Entropy for Biologists - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125071567, 9780323160148

Entropy for Biologists

1st Edition

An Introduction to Thermodynamics

Authors: Harold Morowitz
eBook ISBN: 9780323160148
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 212
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Description

Entropy for Biologists: An Introduction to Thermodynamics provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics for biologists. It begins with discussions of basic principles such as temperature, energy, kinetic theory, total energy, the second law of thermodynamics, and entropy. It then reviews conceptual tools from probability theory, combinatorial analysis, and information theory, which are essential to understanding elementary statistical mechanics. The remaining chapters present formulations for the relation between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics; the relationship between entropy and information; free-energy functions; and thermal energy. Measurements of temperature, energy, and thermochemical quantities are covered. The final chapter discusses the biological implications of the relation between entropy and information.
This book is intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of biology and biochemistry who wish to develop a sense of confidence about their understanding of the thermal physics which will be useful in pursuing their work. It may also prove useful to professionals who wish to bolster their knowledge in this area.

Table of Contents


Preface

I. Temperature

A. Introduction

B. Physiological Temperature

C. Empirical Thermometers

D. Gas-Law Thermometers

Problems

II. Energy

A. Mechanical Energy

B. Conservation Of Energy

C. Thermal Energy

Problems

III. Introduction to Kinetic Theory

Problems

IV. Total Energy

A. The Measurability of Energy

B. The First Law of Thermodynamics

Problems

V. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

A. Heat Engines and Refrigerators

B. Statements of the Second Law

C. Carnot Cycles

D. Carnot Theorems

E. The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

Problems

VI. The Entropy Function

A. State Functions

B. Integrals Of dQ

C. Properties of the Entropy Function

D. The Measurability of Entropy

E. The Third Law of Thermodynamics

F. Entropy and Chemical Reactions

Problems

VII. Probability and Information

A. Probability

B. Information Theory

Problems

VIII. Introduction to Statistical Mechanics

A. The Statistical Point of View

B. The Quantum Mechanical Description of Systems

C. The Ensemble Approach

D. The Most Probable Distribution

E. The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

Problems

IX. The Relation between Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

A. Equivalent Formulations

B. The Partition Function

C. Helmholtz Free Energy

D. Classical Statistical Mechanics

E. Velocity Distribution Function

F. Internal Degrees of Freedom

Problems

X. Entropy, Information, and Energy

A. Information and Entropy

B. Maxwell's Demon

Problems

XI. Free-Energy Functions

A. Gibbs Free Energy

B. Helmholtz Free Energy

C. Generalized Energy Function

D. Enthalpy and Standard States

E. The Euler Equation

F. Activity

G. The Use of Alternate Methods

Problems

XII. Thermal Energy

A. Order and Disorder

B. Diffusion

C. Brownian Motion

Problems

XIII. Applications of the Gibbs Free Energy and the Gibbs Chemical Potential

A. Electrochemistry

B. Surface Chemistry

C. The Phase Rule

D. Osmotic Pressure

Problems

XIV. Measurement in Thermal Physics

XV. Entropy and Biology

Appendix I. Conservation of Mechanical Energy: General Treatment

Appendix II. The Proof of the Equivalence of the Perfect-Gas Temperature Scale and the Absolute Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

Appendix III. Entropy of a Perfect Gas

Appendix IV. Stirling's Approximation

Appendix V. Evaluation of the Partition Function of a Perfect Gas

Index




Details

No. of pages:
212
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1970
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160148

About the Author

Harold Morowitz