COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128014783, 9780128017043

Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security

1st Edition

Author: Elzbieta Posluszna
Paperback ISBN: 9780128014783
eBook ISBN: 9780128017043
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd January 2015
Page Count: 278
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


As concerns about human treatment of the environment and animals have increased over the years, so have decentralized and extremist groups related to these causes. Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security analyzes the international development of radical movements relating to environmental concerns and animal rights in the context of the threats they pose to national security. In addition to tracing the factors responsible for the rapid growth of these movements over the last 25 years, this text presents countermeasures that governments can deploy to neutralize the risk posed by these threats now and in the future. Bringing to bear new developments such as cyber activity and online activism, Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security offers an examination of the direct and indirect violence, lone-wolf terrorism, and leaderless resistance that have characterized these radical wings from their inception.
By not only identifying the tactics and organizational structures often employed by these groups, but also addressing future trends toward increased radicalization, Environmental and Animal Rights Extremism, Terrorism, and National Security is an important resource for identifying, anticipating, and mitigating threats posed by such movements.

Key Features

  • Describes the psychological, social, and organizational mechanisms responsible for the functioning of the extremist wings of the interconnected environmental and animal rights movements in the context of national security
  • Identifies the main tactical and organizational ways these movements develop, moving from hierarchical organization to network structures, leaderless resistance, and lone-wolf activities
  • Covers radical environmental and animal rights groups, including Earth First!, Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, Animal Rights Militia, and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society
  • Looks to future trends in radicalization of these movements


Terrorism researchers, especially those interested in radical environmentalism, single-issue terrorism, and lone-wolf terrorism; researchers in environmental movements; upper-level specialized or graduate courses in emergency management and national security

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Part One: Introductory Remarks
    • 1: Introduction
      • Abstract
    • 2: Extremism: A Theoretical Perspective
      • Abstract
      • 2.1. General characteristics of extremism
      • 2.2. The sources of extremism
      • 2.3. Violence and extremism
      • 2.4. Resentment, extremism, terrorism
  • Part Two: Animal Rights Extremism
    • 3: From the Compassion Principle to the Conception of Rights: Ideological Development of the Radical Wing of the Animal Rights Movement
      • Abstract
      • 3.1. The anthropocentric paradigm
      • 3.2. Postanthropocentric perspective
    • 4: Animal Rights Movement: Foundation, Development, and Radicalization
      • Abstract
      • 4.1. The beginnings of animal rights activism
      • 4.2. The organizational perspective
      • 4.3. Animal liberation movement
      • 4.4. Animal welfare vs. animal rights
      • 4.5. Toward radicalism
    • 5: Violence in Defense of Animal Rights
      • Abstract
      • 5.1. Hunt saboteurs association
      • 5.2. Band of mercy
      • 5.3. Animal liberation front
      • 5.4. Animal rights militia
      • 5.5. Justice department
      • 5.6. Stop huntington animal cruelty
      • 5.7. Animal rights radicalism from the psychological, organizational, and motivational perspective
      • 5.8. Justification of violence
  • Part Three: Environmental Extremism
    • 6: Radical Ecology – Ideological Development of the Radical Wing of the Environmental Movement
      • Abstract
      • 6.1. Toward radical ecology
      • 6.2. Deep ecology
      • 6.3. Anarchist social ecology
    • 7: Environmental Movement: The Origins, Development, and Radicalization
      • Abstract
      • 7.1. Conservationism vs. preservationism
      • 7.2. The birth of environmentalism
      • 7.3. The birth of environmental radicalism
      • 7.4. Greenpeace
      • 7.5. Wise Use
    • 8: Violence in Defense of the Environment
      • Abstract
      • 8.1. Monkeywrenching
      • 8.2. Sea shepherd conservation society
      • 8.3. Earth first!
      • 8.4. Earth liberation front
  • Part Four: Strategy and Organization
    • 9: Leaderless Resistance and Netwars in the Activities of the Ecological Movement: Extremist Wings
      • Abstract
      • 9.1. Traditional structure
      • 9.2. Toward new forms of organization
      • 9.3. The influence of the internet on the development of organizational structures
      • 9.4. Leaderless resistance
      • 9.5. Leaderless resistance in the ecoextremist movement
    • 10: “Lone Wolves” Strategy: The Case of Volkert van der Graaf and Theodore Kaczynski
      • Abstract
      • 10.1. Terrorism of lone wolves
      • 10.2. Volkert van der Graaf
      • 10.3. Theodore Kaczynski
  • Part Five: Developmental Perspectives
    • 11: New Terrorism: Determinants, Working Methods, and Directions of Development
      • Abstract
      • 11.1. Globalization and terrorism
      • 11.2. Internet and terrorism
      • 11.3. Cyberterrorism
      • 11.4. Swarming
    • 12: The Future of Ecological Extremism
      • Abstract
    • 13: Conclusions
      • Abstract
  • References
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
23rd January 2015
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Elzbieta Posluszna

Elzbieta Posluszna is an Assistant Professor of Social Sciences at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. She

received her PhD from the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In 2014

she obtained the habilitation degree at the Faculty of Command and Naval Operations of the Polish Naval

Academy in Gdynia. Her academic publications involve issues related to terrorism, extremism, and radicalism.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, SGGW, Warsaw, Poland


"... an interesting theoretical and detailed examination of the nature and activities of environmental and animal rights extremist and terrorist groups in Europe and the United States." --Perspectives on Terrorism

Ratings and Reviews