Environmental Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125050500, 9780323147422

Environmental Chemistry

1st Edition

Authors: John Moore
eBook ISBN: 9780323147422
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 516
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Environmental Chemistry concerns with the broad interpretation on what environmental chemistry is and discusses chemistry in relation to environmental topics. The book is divided into seven parts. Part I discusses the origins of different elements and interstellar molecules; the development of the earth; and the chemical evolution of life. Part II talks about energy and its theoretical treatment; the origin, development, and problems related to fossil fuels; and the developing energy sources, including storage, distribution, and conservation. Part III discusses the air; the structure and properties of the atmosphere; and air pollution in relation to different industries and transportation. Mineral resources and solid wastes are tackled in Part IV, and the principles and treatment of water are explained in Part V. Part VI discusses the sustenance of life, amino acids, and the control of toxins, and Part VII studies the relationship of science, ethics, and ecology. The text is good for those in the field of chemistry and wish to understand the importance of their field to the environment, and for environmentalists and ecologists who want to know the relationship of chemistry with their studies.

Table of Contents



I Origins

1 Origin of the Elements and Interstellar Molecules

1.1 Nucleosynthesis of the Elements

1.2 Interstellar Atoms and Molecules


2 The Development of the Solid Earth

2.1 Formation of the Earth

2.2 The Loss of Gaseous Elements

2.3 The Primary Differentiation of the Elements

2.4 Secondary Differentiation of the Elements

2.5 Concentration of the Elements into Ores

2.6 Relationship of Ores to Average Crustal Abundance


3 Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life

3.1 The Atmosphere and Hydrosphere of Primitive Earth

3.2 Synthesis of Building Block Molecules

3.3 The Importance of "Reactive Compounds"

3.4 Formation of Biopolymers

3.5 Appearance of Living Cells

3.6 The Second Stage of Atmospheric Evolution

3.7 The Third Stage of Atmospheric Evolution

3.8 The Nonproblem of Catastrophic Dioxygen Depletion

3.9 Conclusions


Suggested Readings

II Energy

4 Theoretical Treatment of Energy

4.1 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

4.2 Entropy Pollution and Free Energy

4.3 Converting Heat to Work — Reversible Processes

4.4 Converting Heat to Work — Carnot Efficiency

4.5 Conversion of Matter into More Useful Forms — Aluminum from Bauxite

4.6 The Improbability of Life in a Universe at Equilibrium

4.7 Steady-State, Nonequilibrium Systems

4.8 Material Flows — Biogeochemical Cycles

4.9 Maximizing the Degree of Order in a Steady-State, Nonequilibrium System


5 Fossil Fuels

5.1 Origin and Development of Coal

5.2 Coal-Fired Power Plants

5.3 Cleaner Coal Combustion

5.4 Origin and Reserves of Petroleum and Natural Gas

5.5 Composition and Classification of Petroleum

5.6 Petroleum Refining

5.7 Environmental Problems Associated with Petroleum


6 Newly Developing Energy Sources

6.1 Nuclear Fission Reactors

6.2 Fission Power and the Environment

6.3 Fusion Power

6.4 Solar Energy —Thermal Collection

6.5 Solar Energy — Electronic Collection

6.6 Photosynthesis

6.7 Tidal and Geothermal Energy


7 Storage, Distribution, and Conservation of Energy

7.1 Synthetic Chemical Fuels—The H2 Economy

7.2 Electrochemical Energy Conversion

7.3 Net Energy

7.4 Conservation of Free Energy

7.5 The Energy Balance of the Earth


Suggested Readings


8 The Atmosphere

8.1 Structure and Properties of the Atmosphere

8.2 Temperature Inversion and Air Pollution Episodes

8.3 Atmospheric Photochemistry

8.4 Possible Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone

8.5 Natural versus Polluted Air


9 Air Pollution —Industry and Energy Related

9.1 Particulate Matter

9.2 Analysis and Control of Particulates

9.3 Sulfur Oxides

9.4 Effects of Sulfur Oxides and Particulates

9.5 Control Technology for Sulfur Oxides

9.6 Other Industrial Air Pollutants


10 Air Pollution—Transportation Related

10.1 Carbon Monoxide

10.2 Nitrogen Oxides, NOx

10.3 Photochemical Smog

10.4 Airborne Lead

10.5 Control of Automobile Emissions

10.6 Alternatives to the Otto Cycle Engine


Suggested Readings

IV Earth

11 Mineral Resources

11.1 Estimating Reserves of Mineral Resources

11.2 Extraction of Metals — General Principles

11.3 Iron

11.4 Steel

11.5 Aluminum

11.6 Copper

11.7 Other Metals

11.8 Calcium and Magnesium Minerals

11.9 Silicates - Sand, Stone, and Gravel

11.10 Sulfur

11.11 Phosphorus

11.12 Nitrogen


12 Clay Minerals and Soil

12.1 Weathering of Silicates

12.2 Secondary Clay Minerals

12.3 Commercial Uses of Clays

12.4 Organic Matter

12.5 Soil Nutrients

12.6 Ion Exchange in Soils

12.7 Soil pH and Nutrient Availability

12.8 Soil Management

12.9 Detoxification of Wastes


13 Solid Wastes

13.1 Population × Affluence × Technology

13.2 Municipal Wastes

13.3 Reclamation, Recycling, and Reuse

13.4 The Entropy Ethic and Solid Wastes


Suggested Readings

V Water

14 Water—General Principles

14.1 Unique Physical and Chemical Properties

14.2 Criteria of Water Quality

14.3 Natural Water — Eutrophication

14.4 Detergents and Phosphates


15 Municipal Wastewater Treatment

15.1 The Importance of Microorganisms in Water Purification

15.2 Primary and Secondary Treatment

15.3 Tertiary or Advanced Wastewater Treatment

15.4 Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus

15.5 Disposal of Treated Wastewater in Soils


16 Industrial Wastewater

16.1 Sources of Industrial Water Pollution

16.2 Heavy Metals

16.3 Mercury

16.4 Detection and Abatement of Mercury Pollution

16.5 Paper Mills

16.6 Abatement of Paper Mill Pollution


Suggested Readings

VI Life

17 Toxic Substances

17.1 Lipids

17.2 Detoxification of Foreign Substances

17.3 Enzyme Activation and Inhibition

17.4 Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Teratogenesis

17.5 Classification of Toxic Substances

17.6 The Vinyl Chloride Episode

17.7 Control of Toxic Substances in the Environment


18 The Sustenance of Life

18.1 Food Quality

18.2 The Green Revolution

18.3 Pest Control

18.4 Persistence of Pesticides

18.5 Toxicity of Pesticides

18.6 Mode of Action of Pesticides

18.7 Integrated Pest Management

18.8 Energy and Agriculture


Suggested Readings

VII Science, Ethics, and Ecology

Suggested Readings

Appendix The Environmental Literature



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© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
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About the Author

John Moore

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