Environmental Control of Plant Growth

Environmental Control of Plant Growth

1st Edition - January 28, 1963

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  • Editor: L.T. Evans
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149211

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Description

Environmental Control of Plant Growth consists of the proceedings of a symposium held at Canberra, Australia, in August 1962. The symposium aims to consider the natural microenvironments of plants and the associations between natural and controlled environments. It also considers the physiological and genetic bases of responses by plants to environmental conditions. The book contains 24 chapters and discusses the physics of plant environment, as well as the physical quantities within plant-air layers. It also elucidates the energy and water balance, light relations, gas exchange, and energy relations in plant communities. The book also looks into the respiration of various organs and of whole plants. Lastly, the effects of the environment, including “climatic factors,” on the metabolism of plant cells are addressed.

Table of Contents


  • Chapter 1 The Concept of a Phytotron

    Chapter 2 The Physics of Plant Environments

    I. Natural and Artificial Environments

    II . Environmental Factors, Macro- and Microenvironments

    III. The Physics of Environment

    IV. Macroenvironments

    V. The Energy Balance and the Water Balance

    VI. Radiation

    VII. Heat Transfer in Soils

    VIII. Heat Transfer in Air

    IX. The Partition of Energy

    X. The Water Balance

    XI. The Influence of Vegetation

    XII. Concluding Remarks

    XIII. Note on Symbols and Units

    References

    Chapter 3 The Environment of Plant Surfaces

    I. Profiles of Physical Quantities within Plant-Air Layers

    II. Exchange of Physical Quantities Directly at Plant Surfaces

    III. Conclusions

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 4 Climatic Control of Plant Water Relations

    I. Factors Which Affect the Base Level of Internal Water Status

    II. Factors Which Affect Diurnal Changes of Internal Water Status

    III. The Magnitude of the Total Internal Water Deficit

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 5 Energy and Water Balance of Plant Communities

    I. Radiation Exchange

    II. The Water Balance

    III. Photosynthesis and Water-Use Efficiency

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 6 Light Relations In Plant Communities

    I. Instruments for Measuring Light Intensity

    II . Light Intensities Under Plant Communities

    III. Light Profiles and Competition for Light

    IV. Leaf-Area Index, Extinction Coefficient, and Relative Light Intensity

    V. Leaf Arrangement and Light Relations

    VI. Measured and Impinging Light Intensity

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 7 Gas Exchange in Plant Communities

    I. Perspective

    II. Equivalent Circuits

    III. External Resistance Above the Canopy

    IV. External Resistance Below the Canopy

    V. Stomatal Resistance

    VI. Resistances of the Photosynthetic System

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 8 Climatic Control of Photosynthesis and Respiration

    I. Processes Limiting Photosynthesis of Leaves Under Natural Conditions

    II. Actual and Potential Rates of the Photochemical Process in Leaves

    III. Comparison of the Potential Rate of the Photochemical Process With That of the Diffusion Process in Leaves

    IV. Diffusion Resistance in Leaves

    V. Light Utilization by Field Crops

    VI. Limitation of Photosynthesis of Field Crops by the Capacity of the Diffusion Process

    VII. Respiration of Field Crops

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 9 Energy Relations in Plant Communities

    I. Eddy Transfer

    II . Similarity Principle

    III . Wind-Profile or Aerodynamic Method

    IV. Richardson Number

    V. Energy Balance

    VI. Within the Plant-Air Layer

    Chapter 10 Effect of Climate on the Distribution and Translocation of Assimilates

    I. Distribution of Materials in Plants

    II . Effect of Climate on Translocation and Distribution

    III. Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 11 The Mediation of Climatic Effects through Endogenous Regulating Substances

    I. Climatic Regulation of Growth in Trees

    II . Climatic Regulation of Tuberization

    III . Climatic Regulation of Bolting and Flowering

    IV. Effect of Climatic Factors Upon the Metabolism of Growth Substances

    V. Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 12 Effects of Environment on Metabolic Patterns

    I. Environmental Factors Which Induce Active Growth and Modify Metabolism

    II. Metabolic Effects of Environment on Mint

    III. Some Other Light- and C02-Mediated Metabolic Patterns

    IV. Environment and the Composition of Banana Fruit

    V. Environment and Metabolism in the Tulip

    VI. Arginine Metabolism: Some Effects of Environmental Factors

    VII. Some Effects of Environment on the Metabolism of Conifers

    VIII. Effects of Day length and Night Temperature on Soluble Nitrogen Compounds of Peas

    IX. Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 13 Endogenous Rhythms in Controlled Environments

    I. The Biological Clock

    II. Evidence that the Biological Clock Involves Endogenous Rhythms

    III. Endogenous Rhythms and Photoperiodism

    IV. Endogenous Rhythms and Controlled Environments

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 14 Control of Plant Growth by Light

    I. Action Spectra

    II. Phytochrome Reversibility

    III. Phytochrome as an Enzyme

    IV. Detection by Differential Spectrophotometry

    V. Separation of Phytochrome

    VI. Some Properties of Phytochrome in Vitro

    VII. The Chromophoric Group

    VIII. Approaches to Time Measurement

    IX. Overlap of Absorbancies of ?660 and ?730

    X. The Nature of Long- and Short-Day Plants

    XI. Concerning the Flowering of Pharbitis nil and Kalanchoe

    XII. Phytochrome in the Relation of Plants to the Environment

    XIII . A Way into the Immediate Future

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 15 Climatic Control of Germination, Bud Break, and Dormancy

    I. Temperature Ranges for Seed Germination and Bud Break in Relation to Changes in Growth Activity

    II . Loss of Ability To Develop at High Temperatures

    III . Loss of Ability to Develop at Low Temperatures

    IV. Other Factors Which Affect the Temperature Limits for Germination and Bud Break

    V. Control of Seed Germination and Bud Break in Cultivated Plants

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 16 Climatic Control of Reproductive Development

    I. Temperature

    II . Daylength

    III . Differentiation

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 17 Morphogenese Responses to Climate

    I. The Growing Point

    II . Leaf Initiation and Growth

    III. Leaf Shape

    IV. Stem Growth

    V. Secondary Morphogenese Effects

    VI. Mechanisms

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 18 Climate, Weather, and Plant Yield

    I. Climate and Yield

    II . Weather and Yield

    III . Dependence of Physiological Determinants of Yield on Climate and Weather

    IV. Experimental Control of Climate and Weather

    V. Suggestions for Future Work

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 19 Hardiness and the Survival of Extremes: A Uniform System for Measuring Resistance and Its Two Components

    I. The Measurement of Drought Resistance

    II. Use of Equations for Other Kinds of Resistance

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 20 The Genetic Basis of Climatic Response

    I. Homeostasis

    II. Heterosis as a Genotype-Environment Interaction

    III. The Genetic Basis of Adaptive Flexibility

    IV. Genetic Assimilation

    V. Phenotypic Breakdown in Unbalanced and Extreme Environments

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 21 Species and Population Differences in Climatic Response

    I. Patterns of Climatic Variation

    II. Physiological Basis of Climatic Response

    III. Genetic Control of Climatic Responses

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 22 Achievements, Challenges, and Limitations of Phytotrons

    I. Thermoperiodism

    II. Cyclic Fluctuations of the Environment

    III . Individual Developmental Processes

    IV . Persistent Effects of Environment

    V . Phytotrons and Their Uses

    VI . Categories of Environmental Effects

    VII . The Chemical Cure of Climatic Lesions

    VIII . The Control of Sex Expression in Cucurbits

    IX . Limitations of Phytotrons

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 23 Extrapolation from Controlled Environments to the Field

    I . The Consequences of Continuous Change

    II . Spatial Diversity in Natural Microclimates

    III . Plant Community Effects

    IV . Prediction of Field Performance

    References

    Discussion

    Chapter 24 Concluding Remarks: The Next Decade




Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1963
  • Published: January 28, 1963
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323149211

About the Editor

L.T. Evans

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