Environmental Control of Plant Growth - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122443503, 9780323149211

Environmental Control of Plant Growth

1st Edition

Editors: L.T. Evans
eBook ISBN: 9780323149211
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1963
Page Count: 468
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Environmental Control of Plant Growth consists of the proceedings of a symposium held at Canberra, Australia, in August 1962. The symposium aims to consider the natural microenvironments of plants and the associations between natural and controlled environments. It also considers the physiological and genetic bases of responses by plants to environmental conditions. The book contains 24 chapters and discusses the physics of plant environment, as well as the physical quantities within plant-air layers. It also elucidates the energy and water balance, light relations, gas exchange, and energy relations in plant communities. The book also looks into the respiration of various organs and of whole plants. Lastly, the effects of the environment, including “climatic factors,” on the metabolism of plant cells are addressed.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Concept of a Phytotron

Chapter 2 The Physics of Plant Environments

I. Natural and Artificial Environments

II . Environmental Factors, Macro- and Microenvironments

III. The Physics of Environment

IV. Macroenvironments

V. The Energy Balance and the Water Balance

VI. Radiation

VII. Heat Transfer in Soils

VIII. Heat Transfer in Air

IX. The Partition of Energy

X. The Water Balance

XI. The Influence of Vegetation

XII. Concluding Remarks

XIII. Note on Symbols and Units


Chapter 3 The Environment of Plant Surfaces

I. Profiles of Physical Quantities within Plant-Air Layers

II. Exchange of Physical Quantities Directly at Plant Surfaces

III. Conclusions



Chapter 4 Climatic Control of Plant Water Relations

I. Factors Which Affect the Base Level of Internal Water Status

II. Factors Which Affect Diurnal Changes of Internal Water Status

III. The Magnitude of the Total Internal Water Deficit



Chapter 5 Energy and Water Balance of Plant Communities

I. Radiation Exchange

II. The Water Balance

III. Photosynthesis and Water-Use Efficiency



Chapter 6 Light Relations In Plant Communities

I. Instruments for Measuring Light Intensity

II . Light Intensities Under Plant Communities

III. Light Profiles and Competition for Light

IV. Leaf-Area Index, Extinction Coefficient, and Relative Light Intensity

V. Leaf Arrangement and Light Relations

VI. Measured and Impinging Light Intensity



Chapter 7 Gas Exchange in Plant Communities

I. Perspective

II. Equivalent Circuits

III. External Resistance Above the Canopy

IV. External Resistance Below the Canopy

V. Stomatal Resistance

VI. Resistances of the Photosynthetic System

VII. Conclusions



Chapter 8 Climatic Control of Photosynthesis and Respiration

I. Processes Limiting Photosynthesis of Leaves Under Natural Conditions

II. Actual and Potential Rates of the Photochemical Process in Leaves

III. Comparison of the Potential Rate of the Photochemical Process With That of the Diffusion Process in Leaves

IV. Diffusion Resistance in Leaves

V. Light Utilization by Field Crops

VI. Limitation of Photosynthesis of Field Crops by the Capacity of the Diffusion Process

VII. Respiration of Field Crops



Chapter 9 Energy Relations in Plant Communities

I. Eddy Transfer

II . Similarity Principle

III . Wind-Profile or Aerodynamic Method

IV. Richardson Number

V. Energy Balance

VI. Within the Plant-Air Layer

Chapter 10 Effect of Climate on the Distribution and Translocation of Assimilates

I. Distribution of Materials in Plants

II . Effect of Climate on Translocation and Distribution

III. Conclusion



Chapter 11 The Mediation of Climatic Effects through Endogenous Regulating Substances

I. Climatic Regulation of Growth in Trees

II . Climatic Regulation of Tuberization

III . Climatic Regulation of Bolting and Flowering

IV. Effect of Climatic Factors Upon the Metabolism of Growth Substances

V. Conclusion



Chapter 12 Effects of Environment on Metabolic Patterns

I. Environmental Factors Which Induce Active Growth and Modify Metabolism

II. Metabolic Effects of Environment on Mint

III. Some Other Light- and C02-Mediated Metabolic Patterns

IV. Environment and the Composition of Banana Fruit

V. Environment and Metabolism in the Tulip

VI. Arginine Metabolism: Some Effects of Environmental Factors

VII. Some Effects of Environment on the Metabolism of Conifers

VIII. Effects of Day length and Night Temperature on Soluble Nitrogen Compounds of Peas

IX. Conclusion



Chapter 13 Endogenous Rhythms in Controlled Environments

I. The Biological Clock

II. Evidence that the Biological Clock Involves Endogenous Rhythms

III. Endogenous Rhythms and Photoperiodism

IV. Endogenous Rhythms and Controlled Environments



Chapter 14 Control of Plant Growth by Light

I. Action Spectra

II. Phytochrome Reversibility

III. Phytochrome as an Enzyme

IV. Detection by Differential Spectrophotometry

V. Separation of Phytochrome

VI. Some Properties of Phytochrome in Vitro

VII. The Chromophoric Group

VIII. Approaches to Time Measurement

IX. Overlap of Absorbancies of ?660 and ?730

X. The Nature of Long- and Short-Day Plants

XI. Concerning the Flowering of Pharbitis nil and Kalanchoe

XII. Phytochrome in the Relation of Plants to the Environment

XIII . A Way into the Immediate Future



Chapter 15 Climatic Control of Germination, Bud Break, and Dormancy

I. Temperature Ranges for Seed Germination and Bud Break in Relation to Changes in Growth Activity

II . Loss of Ability To Develop at High Temperatures

III . Loss of Ability to Develop at Low Temperatures

IV. Other Factors Which Affect the Temperature Limits for Germination and Bud Break

V. Control of Seed Germination and Bud Break in Cultivated Plants



Chapter 16 Climatic Control of Reproductive Development

I. Temperature

II . Daylength

III . Differentiation

IV. Conclusion



Chapter 17 Morphogenese Responses to Climate

I. The Growing Point

II . Leaf Initiation and Growth

III. Leaf Shape

IV. Stem Growth

V. Secondary Morphogenese Effects

VI. Mechanisms



Chapter 18 Climate, Weather, and Plant Yield

I. Climate and Yield

II . Weather and Yield

III . Dependence of Physiological Determinants of Yield on Climate and Weather

IV. Experimental Control of Climate and Weather

V. Suggestions for Future Work



Chapter 19 Hardiness and the Survival of Extremes: A Uniform System for Measuring Resistance and Its Two Components

I. The Measurement of Drought Resistance

II. Use of Equations for Other Kinds of Resistance



Chapter 20 The Genetic Basis of Climatic Response

I. Homeostasis

II. Heterosis as a Genotype-Environment Interaction

III. The Genetic Basis of Adaptive Flexibility

IV. Genetic Assimilation

V. Phenotypic Breakdown in Unbalanced and Extreme Environments

VI. Conclusion



Chapter 21 Species and Population Differences in Climatic Response

I. Patterns of Climatic Variation

II. Physiological Basis of Climatic Response

III. Genetic Control of Climatic Responses

IV. Conclusions



Chapter 22 Achievements, Challenges, and Limitations of Phytotrons

I. Thermoperiodism

II. Cyclic Fluctuations of the Environment

III . Individual Developmental Processes

IV . Persistent Effects of Environment

V . Phytotrons and Their Uses

VI . Categories of Environmental Effects

VII . The Chemical Cure of Climatic Lesions

VIII . The Control of Sex Expression in Cucurbits

IX . Limitations of Phytotrons



Chapter 23 Extrapolation from Controlled Environments to the Field

I . The Consequences of Continuous Change

II . Spatial Diversity in Natural Microclimates

III . Plant Community Effects

IV . Prediction of Field Performance



Chapter 24 Concluding Remarks: The Next Decade


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© Academic Press 1963
Academic Press
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About the Editor

L.T. Evans

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