.8. Sources of further information
      • 3. Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment: an overview
        • 3.1. Introduction
        • 3.2. Description of the radionuclides (RNs) of interest
        • 3.3. RN migration: presentation of the different governing processes
        • 3.4. The RN source term
        • 3.5. RN speciation and precipitation
        • 3.6. RN retention at the solid–liquid interface
        • 3.7. RN transport processes
        • 3.8. Coupling of chemical and transport processes: towards an efficient simulation approach
        • 3.9. Conclusion: how to reliably predict any future RN migration
    • Part Two. Environmental restoration frameworks and processes
      • 4. Stakeholder involvement in the remediation of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 4.1. Introduction
        • 4.2. Definition of stakeholders and the importance of engagement at nuclear and NORM sites
        • 4.3. Evolution of stakeholder engagement
        • 4.4. Mechanisms of engagement
        • 4.5. Constructing an engagement programme
        • 4.6. Future trends
        • 4.7. Case studies
        • 4.8. Sources of further information and advice
      • 5. International recommendations and guidance on regulation of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites, and aspects of national level application
        • 5.1. Introduction
        • 5.2. Regulatory challenges
        • 5.3. International recommendations and guidance and examples of national regulatory requirements
        • 5.4. Progression from recognition to resolution
        • 5.5. Distinguishing different nuclear legacy situations
        • 5.6. Factors to consider in addressing regulatory challenges at nuclear legacy sites
      • 6. Modelling of radionuclide distribution in contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 6.1. Introduction
        • 6.2. Background
        • 6.3. Modelling concepts and available models for environmental and risk assessments
        • 6.4. Applications to contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 6.5. Case studies
        • 6.6. Future trends
        • 6.7. Sources of further information and advice
      • 7. Risk assessment and cost–benefit analysis for the restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 7.1. Introduction
        • 7.2. Site end states
        • 7.3. Standards of remediation
        • 7.4. Risk assessments
        • 7.5. Derivation of remedial targets
        • 7.6. Cost–benefit analysis
        • 7.7. Application of cost–benefit analysis to complex sites
        • 7.8. Case studies
        • 7.9. Future trends
        • 7.10. Sources of further information and advice
    • Part Three. Remediation techniques and waste disposal
      • 8. Electrokinetic remediation and other physico-chemical remediation techniques for in situ treatment of soil from contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 8.1. Introduction: in situ physico-chemical remediation technologies from contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 8.2. In situ soil flushing
        • 8.3. Vitrification
        • 8.4. Solidification and stabilization
        • 8.5. Electrokinetic remediation
        • 8.6. Coupled technologies: electrokinetic treatment combined with other soil remediation technologies
        • 8.7. Future trends
      • 9. In situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils at nuclear and NORM sites
        • 9.1. Introduction
        • 9.2. Radionuclides in contaminated soils, sediments, and wastes
        • 9.3. Characterization of radionuclides in contaminated soils and wastes
        • 9.4. Mechanisms of biotransformation of radionuclides
        • 9.5. Ex situ and in situ remediation studies of contaminated soils
        • 9.6. In situ and ex situ immobilization of uranium by anaerobic bacteria
        • 9.7. Ex situ remediation of uranium-contaminated soils, sediments, and wastes
        • 9.8. Plutonium biotransformation and remediation studies
        • 9.9. Summary
      • 10. Physical, chemical, and biological treatment of groundwater at contaminated nuclear and NORM sites
        • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.2. Physical treatment methods
        • 10.3. Biological treatment methods
        • 10.4. Chemical treatment methods
        • 10.5. Application of treatment processes to specific radionuclides
        • 10.6. Future trends
        • 10.7. Sources of further information and advice
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 276
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2015
  • Published: February 2, 2015
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782422389
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782422310

About the Editor

L van Velzen

Leo van Velzen, NRG Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, The Netherlands.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Engineer and Consultant, NRG Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, The Netherlands

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