Environmental Contaminants

Environmental Contaminants

Assessment and Control

1st Edition - July 23, 2004

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  • Author: Daniel Vallero
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080470351

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Environmental Contaminants serves as a tool for environmental professionals to produce technically sound and reproducible scientific evidence. It identifies ways to clean up environmental problems in air, water, soil, sediment and living systems. Ethical issues, environmental management, and professionalism, and environmental economic problems are illustrated to assist the reader in understanding and applying quantitative analysis of environmental problems.

Key Features

  • Real life solutions for practicing environmental professionals.
  • Example problems, sidebars, and case studies to illustrate ethical issues, environmental economic problems, and environmental management.
  • Explanation of scientific principles and concepts needed for risk assessment, waste management, contaminant transport, environmental hydrogeology, and environmental engineering & chemistry.
  • A fully supportive glossary, appendices and tables throughout the text contain physical, chemical and biological resources necessary for all environmental practitioners.


Environmental Professionals, Risk Assessment Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Environmental Toxicology Engineers, Soils Scientists, Ecologist, Geoscientists, Hydrologists

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Prologue: The Challenge
    Author’s Note on Discussion Boxes, Equations, and Concentration Units

    Part I: An Environmental Policy Primer

    1. Scientific and Engineering Perspectives of Environmental Contaminants
    a. The Evolution and Progress of Environmental Science and Engineering
    b. What is a Contaminant?
    c. Understanding Policy by Understanding Science
    d. Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science
    e. Environmental Assessment and Intervention
    f. Introduction to Environmental Policy
    g. Urban Air Pollution
    h. Acid Deposition
    i. Protection the Ozone Layer
    j. Water Quality Legislation
    k. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Laws
    l. Environmental Product and Consumer Protection Laws

    Part II: Fundamentals of Environmental Science and Engineering
    Introduction to Part II

    2. Fundamentals of Environmental Physics
    a. Principles and Concepts of Energy and Matter Important to the Environment
    b. Mass and Work
    c. Environmental Mechanics

    3. Applied Contaminant Physics: Fluid Properties
    a. Physical Properties of Environmental Fluids
    b. Velocity
    c. Discharge and Flow
    d. Pressure
    e. Acceleration
    f. Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
    g. Density
    h. Specific Gravity

    4. Environmental Equilibrium, Partitioning, and Balances
    a. Fundamentals of Environmental Equilibria
    b. Solubility as Physical and Chemical Phenomenon
    c. Intramolecular Bonds, Intermolecular Forces, and Molecular Dipole Moments
    d. Fluid Solubility/Density Relationships
    e. Environmental Thermodynamics
    f. The Environmental Mass Balance Reaction Term

    5. Movement of Contaminants in the Environment
    a. Environmental Chemodynamics Models
    b. Selecting Units of Mass and Concentrations in Chemdynamics
    c. Fugacity, Z Values, and Henry’s Law
    d. How Contaminants Move in the Environment
    e. Overall Effect of the Fluxes, Sinks, and Sources
    f. Combining Transport and Degradation Processes Using Half-Lives and Rate Constants

    6. Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry
    a. Basic Concepts of Environmental Chemistry
    b. Organic Chemistry

    7. Chemical Reactions in the Environment
    a. Environmental Ionic Reactions
    b. Environmental Acid and Base Chemistry
    c. Precipitation Reactions in Environmental Engineering
    d. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
    e. Biological Redox Reactions
    f. Environmental Metal Chemistry

    8. Biological Principles of Environmental Contamination
    a. The Cell
    b. The “Bio” Terms
    c. Biomarkers of Contaminants
    d. Accelerated Biodegradation: Bioremediation
    e. Biocriteria: A New Way to Determine Environmental Quality

    Part III: Contaminant Risk

    9. Contaminant Hazards
    a. Environmental Toxicology
    b. Toxicity Testing
    c. Hazardous Waste Characterisitics
    d. Bio-Effective Dose
    e. Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics
    f. Environmental Epidemiology
    g. Contaminant Groupings
    h. Carcinogens
    i. Chronic Noncancer Health Endpoints
    j. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors
    k. Neurotoxins
    l. Immunotoxins
    m. Ecological Toxicity

    10. Contaminant Exposure and Risk Calculations
    a. Exposure Assessment
    b. Calculating Risk
    c. Applying Cancer Risk Calculations to Cleanup Levels
    d. Non-Cancer Hazard and Risk Calculations
    e. Comprehensive Risk Communication

    Part IV: Interventions to Address Environmental Contamination

    11. Contaminant Sampling and Analysis
    a. Environmental Monitoring
    b. Laboratory Analysis
    c. Sources of Uncertainty
    d. Chemiluminescence and Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization
    e. Integration of Monitoring Techniques: Chmiluminescence

    12. Intervention: Manging the Risks of Environmental Contamination
    a. A Template for Cleaning Up Contaminants
    b. Characterizing Contaminants in the Environment
    c. Estimating Contaminant Migration
    d. Treatability Tests
    e. Contaminant Treatment and Control Approaches
    f. Thermal Processing: The Science, Engineering and Technology of Contaminant Destruction
    g. Microbiological Processing: The Science, Engineering, and Technology of Contaminant Biotreatment
    h. Hazardous Waste Storage Landfills: Examples of the Science, Engineering, and Technology of Long-Term Storage of Contaminated Media
    i. Siting
    j. Ex Situ and In Situ Treatment

    13. Environmental Decisions and Professionalism
    a. Communicating Scientific Information
    b. Environmental Information Management

    14. Epilogue: Benzene Metabolism Revisited
    a. The Sensitivity Analysis: An Important Step Beyond Stoichiometry
    b. Interdependence between a Contaminant and a Substrate

    Glossary of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Terminology
    Appendix 1.
    Appendix 2.
    Appendix 3.
    Appendix 4.
    Appendix 5.
    Appendix 6.
    Appendix 7.
    Appendix 8.
    Appendix 9.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 832
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2004
  • Published: July 23, 2004
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080470351

About the Author

Daniel Vallero

Daniel Vallero
Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized author and expert in environmental science and engineering. He has devoted decades to conducting research, teaching, and mentoring future scientists and engineers. He is currently developing tools and models to predict potential exposures to chemicals in consumer products.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

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