Environmental Contaminants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127100579, 9780080470351

Environmental Contaminants

1st Edition

Assessment and Control

Authors: Daniel Vallero
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127100579
eBook ISBN: 9780080470351
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd July 2004
Page Count: 832
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Environmental Contaminants serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems.

Key Features

  • Real life solutions for practicing environmental professionals.
  • Example problems, sidebars, and case studies to illustrate ethical issues, environmental economic problems, and environmental management.
  • Explanation of scientific principles and concepts needed for risk assessment, waste management, contaminant transport, environmental hydrogeology, and environmental engineering & chemistry.
  • A fully supportive glossary, appendices and tables throughout the text contain physical, chemical and biological resources necessary for all environmental practitioners.


Environmental Professionals, Risk Assessment Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Environmental Toxicology Engineers, Soils Scientists, Ecologist, Geoscientists, Hydrologists

Table of Contents

Preface Prologue: The Challenge Acknowledgments Author’s Note on Discussion Boxes, Equations, and Concentration Units

Part I: An Environmental Policy Primer

  1. Scientific and Engineering Perspectives of Environmental Contaminants a. The Evolution and Progress of Environmental Science and Engineering b. What is a Contaminant? c. Understanding Policy by Understanding Science d. Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science e. Environmental Assessment and Intervention f. Introduction to Environmental Policy g. Urban Air Pollution h. Acid Deposition i. Protection the Ozone Layer j. Water Quality Legislation k. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Laws l. Environmental Product and Consumer Protection Laws

Part II: Fundamentals of Environmental Science and Engineering Introduction to Part II

  1. Fundamentals of Environmental Physics a. Principles and Concepts of Energy and Matter Important to the Environment b. Mass and Work c. Environmental Mechanics

  2. Applied Contaminant Physics: Fluid Properties a. Physical Properties of Environmental Fluids b. Velocity c. Discharge and Flow d. Pressure e. Acceleration f. Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration g. Density h. Specific Gravity

  3. Environmental Equilibrium, Partitioning, and Balances a. Fundamentals of Environmental Equilibria b. Solubility as Physical and Chemical Phenomenon c. Intramolecular Bonds, Intermolecular Forces, and Molecular Dipole Moments d. Fluid Solubility/Density Relationships e. Environmental Thermodynamics f. The Environmental Mass Balance Reaction Term

  4. Movement of Contaminants in the Environment a. Environmental Chemodynamics Models b. Selecting Units of Mass and Concentrations in Chemdynamics c. Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry’s Law d. How Contaminants Move in the Environment e. Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks, and Sources f. Combining Transport and Degradation Processes Using Half-Lives and Rate Constants

  5. Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry a. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry b. Organic Chemistry

  6. Chemical Reactions in the Environment a. Environmental Ionic Reactions b. Environmental Acid and Base Chemistry c. Precipitation Reactions in Environmental Engineering d. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions e. Biological Redox Reactions f. Environmental Metal Chemistry

  7. Biological Principles of Environmental Contamination a. The Cell b. The “Bio” Terms c. Biomarkers of Contaminants d. Accelerated Biodegradation: Bioremediation e. Biocriteria: A New Way to Determine Environmental Quality

Part III: Contaminant Risk

  1. Contaminant Hazards a. Environmental Toxicology b. Toxicity Testing c. Hazardous Waste Characterisitics d. Bio-Effective Dose e. Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics f. Environmental Epidemiology g. Contaminant Groupings h. Carcinogens i. Chronic Noncancer Health Endpoints j. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors k. Neurotoxins l. Immunotoxins m. Ecological Toxicity

  2. Contaminant Exposure and Risk Calculations a. Exposure Assessment b. Calculating Risk c. Applying Cancer Risk Calculations to Cleanup Levels d. Non-Cancer Hazard and Risk Calculations e. Comprehensive Risk Communication

Part IV: Interventions to Address Environmental Contamination

  1. Contaminant Sampling and Analysis a. Environmental Monitoring b. Laboratory Analysis c. Sources of Uncertainty d. Chemiluminescence and Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization e. Integration of Monitoring Techniques: Chmiluminescence

  2. Intervention: Manging the Risks of Environmental Contamination a. A Template for Cleaning Up Contaminants b. Characterizing Contaminants in the Environment c. Estimating Contaminant Migration d. Treatability Tests e. Contaminant Treatment and Control Approaches f. Thermal Processing: The Science, Engineering and Technology of Contaminant Destruction g. Microbiological Processing: The Science, Engineering, and Technology of Contaminant Biotreatment h. Hazardous Waste Storage Landfills: Examples of the Science, Engineering, and Technology of Long-Term Storage of Contaminated Media i. Siting j. Ex Situ and In Situ Treatment

  3. Environmental Decisions and Professionalism a. Communicating Scientific Information b. Environmental Information Management

  4. Epilogue: Benzene Metabolism Revisited a. The Sensitivity Analysis: An Important Step Beyond Stoichiometry b. Interdependence between a Contaminant and a Substrate

Glossary of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Terminology Appendix 1. Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Appendix 4. Appendix 5. Appendix 6. Appendix 7. Appendix 8. Appendix 9. Index


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About the Author

Daniel Vallero

Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in environmental science and engineering. His four decades of research, teaching and professional experience in hazardous waste engineering and management have addressed a wide range of human health risk and ecological issues, from global climate change to the release of hazardous wastes. His research has advanced the state-of-the-science of air and water pollution measurement, models of potential exposures to chemicals in consumer products, and environmental impact assessments.

He established the Engineering Ethics program and is a key collaborator in the Responsible Conduct of Research Program at Duke University. These programs introduce students, from first-year through PhD, to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke’s preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers.

Dr. Vallero received a bachelor’s degree from Southern Illinois University, a Master of Science in City & Regional Planning from SIU, a Masters in Civil & Environmental Engineering (Environmental Health Sciences) from the University of Kansas, and a PhD in Civil & Environmental Engineering from Duke.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA


Environmental professionals will find this book valuable for understanding policy and for generating technically sound and reproducible science. The text gives real-life solutions to problems and provides case studies to illustrate ethical dilemas. A comprehensive glossary, appendices, and tables provide additional information. - Environmental Science and Technology, Nov. 2004 "The book has a plethora of basic information on waste treatment...there is a good discussion of both incineration and biological waste treatment." - Journal of Hazardous Materials, March 2005