Enlargement and Compaction of Particulate Solids - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408107082, 9781483162652

Enlargement and Compaction of Particulate Solids

1st Edition

Butterworths Monographs in Chemical Engineering

Editors: Nayland G. Stanley-Wood
eBook ISBN: 9781483162652
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 5th May 1983
Page Count: 304
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Enlargement and Compaction of Particulate Solids describes the methodology used in the compaction and size enlargement of particulate solids. The discussions are organized into the following topics: characterization of powders and granules before and after compaction; mixing; shear testing; fluidized bed granulation; mechanisms of size enlargement and compaction; and instrumentation of industrial presses and processes. This text is comprised of 12 chapters; the first of which deals with the measurement of size and shape of individual particles or collections of individual particles, both spherical and non-spherical. Attention then turns to particle characterization by size, shape, and surface for contacted particles. The application of nitrogen isotherms Types II and IV and mercury intrusion to compacted solids is highlighted. The chapters that follow focus on powder mixing; flow and handling of solids; and pharmaceutical granulation and compaction. The basic mechanisms of size enlargement are reviewed in relation to three common methods of granulation: pan granulation, fluidized bed granulation, and spray drying or prilling. The remaining chapters describe the mechanisms of compaction, compact characterization, instrumentation of tablet machines, compaction of ceramics, and isostatic pressing and compacting techniques. This book is intended primarily for students and chemical engineers as well as physicists, powder and pharmaceutical technologists, ceramacists, and metallurgists.

Table of Contents

1 Particle Characterization by Size, Shape and Surface for Individual Particles

1.1 Scope

1.2 Characterization of Individual Particles

1.3 Averages

1.4 Shape

1.5 Application of Shape Factors for Surface Area Evaluation


2 Particle Characterization by Size, Shape and Surface for Contacted Particles

2.1 Porosity, Voidage and Particle Porosity

2.2 Nitrogen Adsorption

2.3 Mercury Penetration

2.4 Application of Nitrogen Isotherms Types II and IV and Mercury Intrusion to Compacted Solids


3 Mixing of Powders

3.1 Powder Mixing

3.2 The Mixing Process

3.3 Quantitative Assessment of Mixture Quality


4 Mechanisms of Size Enlargement

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic Mechanisms

4.3 The Granulation Process



5 Flow and Handling of Solids; the Design of Solid Handling Plants

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Types of Storage Hopper

5.3 Measurement of the Failure Properties of a Particulate Solid

5.4 Design of Mass Flow Hoppers

5.5 Design of a Plant for Mass Flow


6 Pharmaceutical Granulation and Compaction

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Theoretical Considerations

6.3 Powder Preconditioning

6.4 Compression Scale-up

6.5 Formulation and Process Optimization


7 Mechanisms of Compaction

7.1 Introduction and Scope

7.2 Application of Pressure and Frictional Effects

7.3 Particle Rearrangement

7.4 Deformation without Rearrangement

7.5 Strength-Producing Mechanisms

7.6 Load Removal and Stress Relaxation

7.7 Material Properties

7.8 Powder Compaction Equations

7.9 Tabletting Defects

7.10 Conclusions


8 Fluidized Bed Granulation

8.1 Basic Fluidized Bed Concepts

8.2 Definitions and Applications

8.3 Variations on the Basic Process: Practical Difficulties

8.4 Quenching

8.5 Mass and Moisture Balance

8.6 Heat Balance

8.7 Particle Growth Mechanisms: Dynamic Equilibrium

8.8 Growth Models and Rates

8.9 Batch versus Continuous Operation

8.10 Pilot Plant Testing

8.11 The Use of Inert 'Nuclei'


9 Compact Characterization

9.1 Strength of Materials: Fundamentals

9.2 Soil Mechanics Stress-Strain Curves for Granular Materials

9.3 Volume Reduction in Unidimensional Consolidation

9.4 Compaction of Powders


10 Instrumentation of Tablet Machines

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Instrumentation of Single Acting Machines

10.3 Instrumentation of Rotary Tablet Machines

10.4 Force Measuring Systems

10.5 Uses of Instrumentation


11 Compaction of Ceramics

11.1 Introduction and Scope

11.2 Pressure Transmission through Powders

11.3 Pressure-Volume Relationships

11.4 Friction and Lubrication

11.5 Process Variables


12 Isostatic Pressing and Compacting Techniques

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Component Shapes

12.3 Tooling

12.4 Isostatic Pressing of a Sphere

12.5 Tooling for Rods and Discs

12.6 Tooling for Complex Shapes

12.7 General Aspects of Tool Design



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About the Editor

Nayland G. Stanley-Wood

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