Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: John Moore
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147422

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Environmental Chemistry concerns with the broad interpretation on what environmental chemistry is and discusses chemistry in relation to environmental topics. The book is divided into seven parts. Part I discusses the origins of different elements and interstellar molecules; the development of the earth; and the chemical evolution of life. Part II talks about energy and its theoretical treatment; the origin, development, and problems related to fossil fuels; and the developing energy sources, including storage, distribution, and conservation. Part III discusses the air; the structure and properties of the atmosphere; and air pollution in relation to different industries and transportation. Mineral resources and solid wastes are tackled in Part IV, and the principles and treatment of water are explained in Part V. Part VI discusses the sustenance of life, amino acids, and the control of toxins, and Part VII studies the relationship of science, ethics, and ecology. The text is good for those in the field of chemistry and wish to understand the importance of their field to the environment, and for environmentalists and ecologists who want to know the relationship of chemistry with their studies.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    I Origins

    1 Origin of the Elements and Interstellar Molecules

    1.1 Nucleosynthesis of the Elements

    1.2 Interstellar Atoms and Molecules


    2 The Development of the Solid Earth

    2.1 Formation of the Earth

    2.2 The Loss of Gaseous Elements

    2.3 The Primary Differentiation of the Elements

    2.4 Secondary Differentiation of the Elements

    2.5 Concentration of the Elements into Ores

    2.6 Relationship of Ores to Average Crustal Abundance


    3 Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life

    3.1 The Atmosphere and Hydrosphere of Primitive Earth

    3.2 Synthesis of Building Block Molecules

    3.3 The Importance of "Reactive Compounds"

    3.4 Formation of Biopolymers

    3.5 Appearance of Living Cells

    3.6 The Second Stage of Atmospheric Evolution

    3.7 The Third Stage of Atmospheric Evolution

    3.8 The Nonproblem of Catastrophic Dioxygen Depletion

    3.9 Conclusions


    Suggested Readings

    II Energy

    4 Theoretical Treatment of Energy

    4.1 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

    4.2 Entropy Pollution and Free Energy

    4.3 Converting Heat to Work — Reversible Processes

    4.4 Converting Heat to Work — Carnot Efficiency

    4.5 Conversion of Matter into More Useful Forms — Aluminum from Bauxite

    4.6 The Improbability of Life in a Universe at Equilibrium

    4.7 Steady-State, Nonequilibrium Systems

    4.8 Material Flows — Biogeochemical Cycles

    4.9 Maximizing the Degree of Order in a Steady-State, Nonequilibrium System


    5 Fossil Fuels

    5.1 Origin and Development of Coal

    5.2 Coal-Fired Power Plants

    5.3 Cleaner Coal Combustion

    5.4 Origin and Reserves of Petroleum and Natural Gas

    5.5 Composition and Classification of Petroleum

    5.6 Petroleum Refining

    5.7 Environmental Problems Associated with Petroleum


    6 Newly Developing Energy Sources

    6.1 Nuclear Fission Reactors

    6.2 Fission Power and the Environment

    6.3 Fusion Power

    6.4 Solar Energy —Thermal Collection

    6.5 Solar Energy — Electronic Collection

    6.6 Photosynthesis

    6.7 Tidal and Geothermal Energy


    7 Storage, Distribution, and Conservation of Energy

    7.1 Synthetic Chemical Fuels—The H2 Economy

    7.2 Electrochemical Energy Conversion

    7.3 Net Energy

    7.4 Conservation of Free Energy

    7.5 The Energy Balance of the Earth


    Suggested Readings

    III Air

    8 The Atmosphere

    8.1 Structure and Properties of the Atmosphere

    8.2 Temperature Inversion and Air Pollution Episodes

    8.3 Atmospheric Photochemistry

    8.4 Possible Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone

    8.5 Natural versus Polluted Air


    9 Air Pollution —Industry and Energy Related

    9.1 Particulate Matter

    9.2 Analysis and Control of Particulates

    9.3 Sulfur Oxides

    9.4 Effects of Sulfur Oxides and Particulates

    9.5 Control Technology for Sulfur Oxides

    9.6 Other Industrial Air Pollutants


    10 Air Pollution—Transportation Related

    10.1 Carbon Monoxide

    10.2 Nitrogen Oxides, NOx

    10.3 Photochemical Smog

    10.4 Airborne Lead

    10.5 Control of Automobile Emissions

    10.6 Alternatives to the Otto Cycle Engine


    Suggested Readings

    IV Earth

    11 Mineral Resources

    11.1 Estimating Reserves of Mineral Resources

    11.2 Extraction of Metals — General Principles

    11.3 Iron

    11.4 Steel

    11.5 Aluminum

    11.6 Copper

    11.7 Other Metals

    11.8 Calcium and Magnesium Minerals

    11.9 Silicates - Sand, Stone, and Gravel

    11.10 Sulfur

    11.11 Phosphorus

    11.12 Nitrogen


    12 Clay Minerals and Soil

    12.1 Weathering of Silicates

    12.2 Secondary Clay Minerals

    12.3 Commercial Uses of Clays

    12.4 Organic Matter

    12.5 Soil Nutrients

    12.6 Ion Exchange in Soils

    12.7 Soil pH and Nutrient Availability

    12.8 Soil Management

    12.9 Detoxification of Wastes


    13 Solid Wastes

    13.1 Population × Affluence × Technology

    13.2 Municipal Wastes

    13.3 Reclamation, Recycling, and Reuse

    13.4 The Entropy Ethic and Solid Wastes


    Suggested Readings

    V Water

    14 Water—General Principles

    14.1 Unique Physical and Chemical Properties

    14.2 Criteria of Water Quality

    14.3 Natural Water — Eutrophication

    14.4 Detergents and Phosphates


    15 Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    15.1 The Importance of Microorganisms in Water Purification

    15.2 Primary and Secondary Treatment

    15.3 Tertiary or Advanced Wastewater Treatment

    15.4 Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus

    15.5 Disposal of Treated Wastewater in Soils


    16 Industrial Wastewater

    16.1 Sources of Industrial Water Pollution

    16.2 Heavy Metals

    16.3 Mercury

    16.4 Detection and Abatement of Mercury Pollution

    16.5 Paper Mills

    16.6 Abatement of Paper Mill Pollution


    Suggested Readings

    VI Life

    17 Toxic Substances

    17.1 Lipids

    17.2 Detoxification of Foreign Substances

    17.3 Enzyme Activation and Inhibition

    17.4 Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Teratogenesis

    17.5 Classification of Toxic Substances

    17.6 The Vinyl Chloride Episode

    17.7 Control of Toxic Substances in the Environment


    18 The Sustenance of Life

    18.1 Food Quality

    18.2 The Green Revolution

    18.3 Pest Control

    18.4 Persistence of Pesticides

    18.5 Toxicity of Pesticides

    18.6 Mode of Action of Pesticides

    18.7 Integrated Pest Management

    18.8 Energy and Agriculture


    Suggested Readings

    VII Science, Ethics, and Ecology

    Suggested Readings

    Appendix The Environmental Literature


Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147422

About the Author

John Moore

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