Environmental Fluid Dynamics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120885718, 9780080916705

Environmental Fluid Dynamics

1st Edition

Flow Processes, Scaling, Equations of Motion, and Solutions to Environmental Flows

Authors: Jorg Imberger
Paperback ISBN: 9780120885718
eBook ISBN: 9780080916705
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th September 2012
Page Count: 460
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Environmental Fluid Dynamics provides an introduction to the principles of environmental fluid dynamics, i.e., nature’s use of air and water to transport and transform waste into nutrients for various organisms.

The author, a Professor of Environmental Engineering and the Director of the Centre for Water Research at the University of Western Australia, is careful to include the appropriate mathematical expressions for the fundamentals of fluid dynamics without overburdening the reader with difficult or extensive notation.

Starting with a discussion of the basics of fluid dynamics for undergraduates, the book moves on to more detailed material for graduate students and specialists in environmental engineering and/or science, physical limnology, estuarine dynamics, and coastal oceanography. Topics covered include equations of motion, fluid viscosity, environmental hydraulics, mixing and dispersion, surface waves, and environmental flows. The materials presented are based on the author’s 40 years of teaching fluid dynamics at Berkeley, Caltech, Karlsruhe, Padova, and Western Australia.

The book provides a basic overview, while specialists needing more in-depth information can to turn to advanced texts in their specific areas of interest.

Key Features

  • Introduces the principles of fluid dynamics, follows with simple applications, and builds to more complex applications experienced in the field.

  • Offers a unique, authoritative, and accessible treatment of the subject.

  • Includes appropriate mathematical expressions without overburdening the reader with difficult or extensive notation.


students (senior undergraduates, graduates, researchers) of earth science, civil engineering, environmental engineering, hydraulics, hydrology, physical limnology; a broad cross-section of scientists and engineers working in similar fields

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Physical Quantities, Dimensional Analysis, Scaling and Bulk Conservation Equations

1.1 Physical Quantities

1.2 Dimensional Analysis

1.3 Fluid Properties

1.4 Flow Domains, Scaling and Modeling

1.5 Dynamic Similarity

1.6 Hydrostatic Pressure

1.7 Pressure Forces on a Surface

1.8 Control Volumes

1.9 Introduction to the Kinematics of Flow

1.10 Bulk Conservation of Mass

1.11 Bulk Conservation of Momentum

1.12 Bulk Conservation of Energy

1.13 Solving Problems Using the Conservation Laws

Chapter 2. Equations of Motion: Axiomatic Approach

2.1 Conservation of Mass

2.2 The Stress Tensor

2.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum

2.4 Conservation of Angular Momentum and the Symmetry of the Stress Tensor

2.5 Conservation of Energy

2.6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

2.7 The Navier–Stokes Constitutive Equations

2.8 Some Thermodynamic Considerations

2.9 The Temperature Equation

2.10 The Solute Equation

2.11 Shallow Layer Approximations

2.12 The Vorticity Equation

2.13 Introduction to Some Statistics Concepts

2.14 Mean Momentum and Transport Equations for Turbulent Flow

2.15 Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Transport Equations

2.16 Scaling the Equation of Motion: Limiting Cases


Chapter 3. Some Exact Solutions

3.1 Fundamental Scales and Processes

3.2 Plane Couette Flow

3.3 Plane Poiseuille Flow

3.4 Superposition of Plane Flows

3.5 Unsteady Parallel Flow: Diffusion of Vorticity

3.6 Oscillating Boundary Layer

3.7 Natural Convection in a Long Cavity

3.8 Natural Convection in a Sloping Cavity

Chapter 4. Effect of Viscosity

4.1 Flow Around a Sphere at Low Reynolds Number

4.2 Porous Media Flow

4.3 Boundary Layer Flow

4.4 Adverse and Favorable Pressure Gradients

4.5 Flow Around a Cylinder with Increasing Reynolds Number

4.6 Flow Around a Cylinder with Circulation

4.7 Flow About a Cylinder in an Accelerating Flow

4.8 Forces on a Cylinder in a Combined Flow Regime

4.9 Shallow Viscous Flows


Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Hydraulics

5.1 Simple Jets

5.2 Simple Plume

5.3 Buoyant Jet

5.4 Round Buoyant Jet Discharging into a Stratified Shear Flow

5.5 Scales in Turbulent Flows

5.6 Turbulent Flow in a Smooth Pipe

5.7 Turbulent Flow in a Rough Pipe

5.8 Classification of Open Channel Flow

5.9 Uniform Flow

5.10 Velocity Profile in a Wide Channel with Uniform Flow

5.11 Hydraulic Jump and Specific Energy

5.12 Gradually Varied Flow


Chapter 6. Environmental Hydraulics

6.1 Gradually Varied Two Layer Flow

6.2 Rapidly Varied Two Layer Flow: Internal Hydraulic Jump

6.3 Surface Layer Hydraulics

6.4 Meteorological Boundary Layer

6.5 Gravity Current Hydraulics

6.6 Selective Withdrawal

6.7 Unsteady Sink Flow in a Linearly Stratified Fluid Contained in a Horizontal Duct: Shear Waves


Chapter 7. Mixing in Environmental Flows

7.1 Turbulence in a Stratified Shear Flow

7.2 The Kinematics of Dispersion

7.3 Fundamental Solution of the Diffusion Equation

7.4 Shear Dispersion

7.5 Longitudinal Dispersion in a Pipe


Chapter 8. Surface Waves

8.1 2D Long Surface Waves

8.2 Linear Surface Waves

8.3 Reflection and Transmission of Surface Waves


Chapter 9. Environmental Flows

9.1 Long Internal Waves: Two-layer Case

9.2 Internal Wave Modes

9.3 Plane Internal Kelvin Wave

9.4 Poincaré Waves in a Two-Layer System

9.5 Geostrophic Motion in a Two-layer system

9.6 Geostrophic Flow in a Continuously Stratified Fluid

9.7 Wedderburn and Lake Numbers

9.8 Three-Layer Forced Motions

9.9 Linear Waves in a Stratified Fluid

9.10 Internal Waves and Internal Modes

9.11 Internal Waves in a Domain at Variable Depth

9.12 Reflection from a Sloping Wall


Appendix 1. Mathematical Preliminaries



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About the Author

Jorg Imberger

Jörg Imberger is the Director of the Centre for Water Research and Professor of Environmental Engineering at the University of Western Australia (UWA), where he is a Vice-Chancellor’s Distinguished Fellow. Imberger received his PhD at the University of California, Berkeley in 1970 and became Professor of Environmental Engineering at UWA in 1979.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Water Research, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia


"Imberger explains some of the tools for waste cycling, rather than disposal, where all three stages of the process are given equal importance."--Reference and Research Book News, December 2012